Anthropology Notes 4/7/16 Exam 4
Anthropology Notes 4/7/16 Exam 4 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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verified elite notetaker
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Levels of Political Integration Typology based upon forms that traditionally include: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. Bands -small kin based organization where all members are related by either kinship or marriage -typical organization of foragers -upward limit: about 100, downward limit: 40-50 -atomic/extended families -group decision making (influence) -no formal leadership or laws -social control: norms/taboos Tribes -typically associated with horticulturalists and pastorals (animal herders) -development of village life -organize village life or membership be descent groups (multiple) -how to manage relationships between descent groups -elders of local kin groups tend to have considerable influence Tribal Political Organization -lineage systems (elders make decisions) -age-set systems -headmen and “big man” (an achieved status, not inherited) Chiefdoms -a structure that integrates more than one community -”incipient aristocracy” → chiefdom is a permanent political office → chief often has a judicial role -not making laws, still based on tradition -represent systems with differential access to status and privilege (not everyone can be the chief) States -an autonomous political unit -encompassing many communities within its territory and having centralized government (always have defined borders/territories) -have the power to collect taxes, draft men for work/war, and decree/enforce laws Archaic-Egypt, Mesopotamia, Maya, Andean, India China, etc.) -rise about 5,500 years ago -”rise of civilization” -production of food and food excess -stratum endogamy (marry within the group) -closed class society Cultural Traits of States -stratification (marked, always at least 2 classes) -the presence and acceptance of stratification is one of the key Features distinguishing a state (people accept where they are) -only in states do elites get to keep their differential wealth Specialized Functions Found in All States -population control (the census, border protection) -judiciary -enforcement of laws (permanent m -fiscal (taxes and tribute collection)
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