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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Chapter 12 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes that cover chapter 12 of our textbook. They are organized based on the learning objectives listed at the beginning of the chapter.
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Module  13  Notes   Narratives  and  Language  &  Identity   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   April  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   articulate  the  role  of  narratives  in  learning  contexts.   •    summarize  the  narrative  structures  in  relation  to  the  two  frameworks  discussed  in  the   chapter.   •    implement  narrative  analysis  in  lesson  plans.   •    make  use  of  narrative  inquiry  in  cultivating  students'  funds  of  knowledge.   •    identify  current  inquiries  into  identity  research.   •    articulate  how  language  is  closely  related  to  one's  identity.   •    use  a  discourse  analysis  as  an  instructional  tool  for  identity  inquiry  in  the  classroom.   •    make  a  connection  between  identity  inquiry  and  second  language  learning.   •    identify  major  research  on  second  language  and  identity.     Readings/References:   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Narratives:  Living  a  narrated  life.  In  Applying  linguistics  in  the     classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  247-­‐268).  New  York:  Routledge.     Acronyms:   •   Funds  of  knowledge  =  FOK   •   Narrative  inquiry  =  NI   •   Narrative  analysis  =  NA   •   Cultural  History  of  Activity  Theory  =  CHAT   •   National,  Institutional,  Discursive,  Affinity,  Learner,  and  Solidarity  =  NIDALS     Chapter  12  Notes   Introduction   •   Narrative:  a  sequence  of  events,  ideological  stances,  and  evaluation  of  moral  positions   o   Universal  language  function   •   Narratives  are  the  most  comprehensive  practices  that  provide  insight  into  local  cultural   expectations  and  norms   •   Narratives  vary  significantly  with  respect  to  content  and  genre   •   Range  of  narratives  fall  between  two  categories   o   Emergent   o   performance     Role  of  narratives  in  daily  life   •   single  most  important  way  to  get  to  know  W,  develop  language  proficiency,  and  uncover   hidden  cultural  resources  to  mediate  second  language  learning   •   show  what  we  care  about,  what  we  collectively  aspire  to,  and  what  we  count  as   legitimate  or  illegitimate   •   story  of  what  the  author(s)  intend  to  accomplish  in  relation  to  others:  status,  solidarity,   and  difference   •   genre:  different  types  of  narratives  that  serve  varying  functions  and  purposes  depending   on  goals  of  people   •   employ  narratives  and  embark  on  a  co-­‐authorship  of  a  story  with  respective  audiences   •   purposes:   o   codify  collective  perspectives   o   moral  values   o   ideological  stances   o   shared  information  regarding  events   •   serves  as  a  bridge  to  the  past  and  connects  future  generations     Narrative  structures  and  frameworks   •   Must  minimally  include  at  least  two  sequenced  clauses   •   Always  a  teller  and  an  audience  that  is  compelled  to  listen   •   How  narratives  are  told,  when  and  where  they  are  told,  who  they  are  told  to,  are  all  as   relevant  as  the  explicit  storyline   •   We  can  study  the  structure  of  language  to  help  understand  function  and  meaning   •   Must  account  for  the  code  and  performative  quantities,  the  flesh  and  skin  of  language;   and  the  semiotic  and  ideological  dimensions   •   Type  1  structure:  narrative  syntax   o   Exclusively  structural  approach,  especially  focusing  on  syntax   o   Championed  by  the  early  sociolinguistic  community  emerging  from  the  social   turn  and  the  reaction  to  Chomsky’s  generative  grammar  approach  to  language   o   Six  elements:   §   Abstract:  explaining  what  story  is  about   §   Orientation:  provides  additional  background  information  about  whom,   what,  where,  and  when  the  story  takes  place  (aka  the  setting)   §   Complication:  something  unexpected,  straying  from  the  norm,  and  makes   the  story  worth  telling  (aka  the  plot)   §   Evaluation:  allows  for  understanding  the  viewpoint  and  stance  of  the   speaker;  provides  the  speaker’s  rationale  for  telling  the  narrative  and   includes  his/her  moral  judgments  (aka  the  moral)   §   Results:  solution  to  the  problem  or  complication  (aka  the  resolution)     §   Coda:  explicitly  or  implicitly  lets  the  audience  know  that  the  story  has   concluded  (summary,  “the  end,”  credits)   §   Singular  evaluation  in  moral  stance  such  as  fables  with  singular  moral   lessons   •   Type  2  structure:  naturalistic  and  emergent  narratives   o   Anthropological  and  ethnographic  approaches  to  narratives   o   Open-­‐ended,  non-­‐linear,  emergent,  and  co-­‐authored  set  of  events   o   Most  narratives  in  human  activity  fall  into  this  category   o   Lived  narratives  of  our  life  and  the  framework  through  which  we  organize  our   thoughts,  values,  and  positions  in  the  world   o   Five  dimensions:   §   Tellership:  analyzes  how  many  tellers  or  authors  are  involved  in  the   narrative   •   All  narratives  are  necessarily  co-­‐construction  of  teller  and   audience   •   Type  2  always  have  multiple  tellers/authors   •   Collective:  product  of  multiple  tellers  negotiating  the  authenticity   and  accuracy  of  their  shared  experience   §   Tellability:  range  of  the  audience   •   High:  heard  or  could  be  heard  by  anybody;  may  interest  many   people  and  be  widely  understood  by  a  cultural  group  (grand)   •   Low:  more  personal,  like  inside  jokes  and  dinner-­‐time  stories   §   Embededness:  how  detached  or  embedded  the  narrative  is  to  the   context  of  the  teller,  the  events  being  described,  and  the  nature  of  the   problem  being  addressed   •   Emerges  spontaneously  in  the  context  of  naturally  unfolding   events   •   Can  be  determined  by  answering  whether  it  can  be  told  in   multiple  situations   §   Moral  stance:     •   Possible  that  the  same  variation  occurs  within  a  single  author  who   is  trying  to  make  sense  of  events  using  multiple  lenses  and   sources  of  information   •   Can  have  singular  of  multiple  evaluations   §   Linearity:  way  the  events  in  a  story  are  ordered;  exists  on  a  continuum   •   Left:  closed  and  linear  in  terms  of  time  and  the  causal  flow  of   events   •   Right:  open  and  non-­‐linear  in  terms  of  time  and  space   o   Goal  is  not  to  have  a  predictable  linear  plot  line  of  beginning,  middle,  end,  but   rather  to  be  described  on  the  continuum  of  the  five  dimensions  listed  above   o   Have  multiple  variations  in  moral  stance  which  have  multiple  moral  evaluations   and  ideological  stances   o   Purpose:  understand  the  social  identities  of  the  speakers  and  those  narrated   about  and  to     Narrative  analysis  and  classroom  narratives   •   Unit  of  analysis:  content  and  syntax  of  the  narrative   •   Collecting  narratives:   o   Many  modes  in  the  classroom  through  which  narratives  emerge   §   Ex:  journals,  think-­‐alouds,  show  and  tell,  plays,  videos  and  music  videos,   freestyle  raps,  spoken  word  poetry   •   If  S  lives  in  a  reality  constructed  by  narratives  in  ________  and  structures  their  reality  in   a  similar  manner,  T  should  work  to  understand  that  reality   •   Provide  insight  into  the  implicit  and  subconscious  aspects  of  culture  that  participants   are  not  aware  of  until  they  engage  in  narrative  activity   •   Use  of  passive  and  active  voice  in  English  is  one  of  common  ways  moral  evaluations  and   ideological  stances  are  made  within  simple  and  elaborate  narratives   •   One  of  they  keys  to  NA  is  to  treat  the  narrative  as  a  whole  and  make  connections  to   external  texts  as  well   •   Understanding  the  cultural  activity  systems  through  which  narratives  are  constructed   requires  participatory  ethnographic  methods   •   A  close  study  of  linguistic  and  paralinguistic  devices  such  as  tone,  word  choice,  pauses,   and  so  forth  are  important   •   Examining  multiple  narratives  and  establishing  the  similarities  and  differences  helps   reveal  the  contradictions  and  attempts  to  achieve  cohesion     •   Categories  of  NA:   o   Those  who  emphasize  structure,  form,  and  flesh  of  language   o   Those  who  emphasize  meaning,  relationships,  and  the  heart  of  language     Narrative  inquiry  and  students’  funds  of  knowledge   •   Narrative  inquiry:  form  of  research  that  is  concerned  with  how  people  construct  reality   through  culturally  organized  narrative  activity   o   Concerned  with  the  process  of  narrative  events   •   Verisimilitude:  believability;  allows  researchers  to  look  at  how  each  narrative  resembles   a  reality  rather  than  mirrors  the  reality  of  the  researcher   o   Good  narrator  will  achieve  it   •   Concerned  with  stories  that  are  about  the  self  and  construction  of  identity  within  social   contexts   •   Areas  of  NI:       o   Autobiographies   o   Auto-­‐ethnography   o   Testimony   o   Case  studies   o   Biographies   o   Personal  narrative   o   Life  history   o   Oral  history   o   Memoir   o   Literary  journals   •   One  of  the  significant  uses  of  NA  in  education  is  to  understand  S’s  lives  and  to  learn   about  their  FOK   •   Two  types  of  narratives  that  pertain  to  FOK:   o   Grand  narratives  and  personal  narratives     Grand  narratives  and  cultural  narratives   •   Grand  narratives:   o   National  holidays  or  institutional  narratives  such  as  corporations,  schools,  or   community  organizations   o   Tend  to  be  high  tellability   o   Broader  shared  narratives  that  are  generally  scaled  on  national  and  global  levels   of  shared  understanding   o   Examples:   §   Historical  figures,  holidays,  creation  accounts   o   Contrastive  analysis  helps  T  understand  scaled  up,  institutionalized,  and  national   level  differences   o   Many  immigrant  S  are  familiar  with  U.S.  grand  narratives  due  to  the  pervasive   reach  of  Hollywood  and  mass  media   •   Personal  narratives:   o   Focus  on  individual  emergent  autobiographical  narratives   o   Include  interpersonal  and  institutional  relationships  of  affinity  and   marginalization     Case  studies     •   Day  of  the  dead   o   Many  Mexican-­‐American  S  celebrate  trick-­‐or-­‐treat  and  a  few  days  later  celebrate   day  of  the  dead  with  masks,  sugar  skulls,  and  pan  de  muerto   o   Incorporated  as  a  Roman  Catholic  religious  holiday  because  of  the  Aztec  Festival   of  Mictecacihuatl  continues  to  be  celebrated  in  parts  of  Mexico   o   Individuals  honor  deceased  family  members  and  ancestors   o   Much  more  of  a  community  and  family  event  rather  than  commercialized   •   Important  to  teach  holidays  and  fables  because  lessons  are  taught  through  the  holidays,   stories  live  on,  and  students  live  through  them   •   Activity  idea:  provide  students  with  picture  and  ask  them  to  write  a  narrative  about  the   picture   o   Allows  S  to  make  meaning  of  picture  by  constructing  narratives   o   Allows  S  to  make  sense  of  picture  by  drawing  on  own  experiences  and   knowledge       Db  Post   Open  Discussion  this  week!  


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