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Chapter 13 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Chapter 13 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes that cover chapter 13 of our textbook. The notes are organized based on the headings throughout the chapter rather than the learning outcomes.
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
Language and Identity
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Module  13  Notes   Narratives  and  Language  &  Identity   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   April  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   articulate  the  role  of  narratives  in  learning  contexts.   •    summarize  the  narrative  structures  in  relation  to  the  two  frameworks  discussed  in  the   chapter.   •    implement  narrative  analysis  in  lesson  plans.   •    make  use  of  narrative  inquiry  in  cultivating  students'  funds  of  knowledge.   •    identify  current  inquiries  into  identity  research.   •    articulate  how  language  is  closely  related  to  one's  identity.   •    use  a  discourse  analysis  as  an  instructional  tool  for  identity  inquiry  in  the  classroom.   •    make  a  connection  between  identity  inquiry  and  second  language  learning.   •    identify  major  research  on  second  language  and  identity.     Readings/References:   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Language  and  identity:  Who  we  are  and  how  we  speak.  In     Applying  linguistics  in  the  classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  269-­‐286).  New  York:   Routledge.     Acronyms:   •   Funds  of  knowledge  =  FOK   •   Narrative  inquiry  =  NI   •   Narrative  analysis  =  NA   •   Cultural  History  of  Activity  Theory  =  CHAT   •   National,  Institutional,  Discursive,  Affinity,  Learner,  and  Solidarity  =  NIDALS     Chapter  13  Notes   Introduction   •   Almost  all  areas  of  linguistics  have  to  deal  with  the  connection  between  language  and   identity   •   During  the  cognitive  revolution,  identity  was  construed  as  a  natural  phenomenon  that   often  corresponded  to  language   o   Identity  was  reduced  to  biology,  meaning  genetically  determined  traits  and   attributes   •   Constructivist  theories  view  language  as  essential  to  identity  construction,  yet  still  have   a  narrow  view  of  the  context  of  development   •   Sociocultural  theories  view  language  as  a  mediational  tool  through  which  identities  are   assumed  and  stances  are  taken  to  identify  ourselves  and  others  in  socially  organized   activity  systems     Current  trends  in  identity  research   •   CHAT:  situated  theory  of  learning  and  development  that  affords  special  insights  into   examining  learning  not  only  from  the  top  of  the  class  but  also  from  the  margins  and   non-­‐school  spaces  of  life   o   The  activities  that  T  design  should  generate  shifts  in  learner  identities,   specifically  between  novice  and  expert  in  a  particular  activity   o   Learning  style  metaphor  frames  learners  and  learning  in  static  terms   o   Roles  of  learners  are  continuously  shifting  based  on  how  they  orient  themselves   within  activity  systems   o   Leveraging  S  knowledge  and  positioning  them  according  to  expert  learner   identities  requires  a  deeper  connection  with  their  FOK   o   Intersections  of  language,  learning,  and  learner  identities  converge  in  the   relationship  between  peers,  T,  and  the  communities  of  each   •   NIDALS:  combines  sociocultural  principles  of  learning  with  critical  understandings  of   language   o   We  need  to  regularly  challenge  the  boundaries  that  mark  each  identity   o   Learner  identities  change  as  they  take  on  different  roles  within  activities   §   Natural  N-­‐identities   •   Primordial  identities  are  the  basis  of  how  we  present  ourselves  to   the  world   •   Traits  we  generally  consider  to  be  unchangeable,  determined,  and   out  of  our  control   •   Debate  of  nature  versus  nurture  are  ideological  stances  on  n-­‐ identities   •   Many  of  the  assumptions  regarding  ability,  assessment,   achievement,  learning  styles,  learning  disorders,  and  disabilities   are  couched  in  the  N-­‐identity  frame   •   Good  classroom  activity:  have  S  list  and  discuss  the  various  N-­‐ identities  that  shape  their  life   §   Institutional  I-­‐identities   •   Day-­‐to-­‐day  life,  many  of  the  functions  we  perform   •   Make  us  who  we  are  because  they  are  governed  by  the  power  of   social  and  political  legitimacy   •   Sanctioned  labeling  systems   •   Institutional  practices  of  inclusion  and  exclusion,  domination  or   subordination,  equivalence  and  difference  all  mark  status  within   socially  organized  activities  based  on  ideological  preferences.     •   The  declaration  of  that  identity  is  what  makes  the  S  who  he  or  she   is  within  the  cultural  milieu  of  the  school   •   Race,  ethnicity,  and  gender  are  all  social  constructs  that  have   been  institutionalized   •   In  schools,  these  issues  are  complicated  further  political   considerations  when  it  comes  to  ethnic/racial  identification   •   All  of  the  label  and  names  have  different  institutional  affiliations   and  ideological  implications   •   I-­‐identity  of  a  person  is  often  tightly  linked  to  the  N-­‐identity   §   Discursive  D-­‐identities   •   Someone  is  who  they  are  because  of  how  they  are  positioned   with  others  in  talk  and  face-­‐to-­‐face  interactions   •   Vary  greatly   •   Often  play  into  how  we  respond  to  each  other   §   Affinity  A-­‐identities   •   An  affective  and/or  ideological  connection  that  binds  the   participants  with  common  immediate  goals,  practices,  and  larger   purposes   •   Found  with  other  people  who  engage  in  those  same  goals  and   practices   •   Generally  developed  on  four,  not  necessarily  hierarchal,  levels   o   Intrapersonal   o   Interpersonal   o   Institutional   o   Ideological  alignments   •   Draws  on  N-­‐identity,  I-­‐identity,  and  D-­‐identity   •   Affinity  groups  are  formed  by  people  who  share  the  same  labels   and  experiences   •   Somewhat  tricky  to  understand  because  they  are  often  contrary   to  the  way  we  see  identity  in  daily  life   •   Have  the  potential  to  obscure  phenol-­‐typical  attributes   §   Learner  L-­‐identities   •   Learning  style  metaphor  frames  learners  and  learning  in  static   terms   •   Roles  of  learners  are  continuously  shifting  based  on  how  they   orient  themselves  within  activity  systems   •   Leveraging  S  knowledge  and  positioning  them  according  to  expert   learner  identities  requires  a  deeper  connection  with  their  FOK   •   Intersections  of  language,  learning,  and  learner  identities   converge  in  the  relationship  between  peers,  T,  and  the   communities  of  each   §   Solidarity  S-­‐identities   •   Labels  we  give  them,  the  names  we  call  them,  all  of  these  have   specific  assumptions  and  values  attached  to  them   •   Through  the  centrality  of  their  FOK,  we  recognize  that  S  identify   and  position  themselves  differently     Language,  identity,  and  indexing   •   Language  plays  an  integral  role  in  identity  development  and  representation   •   Indexicalization:  Language  is  tightly  connected  to  ALL  of  our  NIDALS  identities   o   Through  indexicality,  we  announce  our  identities  and  ideologies  through  the   spoken  and/or  written  word   •   Language  form  actually  “stands  in”  for  the  perception  of  a  language  ideological   viewpoint   •   Language  ideologies:  the  ways  we  view  and  use  language  structure  to  index  larger   sociopolitical  and  historical  relations   •   Language  is  not  an  object  in  the  outside  world  that  we  can  obtain;  it  is  something  that   we  do  through  social  practice   •   Translanguaging:  code  switching,  or  switching  between  two  different  languages  while   communicating     In-­‐betweenness   •   People  do  not  engage  in  a  single,  monolithic  culture  free  from  variation  and  diversity   •   Culture  is  not  static,  but  rather  dynamic  and  changing;  this  leaves  us  always  in  a  complex   social  world  in  which  we  are  in-­‐between   •   In-­‐between  practices  resonate  in  the  context  of  schooling  and  language  use   •   ELLs  in  schools  often  come  from  communities  with  different  values  and  different  literacy   and  language  practices  from  dominant  society   •   S  are  forced  to  fit  in  the  in-­‐between  space,  where  symbols  are  adapted  for  the  new   context   •   S  may  very  well  be  in-­‐between  conflicting  narratives,  moralities,  and  languages     Conclusion     •   In  moving  from  N-­‐identities  to  a  position  of  solidarity,  T  must  purposefully  and   consciously  embark  on  a  journey  of  learning  about  their  S   •   Necessary  to  build  learning  environments  that  are  grounded  in  S’s  FOK  and  the  in-­‐ between  epistemologies  that  they  undoubtedly  possess     Case  studies   •   In  many  cases,  ELLs  are  evaluated  on  language,  not  whether  they  can  recount  the   knowledge  or  step-­‐by-­‐step  instructions   •   Sometimes  S  are  left  out  because  of  their  language,  which  is  similar  to  racialized  and   racist  attitudes  in  society  in  general   •   Learning  English  can  create  a  mix-­‐up  of  languages,  which  can  cause  S  to  not  be  able  to   express  themselves  in  either  language   •   Linguicism:  identifying  people  as  inferior,  incapable  of  making  choices,  due  to  a   difference  in  language  or  accent     Db  Post   Open  Discussion  this  week!  


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