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Geology Notes April 7th

by: Carter Cox

Geology Notes April 7th GEO 101

Carter Cox

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Covers all the notes gone over on april 7th
Dynamic Earth
Class Notes
Dynamic Earth, Geology 101
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carter Cox on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Geology 101 Notes April 7   th Energy and Mineral Resources ­ Sources of energy ­ Oil and natural gas formation and extraction ­ Coal formation energy sources ­ Ores and minerals Where does energy come from? ­ Sun o Solar energy  o Plant matter o Fossil fuel  o Wind ­ Gravity  o Tides­ o Falling water ­ Chemical Reactions ­ Nuclear Fission ­ Geothermal – happens in the center of the Earth  Oil and Natural Gas  ­ Hydrocarbon compounds  ­ Remains of marine algae and plankton  90 ­ oil shale  o black organic shale  160 ­ oil and natural gas 250 ­ natural gas Oil window is from 90 – 160 degrees Celsius  Oil and Natural Gas Trap ­ Source rock­ organic rich shale ­ Reservoir rock: high porosity and permeability o Sponge  o Porosity­ bunch of holes o Permeability­ holes next to each other  ­ Seal Rock  Where is oil found? ­ Anticline ­ Fault ­ Salt dome ­ Stratigraphic  Finding Oil and Natural Gas ­ Generate seismic waves ­ Look for folds  Extracting Oil and Natural Gas ­ Drilling o Puncture the seal rock  ­ Pumping  o Brings oil to the surface Refining Oil  ­ Crude oil is distilled  ­ Process depends on grade o Sulfur content  o Specific gravity Products made from a barrel of crude oil ­ Diesel 12 ­ Jet fuel 4 ­ Other product 7 ­ Gasoline 19 ­ Petroleum gas 2 Other types of Formations/ extractions ­ Tar Sands o Viscous oil in sand o Cannot pump  Mined then heated  Heated then pumped o Very expensive  ­ Oil Shale o Has not reached oil window  o Mined then heated o Very expensive ­ Fracking o Hydraulic fracturing   Extracting natural gas  o Increases well production o Drawbacks  Groundwater contamination  Land use issues  Running out of oil ­ Other sources exist o Liquefied coal o Oil shale o Tar sands o Methane hydrate ­ Not economically viable at current prices and technology  When will we run out of oil? ­ Geologist o Soon ­ Economists o Will stop using it first Coal  ­ Plant material buried  o Low oxygen  o Water squeezed out o 50 % C= Peat o 70 % C= coal  Coal Production ­ Coal not made all the time ­ Plenty of coal for now Coal Extraction ­ Strip mining o Coal < 100 m ­ Underground mining  o Coal > 100m o Very dangerous  Drawbacks of Fossil Fuels  ­ Air pollution o Particles and gases o Acid rain ­ Carbon dioxide o Greenhouse gas  ­ Byproducts o Mine runoff ­ Spills o Groundwater o Ocean  ­ Fatalities in mines o A lot  Alternate Energy Sources ­ 90% of world energy needs from non renewable fossil fuels ­ Possible alternate energy sources o We cover 5 Nuclear Power ­ Energy release when nucleus is split (fission) ­ Drawback  o Controlling nuclear reactions  Lot of work and planning   Potential meltdown  o Nuclear waste  Damaging to living organisms   Long time decay (decades­ centuries) Wind ­ Must have steady breeze ­ Clean ­ Drawbacks o Noisy o Ugly o Hazard to wildlife  Solar ­ Sunlight converted to electricity  ­ Clean ­ Drawbacks  o Not efficient  o Not cost effective                              Hydroelectric  ­ Two kinds o River  No pollutants   Drawbacks  Dams  o Tidal   No pollutants   Drawback   Construction  Geothermal ­ Use Earths eternal heat where it comes near surface ­ Use in two ways o Water o Steam to turn turbines ­ Drawbacks o Conditions limited  ­


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