Week 11 PSYC 400 Notes
Week 11 PSYC 400 Notes Psyc 400
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Riley on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 400 at Humboldt State University taught by Carrie Aigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Week 11 Class Notes Tuesday, 5 April 2016 Announcements: • Exam on Tuesday, 12 April (next Tuesday!) th th • In the event of the strike, Thursday (14 ) and Tuesday (19 ) will be cancelled • Research paper is due Thursday, 21 April I. Inherent Risk Factors (Ethnicity) a. Cancer Health Disparities i. Defined by the NCI as: 1. …differences in the incidences, prevalence, mortality, and burden of cancer and related adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups in the United States ii. The American Cancer Society (ACS) defines these population groups in terms of: 1. Socioeconomic Status 2. Race/Ethnicity 3. Residence 4. Sex 5. Sexual orientation b. EXAMPLE: Health Disparities in Breast Cancer i. Caucasian women have higher breast cancer incidence ii. African American women have higher mortality rate iii. Discussion Point: What might explain these differences? 1. White women tend to have better access to health care in general before the cancer may develop a. Better preventative resources available on average II. Environmental Carcinogens a. Air Pollution i. Consists of solid particles and gasses in the air from car emissions, industrial pollutants, dust, pollen, etc ii. Exhaust from vehicles accounts for 30% of cancer risk from air pollutants 1. Ex: Benzene (known carcinogen) in vehicle emissions b. Air Pollution Globally i. Measurement: concentration of fine particulate matter in the air 1. Measurement instruments and scales vary widely 2. US: 18 ug/m^3 a. Micrograms per cubic meter of air 3. Concentration of fine particulate matter, that is particles smaller than 10 or 2.5 microns - called PM10 and PM2.5. 4. Average: 71 ug/m3 ii. Data released by WHO 1. Issues: some differences in measurement across countries a. (e.g: frequency and location) c. Air Pollution in China i. 98 ug/m^3 1. Data is unsure of where the number came from 2. It most likely is much higher III. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCS): Bisphenol A (BPA) a. Found in numerous products, including baby bottles and food and beverage can liners b. Acts as a weak estrogen c. Linked to i. Breast cancer ii. Obesity iii. Early puberty iv. Diabetes d. 93% of Americans have BPA in their Urine e. Consumer concerns have led some companies to eliminate use of BPA, although safety profile of BPA substitutes is unknown f. Companies can label products BPA free, but there is usually still one or more products similar to it in the products g. BPA: Recommendations i. Reduce use od plastics 1. Substitute with glass ii. If you do use plastic, don’t heat it 1. BPA leaches into foods when plastic is heated h. Discussion Point: Difficult to establish link between environmental carcinogens and cancer. i. Why? 1. It’s hard to pinpoint a specific cause 2. Everyone has hundreds of behaviors a day 3. Hard to isolate or control for everything since humans are so complicated 4. We DO KNOW that eating right and exercising, and reducing sun exposure will decrease risk of cancer IV. Behavioral Risk Factors a. Cancer Risk Factors i. Lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, and smoking account for about 2/3 of all cancer deaths in the US b. Smoking i. Implicated cancers in 1. Kidney 2. Head 3. Neck 4. Lungs 5. And Leukemia ii. Men who smoke are 23.3x more likely to die from lung cancer than those who do not smoke c. UV Exposure i. Exposure to UVA and UVB radiation from the sun and tanning beds is the major cause of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma 1. Skin cancers are on the rise! ii. Total protection is also harmful 1. UVB facilitates production of vitamin D a. Recommendations: 5-10 minutes of sun exposure 3 times per week V. Protective Factors a. Protective Diets and Foods: Green Tea i. Green tea acts against cancer cells in cell cultures ii. Regular green tea though 1. Black tea is helpful; just not as effective iii. Acts as an ant-inflammatory, which slows cancer cell ability to spread iv. Clinical trial among early CLL leukemia patients found reduction in cancer cells v. Epidemiological findings are inconclusive b. Protective Diets and Food: Bottom Line i. Very difficult to isolate specific effects of specific food and nutrients ii. “Synergy of Foods” 1. How certain foods work together for benefits 2. Your best bet: Eat them all and incorporate into your everyday diet! Thursday 7 April 2016 ****** EXAM NEXT TUESDAY (4/12) ****** Tobacco Smoking I. Cigarettes a. Why so many additives? i. Over 500 additives 1. Range from coconut oil to ammonia 2. Many reasons a. Enhances taste b. Camouflage smoke ordor c. Enhance nicotine delivery d. Mask throat irritation i. And other symptoms caused by smoking ii. One significant issue is that while all these chemical compounds have been approved as additives to food, they were not tested by burning. iii. In 1984, the US Department of Health and Human Services began requiring tobacco companies to submit annually a confidential, aggregated list of ingredients added to cigarettes manufactured in or imported into the United States. In 1994, 1. National Public Radio reported on a number of these ingredients, which caused a public outcry. a. Subsequently, in that same year, the 6 major US tobacco companies made the list public. b. This was the only time the list was made public, and there is no current public list of tobacco additives. b. When burned, creates 4,000 compounds i. Anything that burns will produce a number of carcinogens 1. Marijuana smoking is not actually better due to still having the burning aspect ii. Over 60 carcinogens 1. Formaldehyde – linked to lung cancer 2. Arsenic – used in rat poison 3. Carbon Monoxide – linked to lung cancer 4. Benzene – linked to leukemia iii. Compounds found in cigarettes 1. Cadmium = Batteries 2. Stearic Acid = Candle Wax 3. Hexamine = Barbecue Lighter 4. Toluene = Industrial Solvent 5. Nicotine = Insecticide 6. Butane = Lighter Fluid 7. Acetic Acid = Vinegar 8. Methane = Sewer Gas 9. Arsenic = Poison 10. Carbon Monoxide = Car Exhaust 11. Methanol = Rocket Fuel 12. Ammonia = Toilet Cleaner 13. Paint c. What’s so addicting about them? i. Nicotine is addicting ii. Added chemicals may also increase addictive properties 1. E.G: Chemicals added to decrease metabolism of nicotine a. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde II. Nicotine a. Nicotine acts as a stimulant in moderate doses b. Binds to a particular type of acetylcholine receptor known as the nicotinic receptor c. Activates reward system i. Release of endorphins (endogenous opioids) and dopamine (among others) d. The main types of catecholamines (produced in brain and adrenal gland) are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. e. Acetylcholine- in PNS, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. f. Decrease in the levels of monoamineoxidase (MAO), an enzyme responsible for breaking down dopamine (probably caused by some tobacco smoke ingredient other than nicotine, since nicotine itself does not dramatically alter MAO levels). g. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, h. Nicotine produces rewarding effects by interacting with nAChRs on neurons in the brain’s mesolimbic reward system. i. Nicotine acts quickly on the brain i. 7 seconds j. Short half-life i. 40 minutes k. Withdrawal symptoms occur a few hours after last cigarette smoked Cigarette Smoking: Historical Roots and Prevalence I. Smoking in the US a. 21% = percentage of US adults who are current smokers i. Compared to 44% in 1966 b. Declines in smoking following 1964 i. Reported by the Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking c. Declines after i. Tax hikes on cigarettes ii. Broadcast advertising bans iii. Smoking restrictions d. Great depression (1930s). i. Camel advertising increased during GD, with great sales success. GD advertising emphasized ‘glamour and beauty.’ e. Synar Amendment i. Required states to have laws in place prohibiting the sale and distribution of tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and to enforce those laws effectively. f. 1993- industry reduced prices on cigs in response to tax hikes, effectively negating the price hikes g. Age-adjusted mortality rate: allows communities or cohorts with different age structures to be compared i. Age-adjusted death rate: deaths per 100,000 people in the population Disparities in Smoking Rates I. Native Americans a. Highest rate of smoking among races i. 24% II. LGBTQ Persons a. Have highest rate of smoking i. 25% III. Men smoke at higher rates than women a. Men: 24% b. Women: 18% IV. Smoking is highest among those living below the poverty line a. 30% vs. 16% for above the poverty line V. Smoking is more common among those with lower education a. GED = 49% b. Rates of smoking decrease the higher the level of education VI. Highest smoking rates states: a. Indiana b. Kentucky c. West Virginia d. Mississippi e. Oklahoma f. Missouri VII. Lowest: a. California and Utah VIII. State Total Tobacco Acreage: a. North Carolina: 170,0832 b. Kentucky: 87,6413 c. Virginia: 20,8814 d. Tennessee: 20,1095 e. South Carolina: 20,0846 f. Georgia: 17,9897 g. Pennsylvania: 7,8868 h. Ohio: 3,4999 i. Connecticut: 3,12810 j. Indiana: 2,174 Current Smoking Trends I. Smoking Among College Students a. Smoking is increasing among undergraduate students i. 25-30% b. Many students report that they intend to quit after college c. Smoking most likely to occur at parties and social situations i. “Social Smoking” II. Issues in measurement of smoking among college students a. 56% of college students who smoke infrequently did not identify as a “smoker” i. the “social smokers” III. Quick Review: a. How would you descried he relationship between: i. Smoking and Education level? 1. Negative relationship ii. Smoking and Gender? 1. Men have higher rates than women iii. Smoking and Income? 1. Negative relationship Why do people take up smoking? I. Social Models a. Overt pressure i. EX: “Come on – try one” b. Social Learning Theory i. People learn by observing others’ behaviors, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors 1. Modeling a. Parents, siblings, friends modeling this behavior i. Considered primary social factors, ii. Indirect reference groups such as the media, considered secondary. iii. Modeling of smoking in the media (movies, t.v.) 1. Children who spend more time viewing movies which positively portray smoking, are more likely to take up smoking (Sargent et al, 2001). 2. Control variables? a. Controlled for numerous factors including age, sex, parent education, sensitive seeking, smoking by friends, family. ii. Once a teenager has begun using tobacco, experiences with the new behavior become increasingly important in whether or not the behavior persists, and observation of others’ use or non-use decreasingly so. 1. Experiences with tobacco serve to modify the youth’s definition of cigarette smoking, with positive experiences fostering more favorable attitudes. 2. Experiences with smoking also provide youth with first- hand information about rewards and punishments associated with tobacco use, including those that are social in nature and those that are internal to the person II. Weight Control c. Weight control is sometimes cited as a reason for starting smoking i. Especially true of Caucasian women ii. Also used as weight control among men, but less common III. Advertising Regulation d. 1964 - First Report of the Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health i. Identifies smoking as a cause of increased mortality. e. 1965 – Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act i. Requires a health warning on cigarette packages. f. 1970 – Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act i. Prohibits cigarette advertising on television and radio. g. 1998- Master Settlement Agreement h. 2009 – Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (ongoing litigation) i. Graphic warning labels for cigarettes (lost in court; currently used in Canada) ii. Prohibits sale of flavored cigarettes (strawberry, orange) IV. Advertising and Children i. Research found that children who could name a cigarette brand whose advertisements had caught their attention were 3x more likely smoke 4 years later j. Cigarette advertising is banned on television, radio, sporting events, and print media with an audience under the age of 21 i. Where else might children gain exposure to advertising? 1. Convenience Stores and Gas Stations k. Tobacco companies now spend more than 90 percent of their marketing budget to saturate convenience stores i. Nearly $10 billion a year ii. Almost their entire budget V. Advertising Today l. 80-90% of tobacco industry advertising money today is spent in convenience stores and gas stations Bolded Book Vocabulary: Chapter 12: Smoking Tobacco 1. Abstinence Violation Effect – Feelings of guilt and loss of control often experienced after a person lapses into an unhealthy habit after a period of abstinence 2. Acrolein – A yellowish or colorless, pungent liquid produced as a by-product of tobacco smoke; one of the aldehydes 3. Bronchitis – Any inflammation of the bronchi 4. Diaphragm – The partition separating the cavity of the chest from that of the abdomen 5. Emphysema – A chronic lung disease in which scar tissue and mucus obstruct the respiratory passage 6. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) – The smoke of spouses, parents or coworkers to which nonsmokers are exposed; passive smoking 7. Formaldehyde – A colorless, pungent gas found in cigarette smoke; it causes irritation of the respiratory system and has been found to be a carcinogenic; one of the aldehydes 8. Hydrocyanic acid – A poisonous acid produced by treating a cyanide with an acid; one of the products of cigarette smoke 9. Nitric Oxide – A colorless gas prepared by the action of nitric acid on copper and also produced in cigarette smoke; it affects oxygen metabolism and may be dangerous 10. Optimistic Bias – The belief that other people, but not oneself, will develop a disease, have an accident, or experience other negative events 11. Passive Smoking – The exposure of nonsmokers to the smoke of spouses, parents, or coworkers; environmental tobacco smoke
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