CDAE 002: Week 10
CDAE 002: Week 10 CDAE 002
Popular in World Food, Population and Development
Popular in Human Development
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development Week 10 Poverty cont. Belo Horizonte - 1990s - 11% of the population living in absolute poverty - City of 2.5 million people - Belo Horizonte’s government implemented a constitutional right to food as a right to citizenship o If you are too poor to buy from the market, you are no less of a citizen - Government’s Zero Hunger program o Incentive for families to send kids to school because they have food there for free - Focuses on the rural aspect o Appreciates land tenure (citizens have an access to land) § Farmers don’t have to move around o Food goes to direct markets or straight to food programs - People’s restaurants o Feeds 12,000 people/day o Locally grown food o 50 cents/meal o Families save money and time § Working parents really benefit o Low and middle class - Shifting the paradigm to “Food as a Right” o Infant malnutrition dropped 50% o Consumption of fruits and veggies increased o Costs 10 million annually, but that is only 2% of the cities’ budget o New social mentality o Not a public handout § Gives people jobs § Government facilitates and creates opportunities Demography: Population Growth, Migration, and Urbanization World Population Growth - Population policy o Strategy for achieving a particular pattern of population change o Two types § Direct Population • Aim specifically at changing demographic behavior • Ex) limit the number of kids, increase the number of kids, legalize abortion § Indirect Population • Influences the population change but it wasn’t designed to specifically do so • Ex) Trade agreements (NAFTA), climate change, conflict and war - Demography o Scientific study of human population § Size, composition o Birth Rate: total number of births per 1000 of a population each year o Fertility: number of live births per 1000 o Total fertility rate: average number of children a woman could bear o Death Rate/Mortality Rate: total number of deaths per 1000 of a population per year o Life expectancy: estimate of the average number of years a person can expect to live o Factors affecting mortality rate § Degeneration • Biological aging and degeneration of the body • Chronic illnesses o Heart disease § Infections and parasitic diseases • HIV/AIDS • Malaria § Products of social and economic environments • Work place hazards • Warfare § (Food insecurity can increase the mortality rate in all three of these areas) o Exponential Growth § Constant rate of growth applied to a continually growing base over a period of time o Doubling Time § Time it takes for population to double o Global goals to: § Reduce population and fertility § Increase wellbeing and growth o Families § How they differ • Size • Traditions • Lifestyle o Demographic Transition Theory § (population vs. poverty) § Economic development leads to a lower fertility rate § Ignores that fertility rates are a factor of social and economic factors that people (mostly women) are subject to o Two types of Reproductive Strategies § 1. No economic gain to restricting fertility • Occurs in periphery countries • Wealth flows from the children to the parents § 2. Economic gain to restricting fertility • Occurs in the core countries • Wealth flows from the parents to the children o Relationship between family structure and fertility § Importance of kinship • Nuclear family (mom, dad, kids) o Independence and individualism § Extended family • Group collective, resource sharing § Fertility will cause a shift from Extended family to Nuclear family o Population § Women can and do adjust fertility in response to local economic and social conditions § Why does demand for children in developing countries remain high? • Cost of raising children is low in rural areas • Children provide for labor; serve as an economic net gain • Cultural reasons • Children serve as security for parents in old age o Malthusian approach and Population § Economic development requires a lower fertility rate o Age dependency ratio § Ratio of people in the labor force v. not in the labor force § Dependents= people of age lower than 15, and greater than 64 § Productives= ages 15-64 (working age) More developed countries have an aging population Less developed countries have a young population Young and old are outside the labor force - Urban Slums o High poverty o Lack of infrastructure and stability o Community o Vulnerable - Four Population Megatrends o Creates a shift in power dynamics o 1. Majority of population growth will occur in less developed countries o 2. Most Developed Countries will get older o 3. Most world population will be in countries with the youngest and the poorest population Gender Equality & Development Women’s Triple Burden - 1. Household o Cooking, cleaning, collecting water - 2. Childcare - 3. Work outside the home - How many are they paid for? 1!!!!!!!!!!!! UN Women - Gender equality and empowerment of women - What are the issues? Results? o 20% of politics are women § Change the norms, get them elected o Lack basic rights; can’t own land § UN Women got them ID Cards- could get married, gives them mobility, can get their kids to school - Barefoot Power o Teaches women how to install solar panels § Gives them job and light! • Children can study longer, healthcare, gives women jobs Violence Against Women - Physical abuse - Psychological abuse - Economic Discrimination o No loans o Lower pay for the same work - Political Disenfranchisement Advancing Gender Equality requires strengthening: - Economic and political autonomy - Full citizenship - Freedom from all forms of violence - Sexual and reproductive autonomy Core vs. Periphery Feminism - Sisters in Islam, Indonesia o Don’t condemn Islamic beliefs even though they lead to anti-feminism § Instead they use the Qur’an to identify Women’s rights • Said that the Qur’an says that male sex drive makes men alderterous by nature o Argued that by saying that polygyny was used to alleviate problems of war orphans and widows by allowing widows to remarry men - Current Feminism o Shift away population control o Targeting quality of life § Increased funding for pre/post natal care § Access to wider contraceptive methods o More economic opportunities - Maternity and Paternity leave o Many countries require it (Scandanavia) Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Conflict How do women experience conflict? Genocide Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, cultural group - RWANDA o Germany was the original occupier, then to Belgian o Coffee and tin was the major export § 1980s the price of coffee dropped • Income of small farmers was significantly affected o Large scale famine began o Elites depended on foreign aid § IMF structural adjustment program • Devalued the money • Price of necessities increased • Collapse in education and health system o Malnutrition and malaria • Military attacks from Tutsis o Fleeing o Warning signs of genocide § Assassinations § Hate propaganda § Demonization § Stockpiling weapons § Civilian militias § Rape as a weapon o Who was responsible? § Was not simply tribal warfare § Legacies of colonial past § World Bank and IMF • Their adjustments didn’t help anything § France • Armed the Hutus o For a LONG TIME the US and France didn’t use the term genocide because if they did, they would have to intervene § Didn’t do that until 800,000 tutsis were killed - YUGOSLAVIA (1945-1980) o Was formed after WW1 by 6 Republics o 1991 Soviet Union starts breaking apart § Yugoslavia was hard to hold together because Republics tearing apart § Causes economy to go down…seceded o Bosnians start to target Muslims and Croats § Ethnic cleansing o Ended 1995 with President Clinton
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