Psych 3551 Lecture Notes Week 13
Psych 3551 Lecture Notes Week 13 3551
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda White on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3551 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Bertrina Scott in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Psychology for Adolescence in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
SP 16 PSYCH 3551: WEEK 13 NOTES TUESDAY 4/5 & THURSDAY 4/7 TUESDAY APRIL 5 DATING 1. ADOLESCENTS begin dating earlier now than before. Difference in how we define a date now vs. several years ago a. “what is a date?” i. before: boy asks out girl, boy picks girl up, go somewhere, boy takes girl home ii. now: more included 1. being in same location as someone you like at same time 2. go to church at same time, eat lunch together at school, etc. f 3. on Facebook, texting at specific times=all considered dates 2. early maturers begin dating earlier than late maturers a. age norms within a school are important indicators i. when is everyone else starting to date? Vary by location of school, who is already dating at what age ii. norms may be different between schools (12, 13, 14, etc.) FUNCTIONS OF DATING *Recreation: source of fun, enjoyment *status and achievement: date because it increases peer group status, enhances popularity *Choice of dating partner: date only to improve status, or date for closer connection -date someone desirable, popular, others like them *Learning and Socialization -learn social skills, get along with others, have a conversation, be a good listener, how to respond and behave in certain contexts, meaningful relationships *Context for sexual experimentation -dating not prerequisite for sex, but can serve as a context for it *Companionship -someone to talk to, share activities with -friendships allow us to celebrate certain occasions with partners *Identity formation -a way for someone to form an identity outside context of the family -what they like about dating: experience things on their own *Mate sorting/selection -13 year olds don’t think about if someone is a potential spouse -but, dating allows you to figure out who you find desirable, or not -ex. Want to date someone really smart, older, younger, etc. -a filter and lets you narrow down what you want in a partner DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE OF DATING (who you date first) 1. Same gender groups a. First people you date: groups go to location where opposite gender groups is likely to be (group of girls go to mall to see groups of guys) –not an official date, but potential to find people you like 2. Adult-arranged social gatherings a. School dances, parties b. Locations where there are potential interactions with potential partners 3. Mix-gender groups a. Group of friends go together, may be coupling or not b. May be mixed gender people who sort of like each other, want to get to know each other (couples or potential couples) 4. Coupling (late adolescence-16, early adulthood) a. Dating no longer a group affair b. 2 people go together without others around ADOLESCENTS AND DATING 1. characteristics desired in a romantic partner change for boys a. spend more time with romantic partners than ever before b. as adolescents become comfortable with pubertal changes, become more comfortable being ok around a romantic partner c. as comfort increases with body, comfort increases with actually being with someone vs. just thinking about them d. boys don’t focus on intimacy, but rather focus on looks e. boys admit at beginning of adolescents they look for physical features f. as they get older, they seek out more intimacy g. girls: don’t always admit they seek physical attractiveness, but they do seek physical attraction too 2. dating scripts are highly influenced by gender a. onset of adolescents: girls think who they want to date (intimacy is important) b. dating script: cognitive model that guides dating interaction, mental prototype i. carry around expectations of what a date is and what should happen c. Males: proactive-boy will be the one who asks girl out, brings up ideas for dates, arranges transportation d. Females: reactive-being asked out, respond to requests/date, respond to initiatives during date, girls still want to be the ones asked out-even if really like someone, reluctant to initiate the date 3. Moderate dating generally associated with positive development a. How often you date, opportunity to date presents itself, date every now and then b. Not intensely over-involved with one person or not having tons of different dates with different people c. Girls: most negatively affected by serious early dating i. Disadvantage to date serious and date early (before age 15, 1 singular relationship) ii. High level of admiration/love for partner, see a future, overly invested in relationship iii. May focus so much on being desirable to partner only, exclude everything and everyone else iv. Always ask what their partner would want them to do: social relationships suffer, academics may suffer v. Any hobbies/interests may be abandoned to spend time with partner vi. Girls become less socially adept with same gender peers, less socially mature. Less interested in achievement vii. Potential for sexual relationships they may not be ready for 1. Younger than 15 engaging in sex as a means to show their love d. Late/no daters may experience delayed social development i. At a disadvantage? ii. May have difficulty “catching up” on dating experience iii. Need to begin to figure out the dating norms iv. Delayed social development in context of dating (behind the curve) v. May be subject to ridicule and harassment DATING VIOLENCE Majority of adolescents in these relationships are doing ok, but become an increased concern Pattern of abusive behaviors used to exert power and control over dating partner 21% of girls say they have been in violent relations, 10% of boys, but number of adolescent saying they see violence is 60% (a lot of violence goes unreported) o fear and embarrassment-feel you let it happen to yourself, feel victimized o inexperience with dating-just starting to figure out dating and don’t know if violence is just part of dating, don’t know what is normative o desire for autonomy-feel that you cannot go to your parents for help because you want independence and fear you won’t have autonomy, don’t want to seem childlike and like they can’t handle themselves o confusing dating scripts can have multiple cognitive models about your experiences get info from multiple sources about what goes on on a date get info from parents, media, friends, etc. ex: men hear they need to “control your woman” or “masculinity =physical aggression) or “a kind man” =too weak ex: girls responsible for all problems, supposed to be victimized may see abuse as romantic, jealousy, possessiveness mistaken for love influence of peer norms: if violence is normal to them, you will think it should be to you too o don’t know who to go to for a problem (parents, police, friends, teacher) WHO IS AT RISK FOR DATING VIOLENCE: Believing violence is acceptable o If you don’t know how to communicate well, may see violence as a way to get your point across Aggression toward peers o Dating violence just an extension of aggression, not an exception Substance use o Rely on substance heavily-lowers inhibitions, lack of forethought o Prefrontal cortex/impulse control-limits ability with alcohol Witnessing violence at home o Parenting relationships between kids and partners o Adolescents watch parents for norms on behavior in a relationship o Abusive parents o Adolescent gets the idea that because parents are together violence is just a part of it CATEGORIES OF DATIG VIOLENCE 1.Physical -physical means to harm someone, bite, punch, kick 2. Psychological -behavior with intent to humiliate, shame, embarrass, lessen, bullying -isolating partner from friends and family: cut off from everyone but partner 3. sexual violence -force someone to have sex when don’t want to or unwilling to give consent -or in a condition where they cannot provide consent -threatening to post/share sexually explicit images to manipulate them, blackmailing -restrict partners access to contraceptive 4. Stalking -harassing, threatening -goal is to cause fear in the victim -pops up everywhere you are, creepy, always watching you 5. Digital abuse -cyber-bullying -social media to intimate or threaten -demand someone’s password to check mail, texts, who follow you on Facebook/twitter -checking all your devices to see who you talk to CONSEQUENCES OF DATING VIOLENCE 1.Symptoms of depression and anxiety -feel worthless, hopeless, not important, not valued -perpetrator makes you feel less than you are when they are supposed to be caring about you 2.Engage in unhealthy behaviors -self-medicate, don’t have to face reality -drink, drugs, escape reality 3. Involvement in anti-social behavior -cut class, shop lift, bully others -if aggressor is aggressive to you and peers 4. thoughts of suicide -feel there is no end, no way out, no relief 5. Higher risk for future victimization -victimized between 11-17 by dating partner have higher risk to be victimized in future -adult victims of sexual violence from intimate partner: 22% of women and 15% of men had experienced violence between ages 11-17 -short and long term consequences of dating violence -need to make sure people always feel comfortable telling someone! *gap between what parents think they know and what really goes on in adolescent relationship -most parents don’t know reality -parents don’t know if kids have actually “dated” -adolescent must feel comfortable opening up *learning how to identify potential risks -jealousy, possessive for no reason -what is or is not love -hyper sensitive to “violations” of their respect -blame other for problems -cruelty to animals and younger children! -highly unpredictable, violent mood swings -anger expressed very intensely and hard to them to calm down -letting adolescents know they have choices!! HOW SHOULD PARENTS DEAL WITH ADOLESCENT DATING Being overprotective can produce undesirable developmental consequences o Don’t allow dating at all o Shut down desire for companionship and intimacy o Become really intrigued by dating so violate rules and rebel to gain access o Can lead to teens sneaking out or lying about where they are going Authoritative parenting is paramount o Encourage independence, but place limits o Verbal exchanges of ideas and opinions o Hear kids out, but have rules—must be reasonable rules o Parents have conditions: want to meet them first, meet parents, feel comfortable o Parents drop off and pick up---possibly spy on kids o Curfew is established o Who and amount you date is agreed upon o Give adolescent some time to voice their own ideas-be democratic o Parents want a reasonable reason for teens choice ADOLESCENT ROMANCE: WHAT’S LOVE GOT TO DO WITH IT Most American teens fall in love for the first time in early adolescence o What love is at 11 vs. 14. Vs. 18-differs o Puppy love for parents, but real for you—so different and intense that anything you have felt may mistake it for “love” Sternberg’s theory of love o Passion: physical attraction, sexual desire, jealousy, anxiety, long for someone o Intimacy: feelings of closeness, emotional attachment o Commitment: love in the long run, through the bad and good Longest love: consists of all three!!---“consummate love” ADOLESCENT ROMANCE: EXCITING AND NEW In most adolescent love relationships, commitment is missing o Just want to see what happens o Not looking at long run o Increase in ability to make commitments as adolescents age o Superficial before hand: no real commitment 2 types of adolescent love o Infatuation: intense, thought it was real love, physical arousal o Romantic Love: passion and intimacy combined Adolescents may experience consummate love but it is rare Rare: have a commitment that lasts a year Let’s STAY TOGETHER *couples who remained together -high intimacy, love early on -equally committed-both feel same level of commitment -similarity In age, education plans, SAT scores, attractiveness -both want to make relationship last -there is “opposites attract”-but “opposites” sometimes superficial (types of music) -similar on central values, but not on small things *Consensual Validation -explains why adolescents have relationships with people similar to them -they support your way of looking at the world, validates you -ex: think you are fluent in Spanish because all you do is add “o” to every word and your friend agrees with you _someone who’s had your similar though or experience validates you *majority of adolescent relationships don’t last ADOLESCENT MARRIAGE Younger people are when they get married, the greater chance of divorce, unhappy Usual processes and complications of marriage are aggravated by adolescent immaturity Limited experiences Identity formation is still in process, partner and you may not “click” later on after identity is formed for the most part Don’t always become what you want to be in life Don’t know if you are really compatible with someone Think passion is love May have nothing in common later in life Major reasons for adolescent marriage o Pregnancy o Escape from unhappy home o Personal security-uncertainties are accepted by partner o Want to get a “fresh start” o Not same reasons adults get married o Adolescents are trying to solve a problem, not always waiting to start a life together o Have children to try and fix problems or think it will bring them together More likely to last if o Adequate financial resources o Long standing relationship before marriage o Both completed high school o Pregnancy delayed for at least a year (get to know each other as a married couple) o Marriage not a knee-jerk reaction o Start a new stage in commitment for couple THURSDAY APRIL 7 DATING CONTINUED: BREAKING UP IS HARD TO DO Can be devastating because adolescent coping skills not fully developed o Commitment not normative in adolescent relationships like breaking up is o Experiencing break up: depression, suicide, murder!! o Devastating because adolescent can’t deal with a break up, don’t know how to deal with emotions (had intense passion, arousal come to an abrupt stop) Egocentrism may contribute to intensity of unhappiness following a break up o Think no one will understand them or what they are going through o Don’t reach out to those who could possibly help you o Think parents don’t understand them—don’t laugh at them or tell them they shouldn’t be feeling this…. tell them they will be ok o Don’t want to listen to others who have been through it…makes devastation last longer Intense grief related to: o Reduced academic performance o Health problems: physical and mental o Carelessness: believe they are the one who did something wrong, don’t see themselves as having value, feel worth nothing o Self-medication: take away negative issues/feelings, numb yourself o Romantic harassment: Not like “stalking” Goal not to threaten or make fearful, but to see how to get the victim to see how much they love you---will follow the person everywhere…creepy! Think they are helping show victim that someone cares about them, but can be too intense and possibly unwanted Harassers: believe showing victim how available they are will make the victim see they are missing out Most adolescents see through this and find it creepy and weird, stay away from person trying to get back with them Longer the grief: more intense o Usually grief is fairly brief for adolescents More likely to occur during o May/June: school ends, vacation, work, may not see each other, summer love o September: school starts, meet someone new or leave your summer love o December/January: winter break, apart for 2 weeks, busy with family, if adolescent is in a committed relationship—sexual relationship, “best gift is you” Home while parents still at work, left unsupervised 3-6 o’clock problem: most sexual activity, substance use because parents are still gone at work o Tentativeness of commitment: coincide with school calendar o End of January/February: Valentines day Adolescents break up, too much commitment, feels too serious ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY CHAPTER ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY Consists of sexual values, beliefs, thoughts, feelings, “prerequisites” for sex, casual? Normal part of adolescence o If adolescent has no questions about sex or doesn’t think about it at all…that is abnormal Most adolescents have positive sexual development o Good attitude, not participating in too detrimental behaviors o Will make some bad choices, but most of them won’t do anything so severe that it alters their adult life negatively Beliefs that adolescents have about sex are important can influence behavior o Many beliefs are inaccurate, limits they set, who they will have sex with o Most get ideas from friends and are not always true Contraception Rules about getting pregnant Knowledge about STD’s General expectations o if your beliefs about sex are wrong: you are put at risk o common myths same overtime, don’t change much everyone does it if you have sex you are in love if you have a baby with someone you will be with them forever first time is awesome, just like in movies college is a wild sex party, orgies you will definitely get an std parents will know if you have sex—walk and smell different sex is never awkward masturbation makes hands harry or you will go bald watch porn to learn how to have sex sex always after prom only dumb people get pregnant will go to hell if you have premarital sex sex changes you being a virgin is bad everyone who has sex will get pregnant ice cubes can be contraceptive pulling out is effective birth control pills cause abortions and miscarriages if no condoms are available, use a plastic bag you can’t get pregnant if you shower…water kills sperm if the female is on top you can’t get pregnant if you have sex standing up two condoms are better than one oral sex will get you pregnant if all you know about sex is these myths: all would be pregnant, have std’s, unhealthy, make tons of mistakes need to provide with sound, correct sexual education, answer questions honestly, talking about it will make them have better decisions about sexual activity peers=tell myths, schools, parents: all influence decisions and info we get about sex WHY IS SEXUALITY AN ADOLESCENT ISSUE? Pubertal change o Increasing hormones o Testosterone: motivates males to engage is sex, indirect for girls o Estrogen also influences sexual urges, behavior Make girls look more womanly o Initiate and intensify urges and ability to have sex Adolescent egocentrism o If you feel you are invincible, and immune to any consequences of sexual activity you have the belief that you can do anything, participate in risky activities Dyadic nature of intimacy o As adolescents seek intimacy, start with friends/romantic partners o Intimacy: between 2 people (dyadic), intense needs o No more gender segregation, more friends of opposite sex Exposure to sexual values of adults o General trend toward being more open to talking about sex and being exposed to it (TV, music, internet, etc.)—makes adolescents curious about sex PROFILE OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY Incidence of sexual activity increase with age o Sex is relatively uncommon in early adolescence, but gets greater in mid-late o Ex. 9 grade: 25-30% have engaged in sexual activity o Seniors/11 or 12 grade: 65% engaged in sexual activity Males are more likely to say that they have had sex, and had it earlier at a younger age o If both genders asked about sexual activity: males say they have o Girls who do admit: number is increasing over past 10 years o Male/female activity: varies depending on locale, ethnicity Urban more likely than suburban Low income more likely that upper class African Americans more relaxed time table for activity than white and Asian (most restricted)—be in a serious relationship or certain age Whites: more likely to engage in heterosexual oral sex than all ethnic groups Percentage of sexually active youth has increased o More adolescents having sex than previous generations o Cause for concern: Increase due to oral sex increasing? Belief that it is not really sex, can’t get pregnant---but still dangerous and can still get STD Oral sex is seen as a compromise to intercourse Sometimes oral sex for adolescents does not need to occur in the context of a relationship, more casual attitude about oral sex (Higher in suburban areas) Adolescent girls more the “givers” of oral sex, males “receivers” o President Bill Clinton: accused of inappropriate relationship Claims he didn’t, but he really did…Lewinski saved a dress with his sperm on it and it was confirmed Said he didn’t have “sex” with her…just oral sex Message from the president that oral sex was not that serious and wasn’t really sex GENDER AND THE MEANING OF SEX Significant differences between males/females about the meaning of sex and its appropriateness “sexual scripts” o cognitive representations of how sex should be o guides our interactions with sexual partners o who has sex under what conditions o Gender difference: Males: “conquest script”: intimate relationship not a prerequisite to have sex. If they are sexually attracted to someone they can have sex. Males often initiate sex Females: “romantic script”: should be in love to have sex, will make them closer, have a future with their partner, stricter guidelines Both: expect boys will make moves, girls set limits on how far it will go Helps make decision on who they will have sex with or even if they will have sex at all o Problems: when people have very different expectations due to scripts Ex. Guy has a conquest script, gets with a girl with romantic script-after they have sex: guy might be casual about it, girl may think they are in love now and are committed…. confusion! o Scripts come from multiple sources: parents, peers, culture, pressure, etc. Double standards with scripts Guy who has multiple sex partners: player, good connotation, looked at as cool Girl who has multiple partners: slut, whore, tramp, negative connotation, “slore” (hybrid term)-what does it mean?? Leads to confusion of what sex means to us Feelings after sexual intercourse o Males: Really happy, accomplished something, want to tell people o Females: More reluctant to tell, concern of pregnancy or intimacy of relationship Excited, but also very concerned Don’t want to damage their reputation or to be talked about Arousal response o Girls: Intimacy important prior to sex, a prerequisite Intimacy enhancer o Boys: Don’t always need intimacy before Sex can be casual, source of recreation CORRELATES OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY Can we predict who and what type of sex people with have? Can we design an educational approach that helps all? o Age at maturation Early maturers: have sex earlier than late maturers When girls have sex at early age (prior to 13) more likely to reported it was forced or coerced Felt they had to have sex to keep their partner o Extent of involvement in risky behavior “problem kids” have all the sex more likely to have risky sex but problem behavior by itself does not predict sexual activity predictor: substance use (20% of adolescents who had sex said they drank before) o family factors intuitive if a parent talks to child about sex and gives accurate info—then sexual activity will be delayed: not what research finds!! Open communication: makes it more likely to have safe sex when they do have sex Doesn’t determine if they will have sex or not, but does determine if sex will be risky or not Quality of attachment relationships with parents (no warmth, kids seek out warmth sexually) Father absent homes: girls want social approval through sex Not just parents: but older siblings influence too (especially for older girl) Rejecting or harsh to kids: earlier sex to escape chaos o Peer influence Establish the sexual “norms” and norms for appropriate behavior if common to be risky: your child will be at a greater risk to do this too if adolescents believe “everyone” does it, then they are more likely belief in myths o academic performance high grades: less likely to have sex, more time studying disengaged: more likely to have early sex, before age 15 even if someone has good grades does not always mean they are not having sex…but they most likely will engage in safer sex o religious activity a deterrent from sexual behavior, especially if friends attend to WHY ARE ADOLESCENTS HAVING SEX? Satisfaction of non-sexual emotional needs (seek approval), poor attachment at home o Ease loneliness, reduce boredom, feel attached, gain acceptance, boost self esteem, show anger o Problem: find that sex is not a substitute for emotional needs, so become more dissatisfied with sex, carry on unhealthy attitudes into adult hood Lose virginity: o Males: ready for sex o Females: affection Don’t have sex: o Fear of pregnancy, religious reasons, fear of std’s
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