Week of April 4th Notes
Week of April 4th Notes HIST289V
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by HIST289V on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST289V at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dr. Howard Smead in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see What Does it Mean to be an American? in History at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
4/4/2016 “Duty to Retreat” A command to avoid physical conflict between individuals Intended to produce civility Adopted in England Not in America “A man is not born to run away” Right to kill in self-defense is a modern concept “One of the most important transformations in American social history” Criminals as heroes Speaks to America’s fascination with criminality Social bandit – Heroic criminals An individual in both Western Europe and America whose crimes are viewed with approval by much society Jesse James America’s classic social bandit Got a great amount of coverage in the press and was seen in a glorified light as a result Al Capone Mass murderer, serial killer Glorified by society and the press American Creed Freedom, equality, democracy “Violent self-assertion” can very well be added to that No “Duty to Retreat” American Violence Riots Lynching (5000 deaths since CW) Vigilantism Indian wars (1000 killed since CW) Industrial (most numerous and violent labor strikes) Civil War (620,000 death toll) America comes to believe violence as an “entirely proper last resort to satisfy a legitimate grievance or rectify a glaring injustice.” Localism Slavery/race Required violence to enforce Ethnicity Ethnic violence was a result of the slavery era as well as nativism Tabula Rasa Violence could be developed by anyone Industrialization Labor riots/strikes incited more violence Modern Advertising “Propaganda” becomes “public relations” Coca-Cola was the first to start advertising Prior to 1920’s, ads were dry and dull Designed to make people aware of new products Emphasized functionality Tools like manipulation started to be used Growth of advertising Albert Lasker “Father of Modern Advertising” Described advertising as “salesmanship in print” Marketed orange juice Edward Bernays Used psychological manipulation to engineer consent Found most success in tobacco products Lucky Strike Marketed cigarettes as “torches of freedom” Played to the “empowering” feeling that women were feeling at the time “Tapping hidden desires and urges” Companies also started using athletes and celebrities to promote their cause Wheaties Advertising in modern times: Emphasis in individualism John F. Kennedy’s campaign was advertised like a product 4/6/16 Critics of Modern Advertising Sparks a Consumer culture False neds (“Hiddens desire and urges”) Imposes conformity Debased taste to the lowest common denominator – what sells Implicit rejection of high arts and civilization Materialism Secularization Loss of values and standards Emphasis on individualism The New Woman Wore dresses that were a radical shift from their parents Led to the nickname “flappers” Represented the people “flaunting the new times” Received with much backlash by the media Changed the ground rules for college Women college attendance began to rapidly increase Notable names to know Margaret Sanger Founded Planned Parenthood Alice Paul Civil Rights Activist Florence Kelly The significance: women were actually doing constructive and productive things in society Wardrobe and clothing norms began to be greatly challenged Previously, showing space in between women’s legs was greatly frowned upon in society Sparked a Purity Crusade Anthony Comstock Narrow-minded bigot or champion of morality Comstock Law Blue Law Birth Control use became more abundant Mostly condoms Number of women in the work force doubled in the 1920’s Came with urbanization The Great Migration Rural to urban population shift Mainly African-Americans 1910 – 1920 Continued well into the 1960s 51% of blacks were outside South by 1950 5 million total by 1960 Sought a “richer and fuller life” Segregated neighborhoods Two popular destinations for blacks: Harlem, Chicago The Harlem Renaissance Cultural explosion that affects all of America A product of a “richer and fuller life” Produces a new awareness of the black population Similar to the New Woman, Alain Locke, the “Dean of the Harlem Renaissance,” coined the term “The New Negro” The Great Depression eventually undermines much of the growth that takes place during this time What the New Woman and the Harlem Renaissance represent Modernism A challenge to old standards and lifestyle
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