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Plsc 101 Week Four Notes

by: randomchic12

Plsc 101 Week Four Notes plsc 101

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > Botany > plsc 101 > Plsc 101 Week Four Notes
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These notes cover what was discussed in class from week four of plant science 101. This includes: plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and evapotranspiration); plant nutriti...
plant science
Dr. Paul Jackson
Class Notes
plant science, PLSC, plant processes, plant process, Photosynthesis, chloroplast, chlorophyll, calvin cycle, c3 pathway, Rubisco, Stomata, c4 pathway, pep carboxylase, Respiration, aerobic, aerobic respiration, ATP, ADP, anaerobic respiration, transpirati
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
1 Plsc 101 Week Four Notes ­Quiz 3 Answers: [underlined word is the answer to the question] ­stolon­ an aboveground stem ­fibrous root system is associated with grass plants ­pinnate venation pattern extends laterally from the midrib of leaves ­reproductive phase is considered the last phase of a plant’s life cycle ­xylem­ conducts water and nutrients from the roots to the aboveground portion of  the plant ­Plant Processes ­Photosynthesis ­production of carbohydrates from CO  and 2ater in the presence of chlorophyll  using light energy ­6CO  2 12H O +2light  C H O 6+ 12 6+ 6H O2 2 ­know inputs (carbon dioxide, water, light) & outputs (sugar, oxygen, water) ­glucose formed (C H 6 )12 6 ­converted to complex compounds for metabolism ­takes place in the chloroplast organelle ­located in mesophyll cells ­chlorophyll is a pigment that accepts light ­visible light spectrum (400­700 nanometers) ­best at absorbing blue and red wavelengths; not green ­best production = 65­85 F [important to remember] ­Calvin Cycle­ reduction of carbon by reactions in chloroplast cells ­C 3 thway ­makes a 3­carbon sugar ­Rubisco catalyzes this reaction (ribulose 1,5­bisphosphate carboxylase) ­stomata stay open ­efficient under normal light and moist conditions  ­ex: wheat, soybeans, most plants 2 ­C 4pathway­ higher yielding reaction; a 4­carbon sugar ­PEP carboxylase catalyzes this reaction (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) ­4­carbon sugar delivered to Rubisco & normal C  reactio3 occurs ­stomata does not open as long; CO  take2 in quicker ­can occur in higher temps & drier conditions ­ex: corn, sorghum, & sugarcane ­Respiration ­respiration­ conversion of sugars made in photosynthesis to energy (ATP) to use  in plant metabolism ­energy used for cell maintenance, growth, and building new tissues ­one molecule of glucose = 36 ATP molecules produced ­first type: ­aerobic respiration or Krebs cycle ­oxidation of glucose to give off CO  and2H O 2 ­C 6 O12 6   6C2 + 6H O 2  2 ­inputs: glucose & oxygen; outputs: carbon dioxide & water ­only about 50% of ATP captured; rest lost as heat ­second type:  ­anaerobic respiration occurs with low O  leve2s ­results in production of ethanol; toxic to cells ­cells will die if exposed for long periods ­occurs in flooding and extreme soil compaction ­Transpiration ­transpiration­ loss of water in the form of vapor from the stomata of plants ­almost all water absorbed by plant is transpired ­occurs via stomates on leaf surfaces ­because of transpiration, water is most often the limiting factor to crop yield 3 ­water balance­ relation between absorption and water loss by a plant ­when water transpired exceeds absorption = water deficit ­often occurs at mid­day causing wilting ­permanent wilting point­ point when a plant cannot recover when placed in a  favorable environment for growth ­Evapotranspiration ­the plant’s total water loss ­water loss from: ­transpiration ­leaf surface through evaporation ­soil surrounding the plant Test Tuesday april 12  on Morphology (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, etc.); photosynthesis,  respiration; nutrition (know the nutrient abbreviations such as K, Fe, etc.), nitrogen cycle  & nitrogen fixation [basically everything after material for exam 1] ­Plant Nutrition ­general information ­nutrient­ element or compound required for plant growth and metabolism ­nutrients used for: energy; building plant tissue ­metabolism­ cellular reactions that allow for plant growth & maintaining life 1.) as essential nutrient is one whose absence prevents a plant from completing its life cycle 2.) an essential nutrient has a clear physiological role 3.) when plants receive the essential nutrients, and sunlight energy, they can form  all the compounds needed for growth. ­nutritional elements ­there are 16 essential nutrients: ­from the air & water: ­1.) carbon (C) ­2.) Hydrogen (H) ­3.) Oxygen (O) ­macronutrients­ required in larger amounts by plants 4 ­Primary: ­4.) Nitrogen (N) ­5.) Phosphorous (P) ­6.) Potassium (K) ­Secondary: ­7.) Calcium (Ca) ­8.) Magnesium (Mg) ­9.) Sulfur (S) ­micronutrients­ required in lesser amounts by plants ­10.) Boron (B) ­11.) Chlorine (Cl) ­12.) Copper (Cu) ­13.) Iron (Fe) ­14.) Manganese (Mn) ­15.) Molybdenum (Mo) ­16.) Zinc (Zn) ­nutrient deficiencies ­nutrient deficiency­ essential nutrient is not available in sufficient quantity to  meet plant growth requirements 1.) deficiency will not allow complete plant life cycle 2.) deficiency is specific for that nutrient and directly involved in the  plant’s growth and metabolism ­disease = random distribution of symptoms (asymmetrical) ­nutrient deficiency = symmetrical distribution of symptoms ­types of nutrient deficiency ­chlorosis­ yellowing of leaves from lack of chlorophyll ­stunting­ lack of growth ­irregular growth­ poorly shaped leaves & stems ­necrosis­ death of tissue (turns black) ­mobile nutrients move from older leaves to younger leaves ­ex: N, P, K ­result = deficiency symptoms in older leaves ­immobile nutrients cannot move from older leaves ­ex: S, Ca, Fe 5 ­result = deficiency symptoms in younger leaves ­Nutrients  ­Nitrogen ­functions: ­part of enzymes/amino acids/proteins in plant tissue ­nucleic acids part of RNA & DNA ­Phosphorus ­functions: ­ADP & ATP for transfer of energy for growth & reproduction (i.e  photosynthesis) ­nucleic acids as part of RNA & DNA ­Potassium ­functions: ­water movement & retention; xylem tissue (anything dealing with  water or water movement, retention, conductance) ­opening and closing of stomata ­Calcium ­functions: ­plant structure: cell walls, cell membranes, & building new cells  (growth, metabolism) ­Magnesium ­functions:  ­part of the chlorophyll molecule (photosynthesis) ­Sulphur ­functions: ­protein maker; part of three important amino acids ­used to make nodules on legume roots (N fixation) 6 ­Iron ­functions: helps make chlorophyll molecules (don’t get confused w/ Mg) ­Nitrogen Cycle ­N constantly moving between soil, atmosphere, & plant ­Atm. Contains 78% gaseous N (N ) 2 ­triple bond between the two N’s makes it unusable by plants ­certain microbes can break the bond & make N usable ­same atom of N can cycle through inorganic & organic forms and as several types of  compounds (N cycle) ­95­99% of soil organic N is unavailable to plants ­(R­NH );2R = an amino acid (amine group) ­inorganic­ nitrogen available to be taken up by plant ­organic­ nitrogen not readily available because it has to be broken down ­mineralization or ammonification (builds ammonium): ­microbes in soil attack these compounds ­amine group hydrolyzes + ­N released as ammonium ion (NH ) 4 ­ammonium sometimes taken up; nitrate readily taken up ­ex: ammonium like the dollar bill you try to put into a coke machine­  sometimes the machine doesn’t take it because its crumpled up; nitrate  like pocket change­ always takes it because it can’t crumple or mess up ­Nitrification (nitrate formed): ­ ­oxidation of ammonia to form nitrate (NO ) 3 ­step 1­ NH  to NO  (by Nitrosomonas) [form nitrite] 3 2 ­step 2­ NO  2o NO  (b3 Nitrobacter) [form nitrate] +  ­ ­Plant uptake of NH vs.4NO 3 ­NH  4an be held to negatively charged soil particles 7 ­NO  3s more readily available to plants ­ (­) charge is not absorbed to soil particles (more in soil solution) ­some NO  ca3 be lost to leaching ­de­nitrification or immobilization: + ­ ­conversion of NH  & N4  to unav3ilable organic forms by microbes  (Pseudomonas) ­nitrification and de­nitrification occurs simultaneously in soil ­Nitrogen Fixation ­certain bacteria convert inert N  i2to inorganic forms that are usable ­bacteria infects root cells and a nodule develops ­nodule = site of N fixation ­symbiotic relationship between bacteria and plants roots ­plants received fixed N & bacteria receives carbohydrates ­second most important biochemical reaction on Earth behind photosynthesis ­occurs mostly in legumes ­certain types of alfalfa, clovers, peas, & beans


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