Plsc 101 Week Four Notes
Plsc 101 Week Four Notes plsc 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
1 Plsc 101 Week Four Notes Quiz 3 Answers: [underlined word is the answer to the question] stolon an aboveground stem fibrous root system is associated with grass plants pinnate venation pattern extends laterally from the midrib of leaves reproductive phase is considered the last phase of a plant’s life cycle xylem conducts water and nutrients from the roots to the aboveground portion of the plant Plant Processes Photosynthesis production of carbohydrates from CO and 2ater in the presence of chlorophyll using light energy 6CO 2 12H O +2light C H O 6+ 12 6+ 6H O2 2 know inputs (carbon dioxide, water, light) & outputs (sugar, oxygen, water) glucose formed (C H 6 )12 6 converted to complex compounds for metabolism takes place in the chloroplast organelle located in mesophyll cells chlorophyll is a pigment that accepts light visible light spectrum (400700 nanometers) best at absorbing blue and red wavelengths; not green best production = 6585 F [important to remember] Calvin Cycle reduction of carbon by reactions in chloroplast cells C 3 thway makes a 3carbon sugar Rubisco catalyzes this reaction (ribulose 1,5bisphosphate carboxylase) stomata stay open efficient under normal light and moist conditions ex: wheat, soybeans, most plants 2 C 4pathway higher yielding reaction; a 4carbon sugar PEP carboxylase catalyzes this reaction (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) 4carbon sugar delivered to Rubisco & normal C reactio3 occurs stomata does not open as long; CO take2 in quicker can occur in higher temps & drier conditions ex: corn, sorghum, & sugarcane Respiration respiration conversion of sugars made in photosynthesis to energy (ATP) to use in plant metabolism energy used for cell maintenance, growth, and building new tissues one molecule of glucose = 36 ATP molecules produced first type: aerobic respiration or Krebs cycle oxidation of glucose to give off CO and2H O 2 C 6 O12 6 6C2 + 6H O 2 2 inputs: glucose & oxygen; outputs: carbon dioxide & water only about 50% of ATP captured; rest lost as heat second type: anaerobic respiration occurs with low O leve2s results in production of ethanol; toxic to cells cells will die if exposed for long periods occurs in flooding and extreme soil compaction Transpiration transpiration loss of water in the form of vapor from the stomata of plants almost all water absorbed by plant is transpired occurs via stomates on leaf surfaces because of transpiration, water is most often the limiting factor to crop yield 3 water balance relation between absorption and water loss by a plant when water transpired exceeds absorption = water deficit often occurs at midday causing wilting permanent wilting point point when a plant cannot recover when placed in a favorable environment for growth Evapotranspiration the plant’s total water loss water loss from: transpiration leaf surface through evaporation soil surrounding the plant Test Tuesday april 12 on Morphology (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, etc.); photosynthesis, respiration; nutrition (know the nutrient abbreviations such as K, Fe, etc.), nitrogen cycle & nitrogen fixation [basically everything after material for exam 1] Plant Nutrition general information nutrient element or compound required for plant growth and metabolism nutrients used for: energy; building plant tissue metabolism cellular reactions that allow for plant growth & maintaining life 1.) as essential nutrient is one whose absence prevents a plant from completing its life cycle 2.) an essential nutrient has a clear physiological role 3.) when plants receive the essential nutrients, and sunlight energy, they can form all the compounds needed for growth. nutritional elements there are 16 essential nutrients: from the air & water: 1.) carbon (C) 2.) Hydrogen (H) 3.) Oxygen (O) macronutrients required in larger amounts by plants 4 Primary: 4.) Nitrogen (N) 5.) Phosphorous (P) 6.) Potassium (K) Secondary: 7.) Calcium (Ca) 8.) Magnesium (Mg) 9.) Sulfur (S) micronutrients required in lesser amounts by plants 10.) Boron (B) 11.) Chlorine (Cl) 12.) Copper (Cu) 13.) Iron (Fe) 14.) Manganese (Mn) 15.) Molybdenum (Mo) 16.) Zinc (Zn) nutrient deficiencies nutrient deficiency essential nutrient is not available in sufficient quantity to meet plant growth requirements 1.) deficiency will not allow complete plant life cycle 2.) deficiency is specific for that nutrient and directly involved in the plant’s growth and metabolism disease = random distribution of symptoms (asymmetrical) nutrient deficiency = symmetrical distribution of symptoms types of nutrient deficiency chlorosis yellowing of leaves from lack of chlorophyll stunting lack of growth irregular growth poorly shaped leaves & stems necrosis death of tissue (turns black) mobile nutrients move from older leaves to younger leaves ex: N, P, K result = deficiency symptoms in older leaves immobile nutrients cannot move from older leaves ex: S, Ca, Fe 5 result = deficiency symptoms in younger leaves Nutrients Nitrogen functions: part of enzymes/amino acids/proteins in plant tissue nucleic acids part of RNA & DNA Phosphorus functions: ADP & ATP for transfer of energy for growth & reproduction (i.e photosynthesis) nucleic acids as part of RNA & DNA Potassium functions: water movement & retention; xylem tissue (anything dealing with water or water movement, retention, conductance) opening and closing of stomata Calcium functions: plant structure: cell walls, cell membranes, & building new cells (growth, metabolism) Magnesium functions: part of the chlorophyll molecule (photosynthesis) Sulphur functions: protein maker; part of three important amino acids used to make nodules on legume roots (N fixation) 6 Iron functions: helps make chlorophyll molecules (don’t get confused w/ Mg) Nitrogen Cycle N constantly moving between soil, atmosphere, & plant Atm. Contains 78% gaseous N (N ) 2 triple bond between the two N’s makes it unusable by plants certain microbes can break the bond & make N usable same atom of N can cycle through inorganic & organic forms and as several types of compounds (N cycle) 9599% of soil organic N is unavailable to plants (RNH );2R = an amino acid (amine group) inorganic nitrogen available to be taken up by plant organic nitrogen not readily available because it has to be broken down mineralization or ammonification (builds ammonium): microbes in soil attack these compounds amine group hydrolyzes + N released as ammonium ion (NH ) 4 ammonium sometimes taken up; nitrate readily taken up ex: ammonium like the dollar bill you try to put into a coke machine sometimes the machine doesn’t take it because its crumpled up; nitrate like pocket change always takes it because it can’t crumple or mess up Nitrification (nitrate formed): oxidation of ammonia to form nitrate (NO ) 3 step 1 NH to NO (by Nitrosomonas) [form nitrite] 3 2 step 2 NO 2o NO (b3 Nitrobacter) [form nitrate] + Plant uptake of NH vs.4NO 3 NH 4an be held to negatively charged soil particles 7 NO 3s more readily available to plants () charge is not absorbed to soil particles (more in soil solution) some NO ca3 be lost to leaching denitrification or immobilization: + conversion of NH & N4 to unav3ilable organic forms by microbes (Pseudomonas) nitrification and denitrification occurs simultaneously in soil Nitrogen Fixation certain bacteria convert inert N i2to inorganic forms that are usable bacteria infects root cells and a nodule develops nodule = site of N fixation symbiotic relationship between bacteria and plants roots plants received fixed N & bacteria receives carbohydrates second most important biochemical reaction on Earth behind photosynthesis occurs mostly in legumes certain types of alfalfa, clovers, peas, & beans
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