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Psycology Week 13

by: Jordan Rouse

Psycology Week 13 PSY 101

Jordan Rouse

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About this Document

Psychosocial Development
Introductory Psychology
Andrea Friedrich
Class Notes
Psycology, week 13
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Andrea Friedrich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Psychology Notes Week 13 Psychosocial Development  Each stage in life involves a different crisis that needs resolution  Each crisis is present throughout life but takes on different importance during particulare age period  Move onto different areas Erikson’s Psychosocial Changes 1. Basic trust vs. Basic Mistrust a. Infancy- baby needs being met and amount of attention 2. Autonomy vs. shame/doubt a. Toddlerhood b. Start exercising individuality 3. Initiative vs. Guilt a. Preschooler b. Freedom to explore c. Held back or punished development of guilt about desires and suppression of curiosity 4. Competence cs. Inferiority a. 6 years old to puberty b. Experiencing pride and encouragement in mastering tasks, learn pleasure by applying themselves c. Inferiority: can’t do it, won’t try; caused by failure 5. Identity vs. Role confusion a. Adolescence 12-20 years b. Teenagers test roles integrate to form single identity or become confused on who they are “identity crisis” 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation a. What kind of relationships they want to form b. Young adulthood 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation a. Middle adulthood b. Involvement in careers, raising children, or involvement in contributing to world or lack of purpose c. Stagnation- standstill 8. Integrity vs. Despair a. Late adulthood (late 60’s and up) b. Looking back c. Sense of completeness or failure and despair Moral Development  Right vs. wrong  Lawrence Kohlberg-stole drug to try to save his wife  Posed moral dilemmas to children adolescents and adults 3 levels of moral reasoning 1. Pre-conventional morality a. Before age 9 b. Based on anticipated punishments or rewards 2. Conventional Morality a. Early adolescence b. Based on conformity to social expectations, laws, duties 3. Post-Conventional Morality a. Formed operations b. Based on well thought out moral principles Motivation  A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal Different perspectives 1. Instinct Theory (Evolutionary Perspective) a. Instinct- a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned b. Human behavior is caused by instincts 2. Drive reduction a. Homeostasis- a state of internal psychological equilibrium the body strives to maintain b. Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives (states of internal tension) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need c. Need—Hunger—Drive-reducing behavior d. Primary Drive- food e. Secondary Drive- reducing drives is ultimate goal of motivational behavior f. Problems- motivation in absence of physiological need 3. Arousal Theory a. Motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal (a certain state of emotional, intellectual, and physical activity) b. Varies from person to person Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs- there are some lower level needs that need to be met before we can strive for higher level needs 5 Needs 1. Physiological Needs- food, water, shelter, sleep 2. Safety needs- needs to feel safe and secure (psychologically and physically) 3. Belongingness and love 4. Esteem- needs for self-esteem, achievements, competence, independence 5. Self-actualization- needs to fulfill our potential; rarely meet these needs  Hunger o Basic motives o Type of food= pleasure o Food intake regulated by biological, psychological and environmental o Triggers hunger? Glutose levels: form of sugar that circulates in the blood providing energy o Psychology of hunger  Conditioned habits  Memory of how much and what we eat  Conscious of body image  Environmental and Cultural Factors o Food availability o Food tast and variety o Stimuli associated with eating o Norms that affect what, when, how and amount we eat  Sexual Motivation o Sexual motivation= sexual arousal o Masters and Johnson (1966) o 382 women and 312 men; 10,000 orgasms observed o Human sexual responses can be described as consisting of 4 stages o 1. Excitement- longest stages stimulated; both physically and psychologically o 2. Plateau- sexual arousal is intensified o 3. Orgasm- sexual climax during which the building sexual tension is dramatically reduced o 4. Resolution- the body returns to pre-arousal stage o Refractory period: a resisting period after orgasm during which a man cannot reach another orgasm Forces Affecting Motivation  Psychological readiness; imagined stimuli; external stimuli; sexual motivation Need to Belong  Love needs not equivalent to sexual needs  Craig Hill 1987 o Obtain positive stimulation o Receive emotional support o Gain attention o Permit social comparison  Mate seeking o Forming partnership o Buss: research is what men and women look for in mate  Achievement motivation o A desire for significant accomplishment or master of things, ideas, or attaining a high standard


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