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Week of Notes April 7

by: Madeline Notetaker

Week of Notes April 7 Biol 2230-001

Madeline Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes from this week's lecture. There was a test on Tuesday so it only covers information from one class on the urinary system.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. John Cummings
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/07/16
Urinary System Kidneys filter to get rid of metabolic wastes other than CO2 as urine Components | Kidneys (2) {  Each has drainage tube coming off called ureter | Ureters {  Empty into urinary bladder | Urinary bladder {  Storage tank | Urethra *no accessory structures in urinary system- only these structures! Functions | Fluid filtration { Passage of fluid across filtration membrane Functions | Fluid filtration | Regulate blood volume { Liquid component of blood, plasma, how much goes into urine { The only determine bloodo volume Functions | Fluid filtration | Regulate blood volume | Maintains salt/ water balance { By using water Functions | Fluid filtration | Regulate blood volume | Maintains salt/ water balance | Maintains acid/ base balance { Related to the 3 bullets above Functions | Fluid filtration | Regulate blood volume | Maintains salt/water balance | Maintains acid/base balance | Gluconeogenesis {  Kidneys are a site ofgluconeogenesis Functions |  Fluid filtration |  Regulate blood volume |  Maintains salt/water balance |  Maintains acid/base balance |  Gluconeogenesis |  Renin production {  Kidneys produce renin {  Renin is a chemical that will control activity of kidneys Functions |  Fluid filtration |  Regulate blood volume |  Maintains salt/water balance |  Maintains acid/base balance |  Gluconeogenesis |  Renin production |  Erythropoietin production {  Regulates cellular portion of blood Functions |  Fluid filtration |  Regulate blood volume |  Maintains salt/water balance |  Maintains acid/base balance |  Gluconeogenesis |  Renin production |  Erythropoietin production |  Activates vitamin D Kidney Structure: how its made up |  Capsule: Very thin outer layer |  Cortex: The outer region |  Medulla: The central region |  Pelvis: the flattened portion within the kidney that is connected to ureter |  Pyramids: triangular shaped sections; looked striped in pic |  Columns: extension of cortex between pyramids |  form thisyces: minor calyces merge to Hilum= the indentation on side |  Minor calyces: where pyramids empty Supportive Layers | Renal capsule {  Supporting layer that holds kidney all together | Adipose capsule {  Adipose tissue that envelopes kidneys; a cushion for protection, insulator so don’t lose heat *Kidneys are outside | Renal fascia peritoneal cavity= {  Anchoring structure to retroperitoneal hold kidneys to read abdominal wall Nephron (the functional and structural unit of kidney) |  Glomerulus {  A capillary bed with blood vessels; fenestrated so leaks plasma {  Under higher pressure than any other bed in body |  Renal tubule {  glomerulus and collects plasma: sphere that surrounds {  capsule, twistsuted tubule: closest to bowman's {  ascending limbscan be divided into descending and {  Distal convoluted tubule |  Collecting ducts {  A single collection duct can attach to multiple renal tubules |  Renal corpuscle {  The glomerulus and bowman's capsule Types of nephrons | Cortical {  Most of the nephrons (85%) {  Means that most of nephron is in the cortex and only a small part of loop of Henle goes into medulla {  Next to the medulla {  Most of the loop of Henle is *switching between types in medulla, and is longer/ of nephron used changes deepner the concentration of urine {  15% of nephrons formed!! Nephron Vasculature (blood vessels) |  Afferent arteriole {  Takes blood TO the glomerulus |  Efferent arteriole {  Takes blood AWAY from glomerulus |  Glomerulus {  Specialized capillary bed |  Peritubular capillaries {  Regular capillary bed around tubule |  Vasa recta {  peritubular capillaries that surround the tubule in a Juxtamedullary capillary Juxtaglomerular Apparatus | Modification where distal convoluted tubule runs against afferent arteriole { muscle where cells enlarge and gain ability to secrete reninà called juxtaglomerular cells |  mechanoreceptors to detect changes in blood pressure { Distal convoluted tubule cells that function asa densa cells chemoreceptors to detect concentration of filtrate Filtration Membrane |  Fenestrated epithelium {  Holes to leak plasma {  Surrounded by a basement membrane |  Podocytes {  Green thing in pic {  Cells that have extensions called pedicels {  Create filtration slits so that we don’t lose too much |  Basement membrane {  Will not allow large things like proteins to pass through These three things {  Also creates an electrically selective together all create a membrane filtration membrane The process of urine production begins with filtration in glomerulus, filtrate passes through and good stuff is reabsorbed, in case some stuff that we want to get rid of didn’t get filtered they are secreted by the tubule FILTRATE DOES NOT = URINE, IT BECOMES URINE by taking things out and adding to Filtration Pressures |  Glomerular hydrostatic pressure {  Pressure of blood inside glomerulus |  Colloid osmotic pressure of intracapsular space {  Pulls fluid out of circulation into tubule |  Colloid osmotic pressure of glomerular blood {  A resistance {  Large stuff draws fluid back in |  Capsular hydrostatic pressure {  Pushes fluid back in Renal blood flow (RBF) Glomerular filtration rate(GFR)= volume of filtrate produced each minute; combined of all nephrons in both kidneys *look at changes in afferent and efferent arterioles


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