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by: Haley Johnson


Haley Johnson
GPA 3.6

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Detailed notes from APR 5-7
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Lewis Bowman
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Johnson on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 04/07/16
NOTES FROM 4/5 and 4/7 CHAPTER 9 Neurotransmitter Classifications a. Chemical Structure 1. Acetylcholine; mostly motor but some in autonomic (smooth muscles) 2. Biogenic amines- all derived from same amino acid, tyrosine  Dopamine--> norepinephrine  Norepinephrine--> epinephrine; Autonomic nervous system  Epinephrine --> 3. Amino Acids  Glutamate, glycine, GABA 4. Others  Nitric oxide gas (getting and maintaining erections, Viagra) 5. Natural Opiates- reduce our sensations of pain  Endorphins  Enkephalin ` b. Function 1. Excitatory  Acetylcholine is excitatory to skeletal muscle at neuromuscular junction 2. Inhibitory  Acetylcholine is inhibitory to heart c. Receptors 1. Channel linked: direct action, directly cause an open or closed ion channel; ionotrophic neurotransmitters stimulate these 2. G-protein linked: indirect action, can have widespread effects; metabotrophic neurotransmitters stimulate these, second messenger generated 1. Ligand or neurotransmitter binds to receptor 2. Receptor will then activate a G-protein 3. G-protein activates adenylate cyclase 4. Adenylate cyclase forms cAMP (second messenger) 5. cAMP can activate enzymes, effect transcription (synthesis of RNA), effect translation, and effect ion channels I. CHAPTER 11 II. III. Cerebrum  Largest part of the brain  Consists of white matter on inside (covered in myelinated axons) and Grey matter on outside (nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated axons) o Imbedded in internal white matter is more grey matter which are also parts of the cerebrum completely surrounded by white matter  Cerebral cortex- surface; grey matter o Gyrus/gyri- ridges in cerebrum o Sulcus/sulci- small indentations/furrows in cerebrum  Central sulcus- separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe o Fissures- deep furrows in the cerebrum  Longitudinal fissure- separates cerebrum into right and left hemispheres d. Lobes i. Frontal lobe ii. Parietal lobe iii. Occipital lobe iv. Temporal lobe e. Matter . White 1. Consists of tracts (bundles of nerve fibers in CNS) (nerves are bundles of nerve fibers in PNS) a. Projection tracts- carry info from cerebral cortex to other parts of the brain and spinal cord b. Association tracts- connect cerebral cortex within one hemisphere c. Commissural tracts i. Corpus callosum- connects the right and left hemispheres; if damaged, difficulty transferring learning from one side of the brain to the other f. Functions of Cerebral Cortex  Conscious brain- we are aware of a sensation once it reaches the cerebral cortex, also associated with whether you are voluntarily moving a muscle i. Primary motor area- located on pre-central gyrus; for voluntary control of skeletal muscles; ordered in special way for different muscles; motor map ii. Pre motor area- involved in stereotypical/preprogrammed behavior like with typing iii. Primary sensory area- a.k.a. somatosensory motor area- found on the post central gyrus (just posterior to primary motor area); sensation map iv. Visual area- involved in interpreting vision; located on the occipital lobe v. Auditory area- involved with sound; located on temporal lobe vi. Association area- involved in higher level motor activities; located on frontal lobe g. Basal nuclei/ganglia (Grey matter)  Imbedded in cerebrum  Involved in somatic motor functions- inhibits; involved in slow movements  Parkinson's disease does infect the basal nuclei--> tremors h. Olfactory bulbs  Sense of smell IV. Diencephalon  Much smaller than cerebrum  Pretty much completely covered by cerebrum . Thalamus- grey matter; a relay station for motor and sensory neurons a. Hypothalamus- regulates secretions from pituitary gland; connection between nervous and endocrine systems; regulates body temp, water balance, gastrointestinal activity, etc. V. Brain Stem . Midbrain a. Pons b. Medulla oblongata- involved with filtering info; . Reticular formation- controls wakefulness; if it becomes damaged, we go into a coma a. Nuclei of MO 0. Cardiac center: controls rate and force of HR 1. Vasomotor center: regulates blood pressure by controlling smooth muscles that surround blood vessels (pinch garden hose example) 2. Respiratory center: controls rate and depth at which we breathe VI. Cerebellum  Involved in motor activity  Functions below level of consciousness  Coordinates skeletal muscles  If damaged, standing erect and walking are difficult VII. Limbic System . Emotional brain: involves many parts of brain a. Overlay emotions onto activity VIII. Ventricles . Fluid filled, containing cerebrospinal fluid, basically like blood without white or red blood cells has glucose and salts etc. a. Function as protection: provide a soft place to land b. Can deliver some nutrients c. Lateral ventricles (2), one in each hemisphere; imbedded in the cerebrum d. Third ventricle- has lateral wall thalamus, floor is hypothalamus e. Lateral and third ventricles are connected by interventricular foramen f. Fourth ventricle- surrounded by medulla oblongata g. Third and fourth ventricles are connected by cerebra aquaduct h. Central canal- spinal cord I. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)  Choroid plexus (SLIDE 27)- where cerebrospinal fluid is formed; derived from blood, a filtrate of the blood where the red and some other blood cells are filtered out  Ependymal cells- have cilia, move the CSF  CSF is not just found in ventricles, but also in central canal (space in middle of spinal cord); also surrounds the brain and on outside of spinal cord II. Meninges  Meninges- coverings of the brain; meningitis (inflammation of these meninges) b. Dura mater (tough mother)- (outer/most superficial layer) made of fibrous CT; has some various dips c. Arachnoid layer- (just deep to dura mater) adheres to the dura mater; is thin and delicate d. Pia mater(gentle mother)- adheres to the brain  Subarachnoid space- space between arachnoid layer and pia mater; filled with CSF  Dural sinus- large blood vessel  Arachnoid villi- projections of the arachnoid layer into dural sinuses  CSF originally synthesized in choroid plexus--> circulated to ventricles--> subarachnoid space (on outside of brain)--> arachnoid villi--> then finally back into the blood stream at the dural sinuses  Problems with CSF, too much or too little --> hypercephaly, hypocephaly; enlarged ventricles lead to hypocephaly III. Spinal Cord (Chapter 12 cont-8 PP)  Spinal cord itself does not extend to final length of vertebral column, stops at 1st lumbar vertebrae  Filum terminale- connective tissue, connecting bottom of spinal cord to coccyx  Cauda equina- "horses tail"; referring to nerves that have exited bottom part of spinal cord  Spinal cord doesn’t have same diameter all the way down--> cervical enlargement- nerves exiting there are supplying our upper nerves--> lumbar enlargement- spinal nerves that are supplying our lower limbs are exiting here d. Grey matter o Shaped like an H o nerve cell bodies, unmyelinated association neurons o Posterior  dorsal horns--> sensory neurons found here  Dorsal root--> sensory nerve; only nerve in body that contains ONLY sensory nerves (all others in body are mixture of motor and sensory)  Dorsal root ganglia--> contains the nerve cell bodies of sensory neurons o Anterior  Ventral horns--> contains the nerve cell bodies of motor neurons  Ventral root--> entirely motor nerves o Spinal nerve--> where dorsal root and ventral root meet o Lateral horn- lumbar, some in thoracic- autonomic motor neurons e. White matter o consists of various nerve tracts o Divided into columns (SLIDE 7) 1. Posterior- toward the back 2. Lateral- one on each side 3. Anterior- toward the front o Ascending tracts- carry info up spinal cord to brain (sensory info) o Descending tracts- carry info down spinal cord from brain (motor info) o Tracts- sensory pathways;  Ascending- all of these tracts consist of 3 nerves 1. 1st order neuron- receptor in body on surface somewhere; a cell body in the dorsal root ganglia (sense hot or cold or light touch, in toe somewhere) 2. 2nd order neuron- synapse/connect to another neuron either in the spinal cord or in some cases, the medulla; as soon as it synapses, it is going to cross from one side of the CNS to the other; (sensations derived from right side of body, end up going to the left side of the brain and vice versa); will finally go to the thalamus (part of the diencephalon) where it will synapse with 3rd order neuron 3. 3rd order neuron- go to cerebral cortex o Ascending Sensory Pathways . Fasciculus gracilis- muscle position, fine touch primarily from lower limb; first order neuron synapses with second order neuron in medulla a. Lateral spinothalamic- pain, temperature, coarse touch primarily from lower limb; first order neuron synapses with second order neuron in the spinal cord b. All first order neurons switch sides of CNS, go up spinal cord, some first order neurons synapse with second order neuron in spinal cord, some in medulla, all second order neurons synapse with third order neuron in thalamus, and then third order neuron goes to cerebral cortex o Descending Motor Pathways  All cross from one side of CNS to the other  Either 2 or a 3 neuron pathway o Descending tracts  Pyramidal- originate in primary motor area of brain (pre-central gyrus)  Specifically control fast and fine movements (conscious, voluntary)  Extrapyramidal- originate from other areas of the brain in particular the basal nuclei and the cerebellum  Generally control balance, inhibiting motor activity o CHAPTER 13 Spinal reflexes o Brain has nothing to do with it, just with pathway of neurons o Myotactic reflexes- very important for posture o Stretch reflexes- patellar ligament; contraction of hamstrings is inhibited while contraction of quadriceps is stimulated  Patellar reflex o Flexor reflexes- for removal from something harmful o Cross extensor reflex- sense your right leg hits something wrong, your left leg immediately extends out


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