Chapter 9 Notes
Chapter 9 Notes Psychology 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Developmental Psychology • The branch of psychology that explores physical, emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of development • Maturation: the biological unfolding of the organism according to the underlying genetic code • Issue • Details o Nature/Nurture o How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture received) influence our behavior? o Continuity/Stages o Is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? o Stability/Change o Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age? • Cross sectional study: a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another • Longitudinal study: a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Prenatal Stages • Conception: fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm, this union creates a new cell called a zygote o Zygote: contains 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent • Identical twins: develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms • Fraternal twins: develop from separate eggs 1. Ovulation: the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary 2. Ovaries: the female gonads, which secrete the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone and produce mature egg cells 3. Fallopian tube: a straw-like tube between an ovary and the uterus through which an ovum passes after ovulation • Prenatal development is divided into 3 stages o Germinal stage: from fertilization to implantation in call of uterus § Period from fertilization to implantation in wall of uterus (about 14 days) § Organism is called a zygote which is a dividing mass of cells § The zygote slowly migrates up the mother’s fallopian tube to the uterine cavity § The placenta is formed o Embryonic stage: from implantation to about the 8 week of pregnancy § 2 weeks or implantation to 8 week § Organism is now called an embryo § Most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form • Also known as the critical period § Development follows tth general trends o Fetal stage: begins around 9 week and continues until birth § 8 weeks to birth § Organism is called a fetus § Early in this stage, muscles and bones begin to form rd § By the end of the 3 month, gender can be determined and organ systems have formed § And by the 7 month all of the major organs are functional • Environmental Factors o Teratogens: any agent that causes birth defects § Chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus • Possible diseases: rubella (causes heart disease, deafness, and mental retardation) and AIDS (a mother can infect the infant 3 ways) o Maternal nutrition: poor nutrition can cause low birth weight, premature birth, less developed brain, may cause the child to be more vulnerable to diseases, and can lead to spinal bifida o X-ray: prenatal exposure to X rays can disrupt the migration of brain cells, causing mental retardation o Smoking: increased risk for reduced attention span, hyperactivity, childhood asthma, lower IQ, and SIDS o Drugs: virtually all drugs can be harmful to the developing embryo and fetus, with sedatives, narcotics, and cocaine being dangerous o Alcohol: (fetal alcohol syndrome) a cluster of abnormalities that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy, characterized by deformities of the heart, face and fingers, and defective limbs § These children are slower in motor development, lower in intelligence, and possible retardation Infant Development • Sensory abilities in infants o Vision: blurry but can recognize mom’s face, preferences for face-like patterns, by 1 month can visually track a moving object, basic color vision develops by about 2 months, depth perception develops by around 6 months o Hearing: particularly sensitive to sounds within frequency of human voice, can discern mother’s voice from other voices, just hours after birth can differentiate sounds in native language from those in a foreign tongue, by several months can discriminate between various speech sounds o Smell: at 5-6 days can detect mother’s odor, react appropriately to repulsive scents o Taste: can discriminate among different tastes, show preferences for sweetness • Perceptual learning ability in infants o Infants may seem to do little more than sleep, eat, and excrete, but they have more perceptual and learning abilities than many people recognize o Perceptual ability § Not blooming, buzzing confusion of meaningless stimuli at birth § Can begin to make meaningful discriminations among stimuli shortly after birth § By 4-6 months can discriminate among different facial expressions o Learning ability § Able to learn simple responses § Able to retain memories of learned responses § Show memory of faces at 6-7 months • Motor development o Reflexes slowly replaces with voluntary purposive movements § Ex: bringing objects to the mouth, grasping objects o Major landmarks in motor development in the first year: § By about 2 months: able to lift chin § By about 5 months: able to roll over § By about 9 months: sits without support § By about 1 year: stands without support Development in Childhood • Temperament: the “how” of behavior o Three general types § Easy children § Difficult children § Slow-to-warm-up children o Predicts later differences in adjustment o Shaped by both nature and nurture • Attachment: a close, emotional bond between child and caregiver o Does not form immediately after birth o Not the same as “bonding” o Is seen in many animal species, when imprinting occurs o Theories of attachment § Imprinting: the formation of a strong bond of the newborn animal to the first moving object seen after birth § Harlow’s surrogate mother experiments: monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother; pointing to a strong attachment and need for contact comfort § Mary Ainsworth: secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant, disorganized/disoriented • Child rearing influences o Many factors influence a child’s development, including peers, parents, siblings, authority figures, and genetics o The important influence of fathers o Cultural differences in parenting • Keys to becoming an authoritative parent o Rely on reason, not force o Show warmth o Listen to children’s opinions o Set mature but reasonable expectations • Stages of personality o Erik Erikson proposed a stage theory of psychosocial development § Stage theories assume that individuals progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous one § They also assume that progress through the stages is strongly related to age and that development is marked by major discontinuities or abrupt shifts that bring about dramatic changes in behavior Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget developed a theory • Sensorimotor stage o Object permanence: the recognition that objects continue to exist even if they have disappeared from sight • Conservation: the ability to recognize that the quantity or amount of an object remains constant despite superficial changes in its outward appearance o Conservation tasks: used to evaluate whether a child developed the principle of conservation • Assimilation: the process of incorporating new objects or situations into existing schemas • Accommodation: the process of creating new schemas or modifying existing ones to account for new objects or experiences Adolescence • The period of life beginning at puberty and ending with early adulthood • Puberty: the stage of development at which individuals become physiologically capable of reproducing • Menarche: the first occurrence of menstruation • Physical development o Primary sex characteristic: body structures that make sexual reproduction possible o Secondary sexual characteristics: the non-reproductive traits also develop § Breasts and hips in girls, facial hair and deepening of voice in boys • Effect of timing of puberty: boys o Early maturation: athletic advantages, more positive self-esteem o Later maturation: less popular, subject of ridicule or becoming socially ostracized, more likely to engage in deviant social behavior • Effects of early maturation tend to affect boys and girls differently • Effect of timing of puberty: girls o Early maturation: unwelcome sexual attention, feels that no longer “fits in” with peers, lower self-esteem, more negative body image, more emotional and substance-abuse problems • Cognitive development o Piaget’s formal operations stage o Adolescent egocentrism § Imaginary audience § Personal fable
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