psyc 3120 chapter 15 lecture notes
psyc 3120 chapter 15 lecture notes PSYC 3120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Lecture 15 notes April 7, 2016 Chapter 15: Middle Adulthood Physical & Cognitive Development Life Expectancy o Americans = 76 years o Middle life = 38 o What defines middle age? o Roughly define as the period from 40-65 years that many people first face visible reminders that time is passing. o Period when many individuals are at the highest of their capabilities Sensory and physical Changes o Vision o Glaucoma o a condition in which pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much is produced. o If left untreated will result in blindness. o Can be treated with medication or surgery o Presbyopia o loss of near vision. o leads to the need of reading glasses or bifocals o Floaters o tiny spots, specks, flecks and "cobwebs" that drift aimlessly around in your field of vision. o annoying, but very common and usually aren't cause for alarm. o appear when tiny pieces of the eye's gel-like vitreous break loose within the inner back portion of the eye. o Dry Eye o chronic and typically progressive condition. o Depending on its cause and severity, it may not be completely curable. o most cases, dry eyes can be managed successfully, usually resulting in noticeably greater eye comfort, fewer dry eye symptoms, and sometimes sharper vision as well. o Cataracts o clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. o most common cause of vision loss in people over age 40 and is the principal cause of blindness in the world o The decline of visual acuity o Starts around 40 Lecture 15 notes April 7, 2016 o Visual acuity= the ability to discern fine detail o Hearing o Changes begin at 30 o Loss of hair cells (cilia) in the inner ear o Ear drum becomes less elastic o Presbycusis o Age related hearing loss • High frequency hearing goes first o Men are more prone than women o Taste & Smell o Taste buds replaced at a slower rate after 40 o Smell receptors deteriorate o Reaction time o Some increase in reaction time (taking longer to react) but usually not a very noticeable difference o From age 20-60, 20% increase on simple tasks o Less of an increase on complex tasks o Driving • Middle adulthood have fewer accidents than 20 year old drivers o Appearance o Physical changes occurs though out lifespan o Changes in middle adulthood may have more significance o People don’t want these changes they want to stay young (not all cultures are like this) o Double standard o Men like it, it’s a value for them o Women has more of a negative connotation o Delaying unwanted changes o Healthy diet, regular exercise, no smoking, minimal drinking • Leads to better health, help with body composition, improve strength/endurance, maintain neural function, less stress, lower risk of heart disease/osteoporosis o Body Composition o Proportion of muscle to fat o Muscles begin to atrophy o Osteoporosis • a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet. • found in females more than males • Can reduce risk by maintaining a diet high in calcium & exercising regularly Lecture 15 notes April 7, 2016 o Strength gradually decreases • By age 60, people have lost about 10% of their maximum strength o Hormones o Human growth hormone (HGH) declines § HGH= produced by the pituitary gland, spurs growth in children and adolescents. Also helps to regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function o Sex hormones Decline § Testosterone= men § Estrogen= women o Female Climacteric o Transition from being able to bear children to not o Average age 47-52 • May last 15-20 years o Identifiable signs • Irregular periods, hot flashes, heart palpitations, dizziness o Only 10% report these severe symptoms o Hot flashes hit black people harder • Not all cultures experience these • Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) o 1 choice in treating climacteric symptoms o reduce risk of heart disease, bone loss, stroke, colon cancer o may increase risk of breast cancer and blood clots o not for everyone. Depends on the individual o Perimenopause • Hormone related changes in the body • As early as 10 years before menopause o Menopause • Cessation of menstruation o 40-60 years • Reproduction after Menopause o Age of becoming a mother is more flexible § Average age of new moms is 26-49 (up from 23-25 in 1970) § Seen all over the world o New reproductive methods § Egg donation, freezing eggs and implanting later, etc o Controversial issue due to the risks Lecture 15 notes April 7, 2016 § Advantages • Mom is more responsible • More money to take care of child • Career is in place • Better educated • Better equipped and prepared to deal with baby care, health concerns § Disadvantages • Greater risk of chromosomal abnormalities • Greater chance of miscarriage after 40 • Difficulties conceiving • Hypertension diabetes o Male Climacteric o Period of change in male reproductive system • Typically 50-59 but there is no exact start • Men can still father children throughout life span o Specific changes • Decline in sperm count and testosterone • Enlarged prostate (causes issues with urination) • Erectile dysfunction Middle Age and Sexuality o Sexual activity does not fade away for most middle age adult o Frequency declines but doesn’t disappear. It continues to be important o Middle aged adults have more freedom for sexual enjoyment o Children are out of the house, more time to be with themselves, less self conscious, less concern with pregnancy o Difficulties o Erectile dysfunction in men o Pain during sex with women Health in Middle Age o Period of relatively good health , most report few to no health problems/disabilities o Compared to younger coherts they are at less risk for infection, allergies, respiratory disease & digestive issues o Due to immunity & more health conscious o Health concerns become increasingly important Lecture 15 notes April 7, 2016 o Some adults are particularly susceptible to chronic diseases (last a long time, have to be managed) o Arthritis, diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure) Reasons for individual variation o Factors that contribute o Lifestyle is important for reducing risks o Genetics § Hypertension à runs in families o Socioeconomic Status/environment § Lower SES means more availability & health problems § African Americans have twice the death rate of Caucasians § Low SES • More apt to experience a disabling illness § Low SES • More dangerous occupations & are more likely to become dangerous o Type A o Hostile, competitive, multitasking, very driven o Type D o Very distressed, experience more depression, chronologically blue, early death, increase risk for developing cardiovascular issues Cognitive Development o Multiple kinds of intelligence o Crystalized § General information, skill, strategies you inquire, procedural stuff you learn, acquired with experience § Typically no decline, if anything it increases o Fluid § Processing reasoning, memory, harder to “see” § Decline in memory o Why do we see changes? o Brain functioning changes o Genes involved in memory, learning, mental flexibility (being able to switch between tasks) begin to function less efficiently 40 o Changes increases ones competence in their career o Middle aged adults come to hold some of the most influential position in society o How do we explain this? § Are we not measuring what’s involved in in someone’s competence Lecture 15 notes April 7, 2016 § Maybe successful don’t represent everyone § Competence isn’t hard to attain, can pick up anything you practice over and over § Middle adults are just really good at what they do o Competence leads to expertise § Defined set of skills, developed over time
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