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The Cell

by: Cierra Beyers

The Cell ANAT-A215

Marketplace > Anatomy > ANAT-A215 > The Cell
Cierra Beyers
GPA 4.05
Basic Human Anatomy
Steve Dougherty

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About this Document

These notes follow the lecture covering The Cell.
Basic Human Anatomy
Steve Dougherty
One Day of Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Monday February 2, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to ANAT-A215 at a university taught by Steve Dougherty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 190 views.

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Date Created: 02/02/15
Basic Cell Composition Plasma membrane Cell membrane surrounds cell and gives it form 0 It is selectively permeable Determined by size charge and solubility of molecule Regulates movement of material in out of cell Determines what goes in and out of the cell Structure 2 layers of phospholipids with proteins scattered throughout One layer faces external environment and the other faces the internal environment I Proteins in membrane or oat on surface Many different functions I Glycoproteins proteins with carbohydrates attached Functions I Passive Transport no energy Diffusion some SMALL materials may diffuse pass through the cell membrane Based on concentration difference I Active Transport energy required Large particles must be transported actively Exocytosi process by which materials EXIT the cell 0 Materials are packages within vesicles small sacs o Vesicles fuse with cell membrane and release contents outside of cell Endocytosi process by which we get materials into the cell 0 Phagocytosis cell eatingquot ingestion of large particles I Moves membrane 0 Pinocytosis cell drinkingquot ingestion of uid and small particles I Cell membrane indents o Receptormediated endocytosis substances bind to receptors where the membrane is indented coated pit and a clathrin protein coated vesicle is formed I Very specific 0 Specializations of plasma membrane I Microvilli nonmotile do not move helps to increase surface area Typical of cells in the digestive system I Cilia motile move substances over the surface of stationary cells Typically moving mucus I Flagellum motile whip like structure that moves cell Cytoplasmic Organelles o Mitochondrion I Makes ATP adenosine triphosphate energy molecule 0 Ribosomes Involved in protein synthesis synthesis production I Free ribosomes makes proteins for the cell I Ribosomes attached to ER make proteins for export o Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of tubules used to transport a synthesis materials I Rough ER has ribosomes on walls Transports and modified proteins I Smooth ER no ribosomes Synthesizes lipids mainly steroids Has enzymes that detoxifies drugs and alcohol common in liver 0 Golgi apparatus several Cshape sacs near the nucleus I Packages material for secretion exocytosis I Forms lysosomes o Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes I Enzymatically breaks down internalized material and old organeHes I garbage menquot of the cell 0 Centrioles needed for cell division Nucleus 0 Nuclear Envelope nuclear membrane it has nuclear pores and is selectively permeable primarily size I 4 layers of phospholipids I Porous I DNA 0 Nucleolus contains protein and RNA I Concentration of RNA 0 Chromatin coiled mass of DNA 12 wrapped around proteins 12 I Typically in nondividing cell I DNA wraps around histones clumps of proteins DNA deoxyribonucleic acid COMPOSITION amp REPLICA TION OF DNA I It is made up of nucleotides each consists of phosphate group sugar and base I Shape double helix I Prior to cell division the DNA unzips 0 Free nucleotides will attach to the two halfladders forming two identical DNA strands replication Answer is E


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