COM 202 week 2 notes
COM 202 week 2 notes COM 202A
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Thursday April 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 202A at University of Washington taught by Malcolm Parks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications II in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/07/16
Week 2 Lecture 3 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 Our Brains have two systems for interpreting messages 1. System 1 vs System 2 2. "Dual Process" theories of persuasion Example questions 1. Steve is shy, withdrawn, always helpful, but has little interest in people or reality. He is meek and tidy and has a need for structure and passion for detail. Is Steve more likely to be a librarian or farmer? Answer: He is more likely to be a farmer because statistically, there are more farmers than librarians Lesson: we ignore baseline information like the standard size of groups we are evaluating 2. The cost of a donut and coffee is $1.10. The coffee is $1.00 more than the donut. How much does the donut cost? Answer: 5 cents. 5 cents for donut + $1.05 for the coffee = $1.10 total Lesson: this question takes advantage of our want to keep things simple 3. Linda is outgoing, witty, and bright. She is a UW grad in philosophy and interested in social justice. She has also participated in anti-war demonstrations. Which is more likely? a. Linda is a bank teller b. Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement Answer: a. Linda is more likely to be just a bank teller because adding an additional criteria narrows the pool Lesson: This question takes advantage of our stereotypes Two systems our brains use to process information System 1- Automatic evaluation based on pre-set assumptions 1. Instinctive, automatic mental programming based on stereotypes and pre-existing assumptions and beliefs 2. Happens almost instantaneously 3. Mental shortcuts that aren't questioned or examined a. Our stereotypes about librarians b. Our quick and simple math c. Our stereotypes about feminists System 1- the largely automatic level of information processing that has evolved to help us respond quickly- shared with other animals System 2- Slower, more effortful, deliberate processing 1. What we mean when we think about thinking 2. Can over-ride the errors of system 1 3. But it is slow, takes effort, and not automatically triggered 1. These are all limitations we share 2. We can only make corrections once you're aware of the assumptions and stereotypes 3. Knowing the limitations helps, so does knowing others shared limitations Positive steps You can use mental reminders How common is each choice generally in the world? - Farmers vs librarians (baseline information) Slow down and do the math What are the exceptions to my stereotypes? Could the opposite be true? - the humility factor More practical applications: persuading others more effectively The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (ELM) Richard Petty and John Cacioppo (1986) Two pathways- Peripheral (system 1) and central (system 2) Is my listener motivated to process my message in depth? ↓ Yes → System 2 is at work Help the listener by eliminating disractions Prompt listener to bring in prior knowledge Use logical arguments supported by evidence This is used in public speaking and debate- classic persuasion Is my listener motivated to process my message in depth? ↓ no → System 1 is at work Portray yourself as an expert Focus on being attractive Phrase your message in terms of stereotypes and mental shortcuts Appeal to listener's emotions Make it easy for other's to respond the way you wish EX: Magazine renewal form "3 years (18 issues) $36.00- Best Deal!" Takes advantage of system 1 Bold letters, top of the list Daniel Kahneman's book: Thinking, Fast, and Slow System 2 is slow and hard. When possible take advantage of the receiver's tendency to fall back on the simpler system 1 How? a. Make your messages vivid, bright, shiny, unusual, memorable b. Avoid complex language. Try not to sound too smart. Sound like your listener c. Use rhythm and rhyme whenever possible EX: Nation Wide jingle featuring Peyton Manning d. If you quote a source- choose one with a name that’s easy to pronounce and memorable EX: fundraising groups addressing general letters specifically to you e. Draw on listener's stereotypes whenever possible EX: elections- how do candidates draw on stereotypes? How the names we give or the words we chose can shape our experience of a person, product, or experience Example game Write the first five words that come into your head when you see a specific word Compare with the person next to you and see how many matches you get for each specific word Love- 2 matches Trump- 0 matches Lesson: meanings are in people- set associations in words These examples illustrate four important ideas 1. Each word, each perception instantaneously triggers a set of associations in the brain (system 1) It happens rapidly We have little conscious control over it 2. These associations don’t reveal inner secrets, but they do show the other words and ideas that are most easily available to you once you think of the first word or idea 3. No two people will have exactly the same set of associations (though there may be some overlaps) Overlaps are more common when people have closer longer relationships Overlaps are common among people who share the same culture and same pattern of media consumption 4. The associations you have for a particular word or idea are part of your meaning for it Affective meaning- words are feelings We have words about feelings Most words provoke feelings and create emotional responses Whenever you encounter a word, person, or object you assign meaning along three dimensions 1. Evaluative: good ←→ bad 2. Potency: strong ←→ weak 3. Activity: activ←→ passive Think of this as a 3 dimensional space You can map the affective meanings of nearly anything Good Bad Semantic differential scales Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good Weak 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strong Passive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Active Sources seek to take advantage of our automatic, emotional associations 1. By using names of associations linked to positive meanings Ex: Weight watchers stock value jumps 20% when Oprah Winfrey endorses it in January 2016 commercial (up 90% since she bought 10% of the company in October 2015) 2. Advertisers and marketers often just make up names that feel good emotionally but don't really mean anything Guide to naming an apartment Pick one from this column Meadow Village Mountain Lake Oak Forest Then add one from this column Glen Ridge Manor Estates View Garden Then add "Apartments" 3. Little things matter when creating positive emotional associations Namebase.com a. Use sounds that require the speaker to open the mouth wider EX: Omega b. Pick a name that has a "plosive" sound EX: Prozac, puma, fiesta Bestselling trucks are Ford F-series, Dodge Ram, and Toyota Tacoma 4. Use positive associations to distract customers from facts that would make your product look bad if they thought about it EX: Coke introduces "handheld" new size of coke in 2011 Aimed at convenience store market Claims they were sensitive to hard economic times If you think about it, the name doesn’t make sense Consider price: 12.5 oz for 89 cents when 16 oz goes for 99 cents New 12.5 oz bottle is 7.1 cents per oz but the 16 oz bottle is 6.2 cents per oz. that's a 15% price increase The word "Nike" estimated value of $7 billion Apple brand itself has an estimate worth of $124 billion Almost half of apple's market capitalization Half of the value of apple is bound up in its trademarks Week 2 Lecture 4 Thursday, April 7, 2016 Language: meaning and change We are made of words Humans are the language animals 1. Other animals communicate 2. But human language- in its richness, variety, and flexibility- seems to be unique Today's topics 1. When did humans develop language? 2. What is language anyway? 3. Levels within language 4. What does language do? 5. How does language change? Origins of language Engraving (Blombos cave South Africa) - 77,000 BP No one is certain, but our best guess is that symbolic representations started about 50,000 years ago 35,000 BP- Venus figure discovered in 2008 in a cave in Germany Brain Evolution a. Specialized brain centers associated with language develop in this period (Broca's and Wernicke's areas) b. FOXP2 gene suggests it may be associated with language- speculation of the mutation of this gene 50,000 years ago Growing social and cultural complexity of this period would also have encouraged language- living in larger groups and more complex relationships Brain evolution and social complexity come together to create language What is language anyway All language communicates but not all communication is linguistic Definition of language- A collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate Five characteristics of language 1. Language is symbolic- it refers to or represents something else that it does not resemble Ex: the word bottle doesn't look like a bottle- words are symbols that stand for something else 2. Humans share a universal grammar that enables language acquisition among the very young- babies come hardwired to learn language Still helps language grow if it is encouraged, modeled, and practiced 3. Language allows the generation of an infinite variety of messages within a rule-governed system (grammar)- no limit to correct sentences 4. Language lets us communication about things not in the here and now: (temporal and spatial displacement) This creates: a. Social coordination- ability to work together in complex ways b. Group cohesion- feel a part of a group c. Deception- its not a language if you cant use it to tell a lie - create false reality Ex: recalling the past, planning the future 5. Language works in conjunction with nonverbal codes to facilitate multi-faceted, even self- contradictory messages a. Irony b. Strategic ambiguity/ equivocation c. Conflicted messages Four levels of language 1. Phonetic- the sounds of language- every language has a distinct set of sounds 2. Semantic- words and word meanings Pairing two things: inner meanings and arbitrary symbols We pair a symbol with some inner idea we want it to refer to EX: For her "dog" is the symbol and that actual fuzzy white puppy- the referent- the thing she refers to- puppy For him, he may think of "dog" as "dawg" and think of the husky mascot- the referent- the thing he refers to - husky This pairing process is called semiosis and the study of it is called semiotics Semiotics- the study of how we connect symbols and meanings Denotative vs connotative meanings a. Denotative meanings- the most used, most agreed upon meaning for a word, like dictionary definitions b. Connotative meanings- personalized meaning for a word, a meaning that reflects an identity and experience. The receiver's connotative meaning will be different than the sender's EX: sex- we all have different ideas of what sex means to us based on experiences, media consumption, learned ideas that differ from the dictionary definition EX: Coca-Cola is one of the most widely known symbols in the world and means different things to different people and have different associations with the company or product 3. Syntactic a. Grammar: set of rules and patterns for forming words into larger thought units like phrases and sentences Learning to diagram sentence structures will make you a better writer and thinker b. Word order matters "I am going tomorrow" vs "Am I going tomorrow?" Same words different order and different meaning Grammar is about more than the order of words It is more about the relationships among speaker, listener, objects, and actions- Grammar connects them all a. Consider this phrase: "I love her cooking" How many different interpretations can you give this? I love what she cooks I love that she cooks I love being there as she cooks Could be in a sarcastic tone When you re-interpret, you change the grammar b. Two lessons: Interpretation involves more than just words We often leave out important aspects of grammar when talking Knowing grammar helps interpret ambiguous messages 4. Pragmatic- refers to the way our use of language is affected by the social situation we are in Summary Phonetic- sounds we use Semantics- the words we use and what they mean Syntactic- Organization of words to phrases and sentences- Grammar Pragmatics- how we use language in different social situations What does language do a. Language is our primary tool for influencing others b. Language is a primary tool for social bonding- how the words change our relationship Examples: wedding vows, pledge of allegiance, citizenship, ceremonies, membership c. Language also shapes the way we think and remember We often remember "in words" that is, organize our memories as language d. Language also influences the way we think and perceive- makes some things more visible than others Linguistic determinists- your language determines and controls the way you think- Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis EX: Inuit (Eskimo) having 100 words for snow- Myth btw- If there is no word for it, we don't see it or perceive it Today, researchers generally believe that language influences but does not rigidly determine or control perception (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis incorrect) Three things language does Influence perceptions, help social bonding, influence how we think and remember Language is ALIVE- responding to changes in culture over time Languages split into different languages, converge to create new languages 1. Fueled by migration, isolation, invasion, colonization, travel, communication- as the world becomes more inter-connected, languages become more shared 2. The result is that there are between 6,000 and 7,000 languages being spoken in the world today and there are many in danger of extinction Language families- many languages share common origins and create families Some are small- The Khoisan family includes about 30 languages with 100,000 speakers in Southern Africa Some are large- The Sino-Tibetan family The Indo-European family includes about 150 languages and has 3 billion speakers Language with the most speakers: Indo-European Language with the most countries: English Due to modern geo-politics, English speaking countries are often world powers Language with the most people speaking: Mandarin Chinese with 1.2 billion people That's more than Spanish 329 million, English 328 million, and Arabic 221 million combined First language class survey Language Class percentage English 68.9% Chinese 18.2% Korean 3.2% Spanish 1.8% Vietnamese 1.8% Arabic 0.4% Other 5.7% Dialects- a form of a language that shares much with the standard language but differs in many ways (more than accents) Speakers of different dialects will sometimes have difficulty understanding each other EX: "Black English" African American Vernacular English (AAVE) Appalachian English Sometimes dialects evolve into different languages- French and Italian come from dialects of Latin Different words and different grammar Ways language adapts or changes to fit a large group in a certain region What's the difference btw language and dialects Not just having different words or pronunciation No clear line between dialect and language Calling something a dialect is about politics and culture as much as language "He been done work" vs "he finished work earlier" People who view "Black English" as poor English make a political judgement Comes down to power Linguist Max Weinreich (1945) "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy" Language ↓ Family ↓ Dialect Regional influences Sometimes regional influences become dialects Ex: Appalachian English More likely if the region is isolated There are many smaller regional differences or regionalisms EX: different ways to say carbonated beverage like soda, pop, dope, coke, pepsi or different ways to say sandwich like sub, torpedo, croissant, bagel Jargon and technical talk Specialized language used to facilitate discussion on technical issues Legal, professional, business, sports Two good things about jargon 1. Makes communication more precise 2. Enhances group cohesion- sense of belonging when you use the same jargon Specialized relationship talk works much the same way as jargon Special nick names, insults, words and phrases, inside jokes Makes communication more precise Enhances bonding in a relationship Slang and colloquialisms informal language used by people who belong to the same group or share an interest. Sharing slang reinforces group membership- who's in, who's not Difficult to separate sometimes from technical jargon- but generally less precise, more informal
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