COMM1025-Chapter 1 Lecture Notes
COMM1025-Chapter 1 Lecture Notes Comm1025
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Comm1025 at George Washington University taught by Jean Costanza Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Rhetoric 2415 914 PM What is rhetoric o the study of the available means of persuasionquot What is the purpose of the ART of rhetoric Ancient Greece 0 Means of persuasion o The study of communication was called rhetoric and the teachers of communications were called rhetoricians 0 Ban on lawyers 0 People had to argue their case themselves 0 Sophists wisdom expertsquot o Emerged in response to the need for lawyers 0 Professional speech teachers 0 Teaching the tricks of persuasive speaking 0 Professional speech writers and political consultants Corax and Tisias o Sicilian Greeks Their story demonstrates the study of communication is always prompted by practical problems 0 First teachers 466BC 0 Teaching to speak in court Tisias studied ways in which speakers could effectively order their ideas Corax saw that many litigants weren t equipped to argue their court cases persuasively 0 Parts of a speech 0 PURPOSE 2 schools developed 5th century BC 0 Gorgias Sicillian School 0 it isn tquot nothing exists so no truth 0 Both sides wrong requires deception o Euepeia beautiful speech 0 Protagorus Ionian School 0 man is the measure of all thingsquot 0 both sides are right requires demonstration o Orthoepeia accurate speech 0 PURPOSE Plato early 4005 0 concepts are unchanging and can be knownquot truth exists 0 2 works on rhetoric o The Gorgias claimed to be false art Claimed rhetoric was like tricking people to believe things Use a beautiful speech to carry the audience with us to deceive them everything s illusion anyway 0 An art can be directed to soul OR body SOUL BODY Remedial Prescriptive Remedial Prescriptive True Justice Legislation Medicine Gymnast Art False Rhetoric Sophistic Cookery Cosmetics Art O o The Phaedrus 20 years later claimed rhetoric as true art of soul leadingquot changes his mind and added a new ethical dimension to rhetoric o Knows its object soul and its types 0 Has method and theory adaptation o Practiced for benefit of its object the soul which means its rhetoric is o What is the key shift in rhetorical theory perpetrated by Plato Rhetoric is a true art because it is practiced ethically practiced to benefit the soul Aristotle 384322 BC 0 Founded the Lyceum rhetoric school became known as the Peripatetic School 0 Student of Plato and attended Plato s Academy 0 Major work The Rhetoric 0 Functional approach what does on D0 to persuade o What do we actually do to persuade What are the functions a speaker must serve 0 As opposed to Plato who take a philosophical approach 0 5 Canons functions 0 invenUon to come up with an idea to present taking a topic and discovering the things you can say about it almost more discovery than invention 0 arrangement organization the structure of the speech the speech has parts intro argument conclusion etc style the words and language you will use be clear and be appropriatequot memory memorizing the speech mnemonic devices like picturing walking through a house and designating certain topics to certain rooms delivery speak clearly enough so people can understand you definition of rhetoric o rhetoric is a power concerning each thing of observing all available means of persuasion o observing in any given case the available means of persuasionquot two forms of proof rhetoric is about demonstrating the truth of things 0 inartistic laws witnesses contracts etc doesn t take much artistry u find a witness contract oath etc I evidence the speaker can bring in but they don t create 0 O O o artistic ethos personal character a you will be more believable if people find you credible a speaker should let the audience know they are knowledgeable and credible a good sense know what you re talking about good morals honest sincere and good will speaking for the benefit of your audience pathos ability to arouse emotions I Aristotle would say if you appeal to people only on the basis of emotion then that is unethical 0 Also not the most effective like the animal cruelty commercials n A speaker needs to set the right emotional tone for the audience logos wording and logic of the message a logos translates as the word more about the content of the speech 0 where you make your argument and present your argument and use reasoning etc a through ethos he was the first to establish source credibility 0 most effective persuasion uses all of these forms of proof Cicero 10643 BC Rhetoric as branch of Politics 0 Didn t think it was as important as platoAristotle did 0 Focused on knowing your audience and adapting what you say to make an impression on them 0 Roman politician Rome s finest orator Wrote on communication theory 0 5 functional activities canons were established by Aristotle that Cicero used 0 invenUon process of deciding on the subject matter and discovering information and arguments leading to sound conclusions 0 style selecting the appropriate words to convey the message more about language than delivery develops theory of style a plain ethos convincing audience of speaker s good character a middle logos impressing audience with soundness of speaker s argument a full or vigorous pathos eloquent and emotional Cicero warned people not to use this style without elements of the other ones o Arrangement Ways to order ideas effectively Intro statement of purpose presentation of arguments conclusion Organize according to audience needs and goals 0 Memory Ability to hold content style and arrangement Science of mnemonics developed a Visualize a villa with each main argument in a different room Developed by Simonides 0 Delivery Pleasing voice and graceful gestures needed for effect Importance of nonverbal communication Quintilian 0 Last of the classical theorists 0 He was a teacher and focused on forming the perfect orator and most persuasive person and creating good menquot 0 Rhetoric seen as the good man speaking wellquot 0 Focus on legal and political discourse Medieval 4001400 0 No longer search for truth but to instruct the faithful 0 Due to the rise of Christianity and the church Rhetoric takes back seat to theology 0 Not so much about finding truth arguments and proofs but instructing people to follow the church 0 St Augustine around 400 0 Because scripture is true we shouldn t have to use persuasion or any tools that are seen as trickery C Says its ok to have wisdom and eloquence Why should wisdom have to go unarmed against falsehood when those speaking falsehood use persuasion 0 Signs create associations in the mind Smoke is a sign of fire we associate the two High Middle Ages 11001400 around the time of Shrek 0 Preservation of classical tradition 0 Less focus on theory 0 Not further developing theory but applying it to letters and preaching Adaptation of theory to more focus on practical artsquot 0 Letter writing Think of Shrek lots of letter writing Communication between kingdoms and everyone 0 Preaching Theory of sermonic a People writing sermons are using the same skills of the classical period Renaissance about 14001700 0 Preservation of classical tradition Application rhetorical principles to education models for composition 0 Teaching people to write 0 Whole education system revolves around this 0 The teacher you see when you re young is called the grammarian but you graduate to the rhetorician Prescriptive not theoretical o How to do things and applying it to writing as opposed to adding to the theories Modern 17001900 enlightenment 0 Classical preservation Psychological rise of faculty psychology scientific o 4 faculties faculty refers to elements of the mind understanding fancy a the imagination dreaming up things a if something is fancible its imaginative passion a part of us that s based on our emotions will u drives motivations belletristic related to beauty appreciating speech as an art form 0 artistic approach to drama poetry oratory and appreciating them as beautiful 0 elocutionary o presentation delivery elaborate system for display of emotion 0 models and diagrams telling you how to position your body and gesture to be most effective Contemporary rhetorical studies 0 humanistic approach focus on history and literature 0 historicalcritical methods look at a historical situation in the context and how can someone address that context to be most effective Critique speeches to see if they re effective and why 0 interest in how symbolic activity shapes public response how it influences society social constructionist approach 0 communication science 0 use scientific method 0 interest in how different variables affect communication psychological models Examples from advice of the ancients 1 Gorgias powerful direct effect Rhetoric is shooting it into you and making you believe 0 2 Cicero discussion of style knowing your audience 0 3 Aristotle 3 modes of persuasion 4 Quintilian good manquot 0 5 Plato early Plato thinks rhetoric is trickery 2415 914 PM 2415 914 PM 2415 914 PM
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