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Date Created: 02/03/15
Biology and the Practice of Science Saturday January 10 2015 759 PM MCB 181R Spring 2015 Instructor Dr S Jorstad Biology and the Practice of Science Learning Goals explain cell theory and be able to discuss the details of Louis Paste experiments on spontaneous generation Fig 12 describe the relationships between the terms quottheoryquot quothypothesisquot and quotfactquot as they are used in science de ne quotevolution theoryquot and explain its role in the study of biology articulate the ways in which science differs from other ways of undeI world Definitions Biology and the Practice of Science 11 What does it mean to say something is alive Characteristics of life 1 Energy to stay alive and reproduce organisms have to acquire and use energy a Plants absorb sunlight UFS quotpredictionquot rstanding the b Animals ingest food 2 Cells Organisms are made up of membrane bound units A cells membrane mg of materials between exterior and interior spaces 3 Information Organisms process hereditary or genetic information that are encolt Organisms also respond to info from the environment and adjust to maintain sta conditions a Cells through yourbody are using information to make the molecules that As well as your eyes and brain decoding information while reading Also cells send mes brain letting you know if your too hot resulting in sweat to cool yourbody down 4 Replication Almost everything an organism does continues to replication 5 Evolution Organisms are a product of evolution and their populations continue1 12 The Cell Theo 1 a Hooke and fellow scientists articulates the pattern component b Rudolph Virchow added the process component by stating that from re existin cells 2 a DanNin and Wallace proposed that the characteristics of a species 02 from generation i DanNin called this process decent with modification Pasteur39s Experiments and theories Cell Theory In the case of cell theory one of the hypotheses tested was come from preexisting cells ie they do not arise from nonliving mater spontaneous generation Louis Pasteur did a series of experiments totes hypotheses Hypothesis One cells arise spontaneously from nonliving material Hypothesis Two cells come from preexisting cells Fig 12 Question Do cells arise spontaneously or from other cells Spontaneous generation hypothesis Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving materials AllcelIsfromcells hypothesis Cells are produced only when preexisting cells grow and divide In nnnnnnnnnnn Aum n n amp I l k n amp an n k 4 n A A h A A lnnll ll D n n L A u A u n n um A n amp I l k n n n n A A L A A 6 I n n ll ilates the passage led in genes ble internal keep you alive sages to your 0 evolve all cells arise an be modified that all cells 39ial such as by t opposing such as broth 39 FHSLCUI URPUI Illlelll Wllll Sllalglll lleUKUU quot65 UI I39HSLUUI Blpb39lllllelll Wllll SWGII39IIUUKBU quot55 T 1 Place nutrient broth in 7 1 1 Place nutrient broth in straightnecked flask v swannecked flask I a x Q Q 1 1 Water vapor 2 Boil to sterilize the eSQaPeS 7 2 Boil to sterilize the 7 flask killing any living 37 flask killing any living Water vapor cells that were In the 39 cells that were In the escapes bmthl 1 r broth i 39 i i H Condensation settles in neck Cells395 7 3f 3 Preexisting cells v I ceus39 3 Preexisting cells enter flask from air from air are trapped V x I in swan neck on m Prediction of spontaneous generation hypothesis Prediction of spontaneous generation hypothesis Cells will appear in broth Cells will appear in broth Prediction of allcelIsfromcells hypothesis Prediction of allcellsfromcells hypothesis Cells will appear in broth Cells will not appear in broth Resuns 9 I Broth fills with cells 397 Broth remains sterile V a Spontaneous generation Both hypotheses supported Km hypothesis rejected Conclusion Cells arise only from preexisting cells not spontaneously from nonliving material Copyright it 2008 Pearson Benjamin Cummings All rights reserved 9 Idea Why is it important that Pasteur varied only one aspect of his experi it have mattered to the strength of his conclusion if he had not boiled botr same temperature Or if he had used a glass ask for one broth and a 06 the other Would both asks need to be in the same environment Or wt used different types of broth for each 9 Although it may not seem so on the surface cell theory is closely relate evolutionary theory because if all cells are descended from preexisting members of a population of singlecelled organisms share common ance all the cells in your body are descended from the single zygote fertilized which you began That zygote is the product of your mother39s egg and yo sperm each of which in turn is descended from their parents39 cells and s on wa back in time 13 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection What is Evolution Evolution a change of characteristics of a population over time 2 Species are NOT independent and unchanging entities but ARE related to one iment Would I broths at the aramic ask for at if he had ed to 3 cells all stry Similarly egg from ur father39s o forth on and another and CAN change through time Pattern Species are related by common ancestry ProcessCharacteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation Alslt with modification What is Natural Selection Two conditions of natural selection Darwin and Wallace proposing a process called NATURAL SELECTION explains H occurs 1 Individuals within a population vary in characteristics that a heritable traits that c to offspring A population is defined as a group of individuals of the same specie same area at the same time 2 In a certain environment certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals reproduce more than other versions Insight Natural selection acts on individualsbut evolutionary change occurs in p Fitness and adaptation Fitness the ability of an individual to produce viable off spring High Fitness Production of many surviving off spring Adaptation a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular in envf Therefore we can conclude l The cell is the fundamental structural unit in all organisms 2 All species are related by common ancestry and have changed over time in respo selection 14 Tree of Life Tree of Life a family tree of organisms Using Molecules to Understand the Tree of Life Phylogeny genealogical relationships Translated it means quottribe sourcequot Carl Woese and co workers studied a molecule rRNA a small subunit ribosomal RN essential part that all cells use to grow and reproduce rRNA Large and compleX molecule Underlying structure is simple Made up of sequences of four smaller chemical components called ribonucluotide Symbolized by the letters A U C and G Connected linearly I Ie Box cars on a train Ribolnucleotide sequence can change during the course of evolution Performs at the same function in all organisms butthe sequence of ribonuc blocks in this molecule is not identical among species 2 If thean nf evnlntinn iQ nnrrer t than rRNA Qemmnneq Qh mild he verv Qimilnr in DanP 3 known as decent OW evolution an be passed on sliving in the survive better or gtopulations ironment inse to natural A rRNA is an leotides building IV rel nted 11 D11VU1J U1 V V U1UD1U11 1U VU11VVD D11V11 11 1 1 1 UV lIV11VVU U11Uu1u UV V V1 U 1 1 1 1 1 1M1 111 V1UUV organisms but less similar in organisms that are less closely related Three fundamental groups lineages of organisms l The Bacteria 2 The Archaea 3 The Eukarya Eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus Have a complex celluar organization Membrane bound organelleslocated inside the cell membrane I Nucleus D contains DNA in the form of chromosomes D Controls cellular activities Within genes Nucleolous D Located Within the nucleus III Site for ribosome synthesis I Rough endoplasmic reticulum III Has ribosomes O Necessary for protein synthesis I Smooth endoplasmic reticulum D Primarily involved in lipid synthesis 0 NO ribosomes I Golgi Apparatus III Packs Molecules III Synthesizes Carbs I Lysosome D Contains hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion I Peroxisome D Involved in hydrogen peroxide synthesis and degradation I Chloroplast III Site of photosynthesis I Chromoplast III Contains non green pigments I Leukoplast III Stores starch I Mitochondrion III Produces ATP 0 Adenosine Triphosphate I Vaculoe D General storage and space filling structure 1 4 11 1 TAVT I 1 1 1 1 1 AVLMDVU t roxaryouc ceus do NU 1 nave a membrane bound nuc1eus Simple cellular organization No nucleus No other membrane bound organelles How Should We Name Branches on the Tree of Life Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Scientific Latin Names The first part indicates the organism39s genus A genus is made up of closely rel species Species The second term in the two part name identifies the organisms species Ex sapiens An organisms genus and species designations is called its scientific name Scientific nai italicized and the genus us capitalized but the species is not 15 Doing Biology The Nature of Science Science is about formulating hypotheses and finding evidence that supports or conflicts hypotheses Religious faith addresses questions that cannot be answered by data The questions add world39s great religions focus on why we exist and how we should live Important Characteristics of Good Experimental Design Critical to include control groups Checks for factors other than the one being tested that might influence the experi The experimental conditions must be as constant or equivalent as possible Repeating the test is essential Larger sample sizes in experiments are better All scientific theories have a pattern component and a process com What is the pattern componentfor cell theory Hooke states that all organisms are made of cells What is the process component Virchow states that all cells arise from pre existing cells What is the pattern component for evolutionary theory anr ino QI D I DIQfo 1 nnmmnn an DC fI XI ated groups of mes are always with those ressed by the ments outcome ponent UtIUUlUD 1U lUlaLUu U UUllllllUll cumyou What is the process component Characteristics of a species can be modi ed from generation to generation Decent With modi cation quotThe Scienti c Methodquot We use the scienti c method every day to solve problems THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD PURPOSE H Y POT H E S I S An edumtcd prcdrc JC or guess as to tho octsomo Items aw Sumres cemc used 1 P ROC E D U RE 39f c steps r processes men I OBSERVATION What quotannals Ctrorg citing he mpgmam Cant3mquot or YES NO 1 1 REPORT RESULTS The roles of testing and evidence Empirical IAfl ff IFAI AIIIJ 39FIFAM l llmf l nAI f f f Document but was com and who was Inanod 39 EVIUUIIUU IUUUIVUU IIUIII 39dll llUlll39dll SUIISUS Observation Hear Taste Touch Smell ls direct observation necessary No direct observation is not needed Draw conclusions and infer based on previous facts laws theories I Subatomic particles III Atomsetc I Sun and Earths Orbits What about the supernatural FairiesGodsetc Science does not falsify these things not prove them or states them as a fac Nothing in science is accepted on faithbelief it is about evidence Science is not democratic What does it mean to say that science is quotsecularquot Opposite of religious Science is neutral The role of logical reasoning Uses arguments statements facts premises and axioms to state w something is true or false Three types of reasoning lnduc ve Deductive Abductive Science is dynamic cumulative and selfcorrecting Science is always changing and discovering new things Next Class But science also has limitations ls science the appropriate tool for answering ALL kinds ofquestions Experiments are powerful scienti c tools because they allow researcher and evidence ether 5 to test the effect ofa single wellde ned factor on a particular phenomenon ExperiI one of the main ways that science differs from other ways of forming undl about the world Key Concepts 1 What are the characteristics of life Do only living organisms have these tr Five fundamental characteristicssee definitions above 1 Energy 2 Cells 3 Information 4 Replication 5 Evolution 2 What are the pattern and process aspects of cell theory and evolutionary t Cell Theory Pattern All organisms are made of cells Process All cells come from preexisting cells Evolution theory Pattern Species are related by common ancestry Process Characteristics of species can be modified from generatior Also know as DECENT WITH MODIFICATION 3 Regarding Louis Pasteur39s experiment testing the competing hypotheses c spontaneous generation and 2 cellsfromcells Fig 12 if Pasteur had u type of broth for the straightnecked flask experiments than for the crookelt experiments how would that have effected his conclusions Which results reject hypothesis 1 Did he prove hypothesis 2 Explain 7 4 You were given definitions for quotfactquot quotlawquot quothypothesisquot and quottheoryquot as tl used in science Based on those definitions can a theory ever become a f Theory can not become a fact Theory is supported by logical reason and based on facts and law 5 What kind of evidence is acceptable in science What kind is not acceptal Evidence must have data supporting said hypothesis fact or theory 6 Must phenomena be directly observable to be considered scientific eviden To be scientific evidence if must be test observed interpreted and I scientific evidence othenNise is just a theory 7 In what way is science a quotsecularquot enterprise Science and evidence that show how the earth was created often cla religions and their beliefs on how the Earth was created and those tl planet 8 Why is it important that logical reasoning be used to evaluate scientific evilt 7 Alhnn infnrnrnfinn cr innfifir nuirlnnr n Inninal roacnninn ml IQ39I39 ho Ilcnt mentation is erstandings 39aits Explain heory I to generation f 1 sed a different lnecked flask sallowed him to lose terms are act ling evidence le ce Explain proved to be lSh with many tat roam the dence l to draw VVI IUII IIILUI PI ULII Iv QUIUIILIIIU UVIUUI IUU IUvIUUI IUUQUI III Iv IIIUQL UV UQU conclusions to either support or reject said evidence by collecting an data 9 In what ways is science quotdynamicquot quotcumulativequot and quotselfcorrectingquot Science is also proving and then again disproving hypotheses and tr new evidence is found and new discoveries are made Science is cu because you need facts laws theories and hypotheses to come to c science everything supports or disproves the other evidence or theo hypotheses 10 What are the limitations of science The limitations of science are anything that can not be tested EX Yc whether or not god exists or the theory of afterlife or reincarnation e 11 What kinds of questions are NOT appropriately answered using science Questions that can not be answered by date and experiments Religious Questions 12 According to B Kuipers why do we believe in electrons but not fairies 5 Topic 1 Additional materials menu llThe real difference is that for electrons we have accumulated a set of quite narrow and sp how electrons will behave under various circumstances Those rules let us make very sp ecif about electron behavior and about the observations that will result If those predictions do know that either we didn39t set up the circumstances correctly or there is something wrong over many decades we have repeatedly fixed problems with the rules so we can now make predictions about electrons especially in certain highly contrived circumstances ie circuit Fairies are much more free A fairy does what it decides to do We haven39t been able to f1nlt for predicting how a fairy will behave under particular circumstances or even for telling wl involved in a particular observation At least I don39t know of any such rules I stand ready this Over many many decades it has not been possible for people to try out pretty good prediction rules find out where they make mistakes and replace them with better sets of r1 It39s always possible that there really are fairies But the theory of electrons has been far mor because it makes testable predictions Because it doesn39t make testable predictions the theo enjoyed the same process of incremental improvement So we have lightbulbs and micropr Internet all based on electrons and no fairy processorsquot J LU UI UVV Id analyzing reories when mulative onclusions in ryor u can39t test to See reading in ecific rules about ic predictions n39t come true we with the rules But red good 3 i any useful rules 1en a fairy has been for correction on sets of fairy 11es e successful ry of fairies hasn39t rocessors and the
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