Week 3 Lecture & Reading Notes
Week 3 Lecture & Reading Notes SOC-S 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Guenther on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC-S 100 at Indiana University taught by Eric Wright in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Week 3 Lecture Notes 2712015 Social Psychology Guest Lecture Joe Johnston Social Psychology Social Factors very personal things to us Self relatively stable set of perceptions of who we are in relation to ourselves others amp social institutions 0 Constantly being shaped through interactions with others Roles a set of behaviors that are expected of someone who occupies a particular social position Example gender roles Social Categories 0 Gender class race ethnicity sexuality 0 Status level of esteem amp perceived competence associated with a social category 0 Occupy a status play a role 0 Personality Characteristics not innate but formedshaped by social circumstances 0 the same social circumstances don t always produce the same kinds of personality characteristics in people 0 examples word gap and unequal childhoods 0 Role Con ict expectations from different roles that produce friction cause stress Salience 0 How important an identity is to individual s self 0 Probability of invoking an identity across a variety of social situations 0 Examples role identities amp social identities Our most personal identities as human beings are formed by social factors and social interactions We can choose our identities but too many or too little can be bad 2912015 Socialization Power of the Situation Norms rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations 0 Different expectations in different situations Mead s Development of the Self 0 Taking the role of the other 1 Play Taking the role of one other person catch 2 The Game understanding the expectations of a specific group baseball 3 The Generalized Other ability to understand the expectations has put on us as a whole coming into class sitting down etc Lareaa Two Parenting Styles 0 Accomplishment of Natural Growth 0 Working classpoor families 0 Kids are kids parents are parents 0 Not encouraging of questioning 0 Single activity over the year 0 Converted Cultivation 0 Middle Class 0 Negotiation instead of violencedirectives 0 Multiple activities 0 Encourage questionings 0 Childhood as preadulthood Social Reproduction through socialization we teach our children our own norms amp values Erving Goffman 0 Front Stage Servers cashiers 0 Back Stage Back of House dish food prep Impression Management Preparing for the presentation of one s social role Giddens et al 110 Week 3 Reading Notes 2912015 Socialization Giddens 84100 Socialization The social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self Although socialization processes are particularly significant in infancy and childhood they continue to some degree throughout life No individuals are immune to the reactions of others around them which in uence and modify their behavior at all phases of the life course Social Reproduction The process of perpetuating values norms and social practices through socialization which leads to structural continuity over time Agents of Socialization Groups or social contexts within which processes of socialization take place Peer Group A friendship group compose of individuals of similar age and social status AgeGrade The system found in small traditional cultures by which people belonging to a similar age group are categorized together and hold similar rights and obligations Normally this is confined to just males Sociologist Barrie T horne explores how children learn what being male and female means Thorne believed that children don t passively learn it from their parents but believed that children actively create the meaning of gender through their interactions with other children Mass Media Forms of communication such as newspapers magazines radio and television designed to reach mass audiences Social Roles Socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status or social position Identity The distinctive characteristics of a person s or group s character that relate to who he is and what is meaningful to him Some of the main sources of identity include gender sexual orientation nationality or ethnicity and social class Social Identity The characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others 0 Examples Student mother lawyer Catholic homeless Asian dyslexic and married 0 Everyone has to have more than one social identity 0 Most organize a meaning in their lives around a primary social identity that is constant in their lives for the future SelfIdentity The ongoing process of selfdevelopment and definition of our personal identity through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us 0 We are our own best resources in defining who we are where we have come from and where we are going This means we have countless opportunities to create our own identities We are constantly creating and recreating our selfidentities Some observers say that because of changes in modern societies children are growing up at a rapid speed Some children are watching the same television shows are adults therefore they are much more familiar with the adult world than past generations have ever been Cognition Human thought processes involving perception reasoning and remembering 0 Jean Piaget studied child development focusing on cognition in children Cognition is children is the ways in which they learn to think about themselves and their environment GH Mead and the Development of Self 0 Infants and young children develop as social beings by imitation 0 Play Making mud pies having seen an adult cooking 0 Taking the Role of the Other A child of four or five years old will act out an adult role Children acquire a developed sense of self in this stage They separate themselves and look at themselves as me 0 Children become selfaware when they distinguish the me from the I 0 I unsocialized infant a bundle of spontaneous wants and desires 0 Me the social self 0 Social Self The basis of selfconsciousness in human individuals according to the theory of GH Mead The social self is the identity conferred upon an individual by the reactions of others 0 SelfConsciousness Awareness of one s distinct social identity as a person separate from others Humans are not born with selfconsciousness The learning of language is of vital importance to the processes by which the child learns to become a selfconscious being 0 Generalized Other A concept saying that the individual takes over the general values of a given group or society during the socialization process Jean Piaget and the Stages of Cognitive Development 0 Sensorimotor Stage According to Piaget a stage of human cognitive development in which the child s awareness of its environment is dominated by perception and touch 0 From birth to about age two 0 Infants are unaware of anything existing outside of their range of vision 0 Example Child not aware that their own movements cause the crib to rattle 0 Main accomplishment is the children s understanding that their environment has distinct and stable properties 0 Preoperational Stage A stage of cognitive development in which the child has advanced sufficiently to master basic modes of logical thought 0 Age two to seven 0 Master language and use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion 0 Example Use a sweeping hand to represent the concept airplane 0 Only interpret the world from their own position I Example Holding a book upright the child asks about a picture in it but doesn t realize that the person sitting opposite can only see the back of the book and not the picture the child is referring to Egocentric According to Piaget the characteristic quality of a child during the early years of her life Egocentric thinking involves understanding objects and events in the environment solely in terms of one s position 0 No general understanding of categories of thought that adults take for granted causality speed weight or number Concrete Operational Stage A stage of cognitive development in which the child s thinking is based primarily on physical perception of the world In this phase the child is not yet capable of dealing with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations 0 Age seven to eleven 0 Master abstract logical notions such as causality Formal Operational Stage A stage of cognitive development at which the growing child becomes capable of handling abstract concepts and hypothetical situations 0 Age eleven to fifteen 0 Able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas 0 Not all adults reach the Formal Operational Stage
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