PSYC2014- Chapter 2 Lecture Notes
PSYC2014- Chapter 2 Lecture Notes PSYC2014
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2014 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Brain function and structure 2315 150 PM Do we only use 10 o No Evolutionary perspective why are our brains so large if we don t useit Brain trauma and tumors cause motor defects Einstein 0 The valleys in his brain were smaller so information processing was faster MindBody Problem 0 How the mind and body are related 0 Information theory Cognition is boiling down information processing and how our brain is interacting with the information our brainbody is providing us Our mental states are our subjective reaction to how our body reacts to objective information The neuron When we say our cognitive activity is routed in the brain we re referring to 2 signals electrical signals and chemical in the sense that at the neuron level we can identify electrical and chemical change 0 Electrical change takes place within a neuron Action potential a brief electrical signal that travels the length of the axon I Once the action potential reaches a pouch then the neurotransmitters release the information o If the neuron doesn t have a receptor for the neurotransmitter then the communication or exchange of information will stop 0 Synapse is a gap between two axons Major divisions of the brain 0 Forebrain 0 Complex learning memory reasoning language Hindbrain including cerebellum 0 Automatic processes lifesupporting function balance o Cerebellum associated with motor control Hence why motor skills are impaired with alcohol 0 Midbrain 0 Voluntary processes motor control basal ganglia BasalgangHa a Low level of dopamine in this is associated with Parkinson s disease a Hard time learning new procedural skills Brain lateralization the way different sides of the brain have different functions hemisphere asymmetry Right and left hemispheres 0 Left occipital cortex connected to right eye which processes visual info from right field 0 Functional lateralization High level function like language and visual spatial processing are divided between the hemispheres Right hemisphere visual special 0 Left hemisphere verballogical processing 0 Corpus collosum connects the hemispheres o The severing of this can reduce epileptic seizure called brain spit Provide good insight about how the 2 hemispheres are different functionally but how high level cognitive functioning can be isolated in 1 hemisphere but not another 0 Keyring test for split brain patients Verbal analysis took place in one hemisphere and visual spatial analysis took place in another hemisphere so they reach for the key when they want the ring a For right handed people language center is located in lefthemisphere a Right hemisphere processes visual spatial Brain localization within the same hemisphere we can identify different brain regions that are specified for certain functions 0 Occipital lobe 0 Visual pattern recognition Parietal lobe 0 Complex visual touch perception Frontal lobe 0 Strategic thinking 0 Social cognition o Shortterm memory 0 Language music production 0 Voluntary movements 0 Temporal lobe 0 Hearing and language decoding longterm memory faceobject identification 0 Phrenology identifying bumps on the skull Brain imaging methods and cognitive research 0 Neuroimaging 0 Methods that reveal the structure and functioning of the brain Interested in electrical and chemical activity 0 The three most common neuroimaging techniques for cognitive research are EEG electroencephalograph a High temporal resolution but low spatial resolution a Eventrelated potential reflect the momentary changes in EEG signal that occur as an immediate response to something the participant has observed or thought about a When the signal goes up its negative signal and when it goes down its positive signal a If the peak is great then the brain is engaging to a greater extent reflects the amount of surprise 0 Low surprise produces the greatest activation PET positron emission tomography n Becoming less popular because its invasive n More specific than EEGs at identifying which specific brain areas are active 0 Pet scans indirectly measure blood flwo to regions of the brain that are most active at a given time o Radioactive dose of glucose is injected into the bloodstream o The glucose emits positrons o The brain is scanned to detect energy released from the positron 0 Very good spatial resolution better than fmri but weak temporal resolution 0 Better spatial than fmri 0 Measures glucose consumption 0 But fmri measures oxygen level fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging a the most recent neuroimaging technique a when a region of the brain is active 0 blood flow increases 0 amount of oxygen increases 0 this alteration of oxygen content affects the blood s magnetic properties 0 this affects the brain s magnetic signal 0 brain activity can be measured a essentially a huge magnet 0 different parts of the magnet will respond differently depending on which part of the brain is active 0 from what part of the machine is active you can figure our what part of the brain is active a both pet and fMRI have high spatial resolution can identify which brain area is active but low temporal resolution takes longer a can tell us what part of the brain is involved with certain cognitive behaviors higher spatial resolution but can t always pick up the image fast enough low temporal resolution a more suitable for investigation of cognitive behavior that requires a long time repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation rTMS a technique that can disrupt or enhance brain activity 0 electrical activity to a brain area is influenced by magnets that are held over an area of the participant s head 0 the magnetic pulses are repeated 0 can cause an increase or decrease in a specific brain area s activity a fairly decent temporal resolution 0 how can we use these imaging methods 0 Speed of mental arithmetic and age Compare brain activity during problem solving and identifying if there is a specific number or not passive watching if you take the difference then you can find the brain areas involved Local vs global processing 0 Right hemisphere is more for overall structure or global feature 0 If you have an H made up of multiple s s the right hemisphere will identify the overall H shape 0 Left hemisphere focuses more on the element or local features 0 If you have an H made up of multiple s s the left hemisphere will pick up on the 5 s not the overall shape 2315 150 PM 2315 150 PM 2315 150 PM
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