Week 9--Lectures 22, 23, and 24
Week 9--Lectures 22, 23, and 24 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Saturday December 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 12/19/15
Lecture 22 Death Afterlife and the Cult of the Saints in Ravenna October 26 2015 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Patronage of rulers of Ravenna Galla Placidia and her son Valentinian the Ostrogoth ruler Theoderic build major churches and attached structures mausolea o the message as already seen in Rome to reinforce the central beliefs of Christianity in the promise of life after death the guarantee of resurrection through the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist o Shift from Jewish types of resurrection to Christological and eschatological imagery in funerary realm o the churches in Ravenna draw on the cult of local heroes or MARTYRS both for added intercessory power on behalf of the living and the dead and for ecclesiastical legitimacy Historical Background from slide 0 402 Honorius transfers capital to Ravenna o 410 Fall of Rome to Alaric and Visigoths 0 42540 Galla Placida halfsister of Honorius as regent for Valentinian III 0 476 Ravenna falls to Odoacer o 493 Theodoric king of Ostrogoths captures Ravenna o 526 death of Theodoric 0 52634 Queen Amalasuntha serves as regent for Athalric Grandson of Theodoric o 535 Beginning of Byzantine offensive o 540 Belisarius Byzantine General under Justinian captures Ravenna and Italian peninsula from the Ostrogoths Mausoleum quotof Galla Placidia Ravenna 42526 o This is only a fragment of the original monastery o It is similar to the cemetery church in Rome 0 It was a place for privileged burials o Monastery of Santa Croce Ravenna reconstruction drawing showing location of mausoleum I All mosaic dating back to 425 I The gold enhanced the radiance of the mosaic I The cross is the sign of the Son of Man Christ and seen in Matthew 24 I Left picture 0 The apostles raising arms to Christ 0 The holes in the sides of the walls held the sarcophaguses I Right picture 0 Vision of the Cross from Matthew 24 0 quotImmediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light and the stars will fall from heaven then will appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory and he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call and they will gather his elect from the four winds from one end of heaven to the otherquot 0 This text is translated into visual imagery 0 Similar to Revelation 0 4 living creatures in the corners o The highest point in the structure is the closest to the heavenly realm I Detail of mosaic of Saint Lawrence 0 Saint Lawrence was an early decan saint 0 He helped priests with books liturgy and held the cross before the priest 0 He was put to death on a flaming grill as seen in the mosaic 0 Instead of the image being of his death it is of triumph as if after his death 0 He is carrying a cross as if he is taking up the cross of Christ 0 There is a cupboard of books on the left side which is thought to be associated with education I Mausoleum of quotGalla Placidia Ravenna Good Shepherd 5quotyv o This is opposite the Saint Lawrence mosaic on the opposite cross arm 0 This shows Christ as the Good Shephard I Psalm 23 o Recited during funerary liturgy 0 Difference I Regal figure I Golden garment with purple cloth suggests divinity I Nimbus above head also suggests divinity I Cross staff represents his triumph over death I There are shadows on the landscape Neonian Baptistery quotBaptistery of the Orthodox Ravenna 458 Paradise is a major theme here This was built by Neon Octagonal in plan Baptism was seen as a death of the old self and a birth of a new self This was the principle baptistery in Ravenna as it was next to the church It was originally more impressive in scale The baptisms took place at night so that the light would have flooded out from it OOOOOOO I This was the dome in the baptistery that would have been seen by the person being baptized was baptized I It is Christ s baptism o This is thought to be an quotoculus into heaven I The second circle from the middle of the dome shows the procession of the apostles 0 Peter and Paul are facing each other showing their allegiance with the Roman church 0 Each apostle is holding a crown similar to the Roman Egyptian Funerary Crown O W o The crown was seen as a reward for a good life victory in athletic competition I quotDo you not know that in a race all the runners compete but only one receives the prize So run that you may obtain it Every athlete exercises self control in all things They do it to receive a perishable wreath but an imperishable one o 1 Corinthians 925 o The crowns are not a sign of imperial tribute I They were a reward for a Christian life in the afterlife 0 Garden of Paradise with Etimasia o This is an enclosed garden with an empty throne prepared for Christ 0 Similar to the 2ncl style wall painting from Pompeii o The columns open into a garden 0 quotyou can almost imagine the smells of the garden quotProfessor Dale Sant Apollinare Nuovo San Salvatore Ravenna former Palace Chapel of Theodoric dedicated 504 mosaics altered ca 540 under Justinian Interior view of nave to apse 0 Three halled basilica o The columns were spolia from Rome I Theodoric wanted to be seen as a Roman 0 He also wanted Ravenna to be a Roman capitol o The mosaics had a lot of gold incorporated o Sant Apollinare Nuovo right wall mosaics with Palace of Theodoric This shows a connection between the terrestrial city of Ravenna and heaven There are two processionals to heaven This is the wall of male martyrs 0 Have martyr crowns The building is the palace of Theodoric with the chapel included This palace does not survive today In the very center an image of Theodoric would have been but it was probably rubbed off 1 I l l i o A Q 29 1 gt 39 quotI ii M Q 1 0 At the head of the procession is Jesus 0 The procession is led by St Martin of Tour 0 This imagery is taken from Revelation 713 0 quotThese that are clothed in white robesare they who are come out of the great tribulation and who have washed their robes and who have made them white in the blood of the lamb Therefore they are before the throne of Godquot Sant Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna left wall of nave with procession of Virgin Saints from Port of Classe ca 540 3917 60 rquot quot 3 x s l M a A a I l y i l39llil Ii rrrrwv t rimquot 1 39 31 quv J quot39mr V V M law a A 1 1 l y l I The second procession on the other side of the Basilica is of female martyrs o This is reflective of how the congregation would sit Men and women would sit on opposite sides for services I They are processing from Classe o Anticipating entrance into heaven 0 You can see ships in the ports and buildings behind the walls I Above are saints and the life of Christ in episodes 0 Detail of the women 0 Less sculptured two dimensional no shadows 0 They look like imperial princesses 0 Three men in the front are the three Magi bringing gifts 0 They serve as a model for gifts to Christ 0 The focus is on the Virgin Mary with the Christ Child I Multiplication of Loaves and Fish This is a miracle scene I Pose is symbolic it is an abstract sign of the cross I Christ is clean shaven o This was a period of contrast as to what Christ looked like because no one actually knows what he looked like 0 There was the debated as if her looked more like the beardless Apollo model or the bearded Zeus Sant Apollinare in Classe begun under Ostragoths by Bishop Ursicinus 53236 with financing from Julianus Argentarius completed under Byzantine rule by Bishop Maximian 549 5 t z 3 a a A AAA ALAJ r I I l 39 A 1 I I I I I I i o This was constructed over a cemetery 0 Similar to the Basilica of Old Saint Peter o It is adjacent the tomb of the founder of Ravenna a bishop and an apostle of Paul I He was not a martyr just a bishop founded the city and then became a saint o The green space is similar to the original 0 The outside looks like a Roman Basilica 0 There are two side chapels 0 Interior 0 Similar to others in Rome 0 6th century mosaics completed by Maximion o The columns were polished marbled spolia from Rome 0 The windows made the interior luminous o Apse Mosaic 00000 O O Triumphal arch Christ with 4 Evangelist symbols procession of Lambs from Jerusalem and Bethlehem Transfiguration of Christ as Cross witnessed by St Apollinaris Bishops of Ravenna The bishops were all buried in the cemetery This shows a celestial paradise The bust of Christ at the very top is surrounded by the Evangelist symbols It focuses on the patron saint as a privileged witness to Christ Gold cross against starry heaven is not a representation of the end of time Moses and Elijah are the figures on either side of the cross The transfiguration of Christ on the Mountain God spoke to Christ and he radiated light The three lambs are the three disciples who witnessed the transfiguration Peter James and Andrew The local bishop was given the role of mediating the divine vision Christ is seen as a role model for a bishop dress and gesture The sheep is representative of the flock of the city of Ravenna The landscape is flat Lecture 23 Early Byzantine Art During the Reign ofJustinian 527565 October 28 2015 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Justinian as a New Constantine o Ruler cult Christomimesis emperor as imitator of and vicar of Christ 0 Synthesis of Christian and Roman imperial themes 0 Stylistic synthesis of GrecoRoman illusionism with hieratic compositional principles 0 Creation of distinctive Byzantine centralplan domed church in response to cosmology and liturgy 0 Promotion and protection of pilgrimage sites 0 Use of Visual Narrative as means of promoting spiritual vision Historical Background from slide 0 324 Constantine founds Constantinople as New Rome on site of earlier Greek settlement of Byzas o 526 death of Theodoric o 527 Justinian made emperor o 532 Nika rebellion 0 53334 J conquers North Africa 0 534 Corupus Iurus Civilis Law Code of Justinian o 535 J conquers Sicily Sardinia Dalmatia o 540 Belisarius takes Ravenna o 546 Italy under Byzantine rule o Said to be four empires embracing Constnatine and his sons Constantine Constantius and Constans Bronze Serpent Column and Obelisk brought by Theodosius II on the quotspinaquot of the Hippodrome 12 m o The Obe isk is from the Egyptians o The column is Greek 0 They show an expression of imperial power 1 Theodosian Landwalls ca 405 CE 0 These were the most important landmark in Constantinople before Justinius 0 They provided three walls of defense to ward against oncoming attacks Barberini Diptych ivory Justinian as World Conqueror ca 550 You see an emergence of Byzantine culture under Justinian Justinian aspired to be the new Constantine This ivory carving was made in six pieces Some see this as similar to Christ 0 O O O Hagia Sophia Church of Holy Wisdom Constantinople built for Justinian designed by Anthemios of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus 532537 exterior from south 11 0 quotwonder of the world architecture 0 Replaced earlier church dedicated to wisdom that was destroyed by a fire during the Nika rebellion o It was constructed to be impressive on the inside 0 This shifts the model from a Basilica to a centralized plan 0 The tower things were added later when Constantinople became Istanbul and this became a mosque 0 Interior to east 53237 CE o quotdome suspended by golden chain o The windows are tightly lined along the base of the dome o This gives the idea of a lightweight dome San Vitale Ravenna begun 526 exterior plan and exterior isometric o o o o o o 5 ophia Constructed in the beginning of 526 and finished under Justinian This is a small scale version of the 1st church quotdouble shell plans No trace of a Basilica anymore it is completely centralized Three stories tall I The vertical proportioning was enhanced by the dome I 8 tall arches around the inside I The ambulatory was groin vaulted I Galleries where the women worshiped also groin vaulted I Women were not seen in public so they were given a private place to worship All mosaic decorations The ceiling as seen in the picture on the right is of a heavenly vision found in Revelation The lower level has scriptural narratives Celestial paradise Christ on a globe 4 rivers feeding paradise Anthropomorphic form of Christ and not a cross Christ is rewarding a military figure Vitalis The angel is the intermediary Bishop bearing a model of the church as a reward Connects future and present time Abel has a lamb Able and Melchizedek were not alive at the same time 0 They are types for the Eucharist I Cristian reinterpretation I Names were used for models of Christian role for offerings I Procession ofJustinian I He is carrying the bread as if he is participating I He is asserting his presence in Ravenna I Flanked by military and priests I Justinian is showing his support for Maximian by putting him in this I This also shows the bishop s new authority 39 v a U V it 5quot I quotiiifi39ll l 1 I Procession of Theodora I Shows the empress who was the power behind the throne I The empress wouldn t have entered the space in real life though I Both she and her husband donated many offerings I The emperor ruled in public the empress ruled in private Monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai rebuilt by Justinian 548565 o This iswas a pilgrimage site 0 This is where it is thought that Moses saw the burning bush 0 This is a very sacred place for both Jews and Christians 0 The supposed burning bush s site is enclosed in the architecture a O I Said to be the site of the burning bush I The bush is not alive but the site is still preserved O I The apse is adorned with mosaic I The bush represents an indirect vision of God Christ makes God visible in human form Human and divine the light rays extend into space 0 The light strikes the witnesses John James Peter Moses Elijah The mountain is not depicted because the watcher is already on the mountain It evokes the presence and vision of God 0 Hypatius of Bythnia d 453 quotWe allow even material adornment in the sanctuaries because we permit each order of the faithful to be guided and led up to the divine being in a manner appropriate to it because we think that some people are guided even by these towards intelligible and immaterial light Lecture 24 Hagia Sophia Ritual and the Senses InClass Discussion 7 October 30 2015 Lecture themes from slide 0 Structural principles of design to buttress open domed interior space 0 Ritual Uses centralized beneath the dome o Anagogical Upwardleading mystical meaning 0 Materiality and Appeal to the Senses Inspiriting of Matter Empsychosis Hagia Sophia Church of Holy Wisdom Constantinople built for Justinian designed by Anthemios of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus 532537 exterior from south 0 Designed by architects who knew geometry 0 In present day Istanbul 0 Designed as a church in 1453 then it became an Ottoman mosque when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople I The Ottomans added the tall towers in the corners and the white domed tombs in front It was structured as a Basilica 20 stories tall Made entirely of brick and stone no concrete buttresses were important The centralized dome structure model is based off the Pantheon in Rome Also similar to San Vitale in Ravenna I The double shell dome plan 0 The dome is the centralized element I It is like an eye looking into heaven I It had to be reconstructed several times because of the earthquakes o The rest of the building is original I There are two apses or semidomes 0 These support the central dome OOOOOO The galleries and isles are groin and barrel vaulted and are also a part of the support system 0 View fro Eat with d ome semidome apse and squinches y n 0 Exterior is perfect pleasing geometry 0 Red paint is the original building The grey is what was added by the Ottoman for support 0 Hagia Sophia West Facade from site of Atrium with thermal windows based on Roman bath architecture quota The windows were used in the bath structures similar to the Roman baths Imperial Door from endonarthex view to the south entrance of endonarthex groin vaulting I Left picture 0 The imperial door 0 The mosaic has the emperor kneeling before Christ 0 This was a ritual the emperor did before entering the space Interior to east I F i39l j Hangar9quot I 3 isle domed basilica I The light comes from the windows 0 The main regular worship times to make use of the light were Saturday at dusk and Sunday at dawn Interior elevation showing ambo solea templon altar with ciborium synthronon and metatorion imperial box I Centralized focus is under the dome which is where the light was focused I Women worshiped in the galleries the men worshiped on the floor I The gospels were read from the top of the ambo o Feast of the Elevation of the Cross showing ambo at Hagia Sophia in Menologian of Basil 9761025 Vatican Cod Grec 1613 L l o The windows of the dome were seen as a golden chain holding the dome up 0 Paul the Silentary o quotRising above the central circle is an enormous spherical dome which makes the building exceptionally beautiful It seems not to be founded on solid masonry but to be suspended from heaven by that golden chainwhenever one goes to this church one understands immediately that this work has been fashioned not by human power or skill but by the influence of God And so the visitor s mind is lifted up to God and floats aloft thinking that He cannot be far way but must love to dwell in this place which He himself has chosen 0 The floor had some marble in it
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