Week 10--Lectures 25-27
Week 10--Lectures 25-27 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
Popular in Art History
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Saturday December 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 12/19/15
Lecture 25 Christian Visual Exegesis ofJewish Scriptures and Papal Ideology November 2 2015 Lecture themes from slide Icons as mediators of sacred presence based on concept of icons as sacred portraitslikenesses connected to Roman imperial portraits and religious images Iconoclasm as reaction against conflation of icon with material and its veneration Theory of defense of icons fully developed during Iconoclasm emphasis on Incarnation and Neoplatonic idea of icon as material emanation of prototype Emergence after iconoclasm of iconostasis as screen of officially sanctioned images of intercession and liturgical feasts Gold ground emphasizes materiality of later icons while iconography focuses on humanity of Christ especially the suffering in the Passion Icon transformed in Russia after collapse of Byzantine empire expansion of Iconostasis Icons are visual images Now icon is more commonly known as the Holy Image or Christ in the Eastern Orthodox Church Historical Background from slide 200 Acts ofJohn mentions icon ofJohn the Evangelist o This is the first mention of an icon 695 Caliph AbdalMalik 685705 bans figural images in Islamic worship and on coins 717 Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople 720 Bishop Constantine of Nakoleia preaches against icon worship in Asian Minor 73087 First Byzantine iconoclasm 754 Synod of the Hiereai 787 7th Oecumenical Council of Nicaea called by Empress Irene to end iconoclasm 813 iconoclasm renewed by military emperors Leo IV Michael II Theophilus 843 restoration of image veneration by Empress Theodora 1453 The collapse of the Byzantine empire to the Ottoman empire Madonna and Child with Saints George and Theodore Monastery of St Catherine Mt Sinai encaustic on panel 6th century 0 Th e Madonna is Mary 0 The crosses held by the Saints are the symbol of martyrdom 0 There are two angels in the background looking up towards a hand the hand of God reaching down to earth Encaustic is a mixture of pigment and wax There incorporate Roman painting techniques Icons were thought of as an authentic likeness This image is similar to the statue of Horus and sis found in Egypt I Horus and Isis faience Egypt Ptolemaic Period 33230 BCE OOOO Icon of Pantokrator encaustic on panel St Catherine Mt Sinai 6th century o The Mount Sinai icons were not destroyed because they were in a remote location and were removed from society 0 The book he is holding is a Gospel book 0 This is associated with Greek art and the portrayal of Zeus Chludov Psalter ca 850 Crucifixion and Iconoclasts O 0 John o Damascus On the Orthodox Faith IV 16 quotInasmuch as some people blame us for reverencing and honoring images of the Savior of our Lady and furthermore of the other saintsthey should recall the statement that in the beginning God made man in His own image As the God inspired Basilsays quotThe honor shown to the icon is conveyed to its prototype The prototype is the subject represented from which the derivative is madeSince God out of His innermost mercy became truly man not as He had been seen in human form by Abraham and the Prophets but truly a man in substance lived on earth conversed with men worked miracles suffered was crucified arose from the deadsince all of these things happened truly and were seen by menthe Fathers saw fit that these things should be represented in imageswe fall to our knees and revere not the matter but the one represented o The halo means divinity 0 Those who destroy icons are compared to the Romans who crucified Christ Epister from Templon with Deesis and Feasts Baptism Transfiguration Lazarus Entry tempera and gold leaf on panel St Catherine Mt Sinai 12th century 0 Fixed V O l A E A row of icons fixed in a church for a model o conostasis is a screen of icons 0 From left to right 0 Baptism transfiguration Lazarus Christ going into Jerusalem Palm Sunday Our Lady of Vladimir Madonna and Child quotEleousaquot with Instruments of Passion made in Constantinople ca 1100 Tretyakov Gallery Moscow 0 quotimage of tenderness fully human relationship 0 The back of the image shows the passion of Christ 0 When compared to earlier icons of Mary and Christ there is not an issue of space in this one Shroud of Turin Icon on linen carbondated 12601390 LA about whether this was real or authentic 0 There was a debate 0 Timeline I 1205 quotThere was a Church of My Lady Saint Mary of Blachernae where there was the shroud in which Our Lord had been wrapped which was placed upright each Friday so that one could see there the form of Our Lord and one never knew what became of this shroud when the city was ta ken Robert de Clari The conquest of Constantinople 1205 I 1354 Shroud in the possession of Geoffrey of Charny Lord of Lirey near Troyes 1356 Henri of Poitiers Bishop of Troyes 1389 quotthe Shroud is a product of human handicraft a cloth cunnineg painted by a man Pierre d Archis Bishop of Troyes to Pope Clement VII 1453 Duke Louis of Savoy builds chapel for it at Chambery 1578 Shroud moved to Turin Torino Lecture 26 From Roll Rotulus to Codex Byzantine and late antique Book Illustration November 4 2015 Lecture Themes from slide origins of codex impact of shift from papyrus rolls to codex on relationship between text and image in Greek and Latin literary manuscripts varieties of response to new text medium central role of codex in Christianity and the Romanization of Christianity as reflected in the forms and iconography of biblical illustration relationship between Christianity and Judaism as expressed in typological interpretation and assimilation of midrashim and other Jewish legendary material in Genesis manuscripts emancipation of image from text to generate arguments independent of text Historical Background on slide Ca 100 Martial refers to codex as text of quotfolded skins Ca 400 earliest extant illuminated manuscripts including Genesis Ca 500 earliest extant illuminated Gospel books Ca 700800 Byzantine and EC gospel books used as models in HibernoSaxon manuscripts British Isles Ca 950 Macedonian Renaissance Codexbook The best parchment comes from sheep Vienna Dioscurides De materia medica Constantinople 512 fol 6v Portrait of Princess Anicia Juliana with Magnanimity and Prudence Gratitude of the arts 512 83r Wild blackberry Text of the blackberry plant on the right 1st century text written in a 6th century book Medallion left Princess Anicia Juliana inside She was the patron of the book 0 O O O Vienna Genesis Byzantine Constantinople silver leaf on purple dyed parchment 6th century 0 One of the earliest Bibles that included Genesis o It was unusual to see the whole Bible in one book back then 0 This is an image of Rebecca fetching water and offering water to Eliezer at Nahor Genesis 24 Rossano Gospels tempera and silver leaf on purpledyed parchment Constantinople 6th century Entry into Jerusalem with prophecies of David Zachariah 99 and Malachi tempera on purpledyed vellum Constantinople 6th century 0 Purple is the color of the emperor It was made for royalty o The image is of Christ entering Jerusalem o It is an interpretation of the texts Rossano Gospels Christ before Pilate Barabbas chosen as substitute Christ warns of Peter s denial Judas returns blood money to High Priests Suicide ofJudas RABBU LA GOSPELS written by Scribe Rabbula 586 at Saint John at Beth Zagba fol 3v Canon Tables with Annunciation to Virgin Mary with Prophets Joshua Samuel Eusebian Sections within Arcade compare four Gospel accounts of Life of Christ 0 Written in Syriac I Right to left back to front I Similar to Hebrew 0 Has all four gospels and compares the stories in each gospel to the same stories in the other gospels Rabbula Gospels Syriac gospel book tempera on vellum 586 Crucifixion Women at Empty Tomb Christ appears to women in garden Rabbula Gospels Fol 13v Ascension of Christ Main points on this image Based on Acts 1911 not a Gospel text fullpage format in two registers including Mary who was not present in the biblical text but alludes here to Christ s human nature on axis with an emphasis on his divinity through the mandorla aureole of light and the chariot with seraphim and cherubim and four living creatures based on Ezekiel angels offering crowns is also an interpolation based not on Gospels but on text such as following which emphasize theme of messianic kingship Hebrews 27 quotYou made him a little lower than the angels you crowns him with glory and honour 0 Full paged miniatures o Framed images to seem like windows Paris Psalter Paris BN Grec 139 David playing lyre tempera on vellum mid tenth century u o Like Pompeii wall paintings Lecture 27 Monumental Icons Ritual and the Beholder in the Middle Byzantine Church InClass Discussion 8 November 6 2015 Lecture themes from slide Fundamental change in the formal language of icons after iconoclasm in response to theory Shift in iconography of life of Christ with emphasis on incarnational theology Development of more intimate sacred space in Middle Byzantine period tied to monasticism Applied theory of images developed in Middle Byzantine churches according to fixed hierarchy Privatization of sacred space in Byzantine churches of Palaeologan dynasty Historical Background from slide 843 Official end of Byzantine Iconoclasm 867 Basil II restores images in Hagia Sophia 8671056 quotMacedonian Renaissance under Macedonian emperors 988 Conversion of Vladimir Svyatoslavovich of Kiev 10571185 Comnenian Dynasty 1131 Vladimir Madonna brought to Kiev 1155 Vladimir Madonna brought to Vladimir 12041261 Latin occupation of Constantinople following Fourth Crusade 1261 Michael VII Palaeologus reestablishes Byzantine Empire quotPalaeologan Renaissance 1453 Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople 1467 Tsar Ivan III marries Sophia Palaeologus proclaims Moscow the quotThird Rome Hagia Sophia Istanbul apse mosaic of Theotokos Virgin amp Child 867 o This is the official reinstatement of the icon 0 Theme of incarnation as justification for material representation of God in icons 0 Gold ground as signifier of autonomous significant space inhabited by the subject Hosios Loukas Greece Katholikon plan and exterior ca 100025 Theotokos Church ca 950 H idle Byzanine Monestary 0 Two churches larger the dome smaller behindcan t see in this picture Hosios Loukas Greece Katholikon interior ca 100025 mosaics ca 1050 o Mosaic above the marble is classical o Dome is seen as the realm of Heaven Monastery of Koimesis Daphni ca 10801100 interior of dome mosaic with Pantokrator Pantokrator Almighty God as ruler of all 0 This is known as an icon in space I Figures would interact with each other and with the spectator Monastery of Koimesis Daphni squinch mosaic showing Nativity 0 There is a topographical aspect here I The birth occurred in a cave here instead of in a barn like it says in the Bible 0 The curvature of the apse is used to help with the depth of the image Nerezi Saint Panteleimon Threnos mural painting ca 1164
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