PSYC2014- Chapter 3 Lecture Notes
PSYC2014- Chapter 3 Lecture Notes PSYC2014
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2014 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Attention 2315 200 PM What is attention 0 A set of processes that allow us to concentrate on one set of events in our environment while ignoring the other events 0 It controls our mental environment by choosing the events that will enter our consciousness this is called selection There is too much sensory information and stimuli for us to be able to pay attention to everything we need to pick the most relevant and most important information to process and focus on 0 Selecting highlights the important and relevant information while inhibition discerns what s not relevant 0 Attention is filtering 0 We select what is important and relevant information to focus on while we inhibit irrelevant information from being processed Attention is limited 0 We have limited resources so we must manage our resources to process information in a way that won t burden or overwhelm our processing system 0 If we had limitless resources we wouldn t need to select anything 0 Mackworth clock As the dot moves around the circle it sometimes skips a spot and jumps when it skips a spot participants are supposed to press a button or something When they begin the task they re more accurate and able to detect more skips but as time progresses they get worse a They get worse if the attention is prolonged because their resources are depleted resources are limited 0 There are 5 values or levels because it is measured at 0306090120 a Time on task x axis is the independent variable a Proportion of signals detected y axis is the dependent variable 0 Attention is selective suggesting serial processing o Preattentive processing When all the distracters are different from the target by 1 feature shape its easier to find the target You don t need attention it just pops out n More like parallel processing Number of distracters doesn t matter 0 Focused attention When the distracters are more similar to the target shape and color you have to pay more attention so it takeslonger n More like serial processing If you have a box full of red squares and blue circles and are asked to find the red circle it will be harder and take longer because there are two values to consider shape and color so you need to use serial processing to identify first the shape then the color to find the target Greater number of distracters will take more time o Is this kind of like symbolic distance effect in that more different comparisons are easier to detect 0 Attention is universal 0 It s apart of everyone s cognitive system 0 Where information vs what information Whatviewer independent I Processed by lower inferior pathway Where information is processes by superior pathway Division of labor a Even if we lose one pathway we still have the other 0 If you re superior pathway is impaired you might not be able to interact with the spatial environment properly but you still know what it is Attentional spotlight 0 We deploy our attention on the basis of location 0 We can do so without moving our eyes o If the target appears in an unexpected place then it takes longer Flanker task 0 Target letter or stimulus flanked by distracters Congruent means the distracter and target letters are the same so if you accidentally process the peripheral letters your answer is still right Incongruent means peripheral letters are different and if you attend to those flankers you will either make an error or have to take time to redirect your attention a Response time is slower If target is more distant from distracters then response time is faster I The spotlight doesn t capture the distracters 0 We may be able to process the info within the spotlight very quickly for simultaneously Subitizing 0 Ability to capture the number of items without counting 0 We can perceive quantities without counting up to 4 objects 0 Spotlight may contain about 3 4 items within it and if they fall in the spotlight we use parallel processing but if there s 4 then we need to use multiple spotlights and serial processing 0 Related to the capacity of attention Sensory storage 0 A buffer memory system to host the incoming stream of information long enough for us to pay attention to it 0 Also called sensory memory or sensoryinformation storage SIS The various sensory systems vision hearing have their own type of sensory buffer Capacty How many items can we encode into the sensory system 0 Sperling 1960 0 Letters are flashed on the screen and you need to remember as many as you can 0 Whole report Remember as many letters as you can People typically report 3 or 4 letters accurately 0 Partial report Like whole report but after the letters disappear then an arrow indicates which row to recall If you can accurately report 34 letters from a row then that means you must have seen 912 3 from each row 0 What we extract from the task is only the sensory image and it disappears quickly We maintain information as sensory copies until we extract a different kind of information a We may extract the shape then we extract the categorical information oh that s the letter A o This is what requires attention People with a photographic memory the sensory image doesn t leave them quickly 0 Number of letters in the stimulus vs number of letters available For the whole report a No matter how many letters you are presented with you will only be able to record 4 or 5 letters a 6 items presented then slightly more than 4 letters Partial report a If display item contains 6 letters and you can report 5 n Multiply the number of recorded letters by the number of rows to figure out how many letters they processed and had available to them 0 By the time we get to report certain items the rest of the memory is gone Duration and forgetting 0 When the cue the arrow appears after 1 second then most of the sensory information is gone 0 We may be able to hold on to 4 items simultaneously but other than that it requires more effort and costly attentional resources Longer durationmore likely to forget ADD is the lack of ability to focus attention on one item 0 If you re attention is easily disturbed you may not be able to report as many items because maintaining attention is more difficult Coding o By paying attention to items we can select information for subsequent processing 0 The paying attention part is coding but it holds the information in an unanalyzed way The material held in this storage is close to its basic sensory form precategorical storage Attention as a filter of sensory input 0 Physical features earlyselection 0 Cocktail party phenomenon o Dichotic listening task 2 streams of auditory information and each stream is played into each ear hears a different message in each ear then she is asked to repeat the message in a certain ear called shadowing the point of this experimentparadigm is to see what still remains from the unattended channelear u people can usually remember physical features from their unattended earchannel u but they cannot report semantic information content earlyselective model suggests we can only pick up physical info from the unattended channel but further research suggests that sometimes we can pick up semantics from the unattended channel if its familiar information like your name if we only have early selection then there would be no difference among conditions of the Stroop test but semantic relationship between target and distracter makes it harder a early selection we select information based on their physical features 0 no semantic processing of unattended information o if semantic info is attended then its late selection 0 Meaning semantic late selection 0 O Familiarrelevant information is considered pertinent so we pay attention Evidence for late selection Corteen and Wood 1972 a Used a galvanic skin response measure change in electrical response in the skin when you re in a certain emotional state and conditioned a neutral word like desk or chair with an emotionally charged image like a murder scene The neutral words will be associated with high galvanic skin response At a later stage they presented the word subliminally fast enough that they couldn t process what the image was and although they couldn t detect the content of the image the emotional response was still present 0 If you know what it is you can either suppress it or let it facilitate your processing a Semantic information can be implicitly processed without awareness Automatic and Controlled Processes of Attention 0 Automatic processes 0 O O The process does not require attentionalselective resources Those that are not consciously controlled Preattentive processing identifying the red circle out of red squares is automatic Typing is one example because it just goes effortlessly you don t need to think of where the keys are Controlled processes 0 Those that are deliberately attended to Stroop test 0 Stimulus is a color word red but the word itself will be presented in a color blue and you are asked to record the color of the word not the word itself word meaning sometimes interferes with the task 0 Info regarding the word color is the target and word meaning is distracter 0 Reading is automatic 0 Can t be controlled 0 3 conditions Congruent condition a Word meaning matches the color red is presented in red a Related bc word and color match a Response time fastest Incongruent a Word meaning is different from the color red is presented in blue I Need to maintain high level of controlled processing to filter out the word meaning a Slowest response time In Early selection filter suggest we should be able to filter our attention to the physical and right aspect color sometimes the word meaning is not completely filtered out and causes some interferences this suggests the automatic process may influence our attentional process through the lateselection filter Neutral a Different colors of symbols instead of words In red instead of green I Supposed to be easier than incongruent condition a Second fastest response time o Topdown process Name the color but at the same time the meaning of the word becomes available to you 0 Automatic The meaning of the word reading it o Controlled The color of the word you need to fight saying the meaning of the word you need to suppress the activation of the response Attentional blink An example of how limited our attentional resources are 0 When you have multiple targets to detect and the second target follows the first in close timing you won t detect the second target it ll be like blinking 0 Flash of 10 different letters count how many X s and G s you see It went xgxg a Most of us missed the first g because we were still busy processing the x o The detection of the second target is greatly influenced by the number of items between those two targets If you have 245 items in between then processing of the second target will require some kind of blink Repetition blindness o Is a decrease in the ability to perceive repeated stimuli during a rapid serial presentation of items 0 For example if letters are flashed at you in a rapid order and two consecutive letters are both B you may only remember having seen one B o This is not due to an inability to visually separate the letters Because the effect occurs even when the letters are in different cases 0 Are in different sizes 0 When two semantically identical objects are flashed at you you miss the second one o If the first target is still getting processing when the second target is shown then you ll miss it Even if there is a physical distinction a black B and a red b Figuring out the identity of a stimulus requires attention so while you re doing that you miss another one a While you engage in a semantic analysis and another target is flashed then you completely miss it 0 Different from selective filter because that s when you have multiple items and you select one to pay attention to due to physical features WHEREAS REPETITION BLINDNESS is more like your external system doesn t allow anything to come in because you re highly engaged in semantic analysis Change blindness 0 Can either be in a static image or overlapping images 0 When there s a change in the stimulus right in front of you but you can t recognize the change 0 Video with the cards changing color but then the scenery and table cloth and shirts also changed 0 Didn t recognize any of the other changes besides the cards Because we selected the card game as the target and everything else the actual changes were distracters We thought the background clothes etc were irrelevant to the task so we didn t pay attention to them 0 change blindness occurs at distracter level 0 one way to be distracted is when a task is so easy only using 1020 of cognitive resources that you have a lot of spare resources that are being used but if you re using a lot of cognitive resources by paying a lot of attention then you won t get distracted o are there just too many distracters and you can t find the target Inattentional blindness The human attentional spotlight can sometimes cause observers to miss entire events not just a letter or a word 0 Attentiondemanding task 0 If you re heavily engaged with a main task and something new happens then your attention to that will be deteriorated 0 Using a cell phone will driving affects your driving performance in a negative way The Neuropsychology of Attention 0 Four key disorders that break down attention 0 Simultanagnosia Balint s syndrome Cannot distinguish one object from another if they re overlapping Some people s attentional focus is so limited that they cannot see objects to the right or left of where they are attending A difficulty in recognizing two or more objects at the same time If you present them with 4 overlapping images bucket flower hammer pen they won t be able to distinguish them as separate Spacebased attention a Move attention from space to space a Balint s syndrome patients are fine with this Object based attention a Process from object to object within the same location or spatial area n 35 patients object based attention is damaged 0 Hemispheric neglect When you have an impaired parietal cortex the visual field representing that side is impaired n Parietal cortex is the area that s important for spatial attention 0 Our brain processes information quatralaterally right cortex processes left visual field and visa versa 0 If someone has a right parietal cortex damaged the corresponding hemisphere will have damages n Suggests we have another attentional system that uses spatial coordinates 0 Like our parietal cortex is mapped onto the quadrilateral visual field and the In Their vision is ok their attention is the problem 0 They see it but they don t know it enough to process it u If you have left parietal cortex damage its different 0 You d expect their right visual field is neglected it is but not in the same manner 0 The pattern isn t simply opposite o Attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder Difficulty of inhibition more like inhibition deficit because they re paying attention to everything even when its irrelevant ADHD have problems attending selectively Related to low concentration of dopamine n Dopamine is responsible for reward feelings but if the dopamine is low then our brain won t be rewarded for inhibiting irrelevant stimulants and our inhibition is lifted and you pay attention to everything u Basil ganglia is related to dopamine pathway 0 Lack of activity in basil ganglia decreases inhibition Symptoms of ADHD include a Distractibility n Inattentiveness n ResUessness n Difficulty in selfcontrol Ritalin I Effects are different if you have ADHD or if you re brain is normal Ritalin activates the basil ganglia and more dopamine so you can focus more 0 Brings the pathway to a normal level NonADHD the activation is reduced o It will activate the basil ganglia system more efficiently so you don t need to use the entire pathway for the task 0 Parkinson s dementia Trouble maintaining attention When the patients needs to engage in activity that is not well learned or must formulate and evaluate a hypothesis When the patient needs to suppress an habitual response or resist a temptation When the patient needs to keep focused and not be distracted in performing a task Also associated with motor deficits these and cognitive deficits are associated with the same cause Low concentration of dopamine in basal ganglia relates to lack of control in motor movement I Also issues in cognitive problems 0 Their deficit should be in executing tasks 0 Cognitive intrusion when you try maintain a stream of thoughts it may activate other irrelevant thoughts
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