Chapter 12 notes
Chapter 12 notes CH102
Popular in Chemistry 102
Popular in Chemistry
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Study Guide ANT 100 exam 2 Acheulean lower Paleolithic tool making associated with Homo erectus Acheulean Tools Lower Paleolithic 16 million years ago300000 years ago associated with H erectus referred to as hand axe an axe without a handle symmetric and standardization made with direct percussion soft hammer using different types of material to shape the tool mostly bifacial both sides sharp Hand axe is called the Swiss army knife because it had many different uses H erectus were the first to spread out and every group of H erectus made tools the same way without communicating with each other Alternatives to burials burials at sea cannibalism cremation ecological funeral promessionresomation gibbeting hanging coffins excarnation Archaeoastronomy study of the relationship between prehistory knowledge of astronomical events through calendars observatory sites and astronomical images in art and past cultural behavior Archeobotany study of plants in an archaeological sense Archaeology the study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture s material remains Artifacts portable object or material used modified or created by human activity Atlatl upper Paleolithic spear thrower a grooved board that propels a spear with increased force earliest ones from French cave 15000 years ago increases distance and power Harpoon like a spear but with a detachable head consisting of a pointed shaft with backwardpointing barbs Woomeras device that increases the power a spear can be hurled a long stick with a hooked end which holds the spear Looks like a wooden paddle Behistun Inscription Mesopotamian writing smoothed rock down and put artwork inscription includes 3 versions of the same text about Darius the Great it is to cuneiform what the Rosetta stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphics it allowed us to decipher other cuneiform languages Blombos Cave South Africa evidence from the middle Paleolithic pressure aking bone tools decorated pigment and shell beads early evidence for shell fishing and possibly fishing Boc Mo buried for about 3 years state or ancestors dig you up cremate your bones and put in a box Burial Orientation exed knees to chest vs extended arms and legs extended vs upright standing or sitting upright Portable art art that can be picked up artifact Cave art feature cant be moved from a cave Australian cave art 4030 thousand years ago mostly done by women European cave art 30 thousand years ago South African cave art 28 thousand years ago Circumscription Theory populations concentrated in agricultural areas Populations grow agricultural areas fill up competition for land and resources increases If agricultural areas are limited circumscribed by natural boundaries stress leads to warfare A state established to administer conquered lands people and tribute Problems include Explains some but not all cases of primary state formation Population increases and warfare within a circumscribed environment does not always lead to state formation Consequences of food production heavily dependent on certain foods malnutrition increased disease from close contact with animals humans waste increased warfare social inequality soil depletion Context the time and space setting of an artifact feature or culture Coprolite fossilized excrement Core tools using a large rock and striking akes off to shape the core into a tool referred to as choppers Flake tools striking off a ake from a core and shaping the core into a tool Cro Magnon the first fossil find of an AMH from France s Dorlogne Valley 1868 Cuneiform early Mesopotamian writing that used a stylus to write wedgeshaped impressions on raw clay from the Latin word for wedge Dendrochronology study of annual growth rings fo tree very precise dates requires good wood preservation Direct percussion a technique used to produce stone tools in which akes are produced by striking a core with another stone or by striking the core against a fixed stone less precise method than indirect percussion Indirect percussion techniques of stone tool manufacture in which akes are removed from a core in a way that causes less wasteful shatter of the material than direct percussion The hammer does not strike the core but rather a wood antler or bone hit the core so that the manufacture of akes is more controlled Domestication the adaptation of an animal or plant through breeding in captivity for useful advantage to and by humans Early Civilizations Old World includes Mesopotamia 5500 Egypt 5100 Indus River Valley 4800 China 3800 New World includes Peru 2200 Mesoamerica AD 100 Ecofacts nonartifactual remains that have archaeological relevance provide information on environment and subsistence Example is eating a deer and dropping bones Environmental preservation this is talking about how the environment preserves things naturally not how we can help preserve the environment organic remains tend to decompose faster than inorganic remains except in 3 environments dry cold waterlogged examples of this are Otzi and Tollund man Ethnohistory the study of nonWestern cultures using evidence from documentary sources and oral traditions Evolution of Pyramid tombgtmastabagtstepped pyramidgt bent pyramidgt true pyramid Excavation systematic uncovering of artifacts and features vertical vs horizontal Features nonportable human made object cannot be removed without destroying must be studied in the field Flexed burial womb position knees to chest Extended burial laying down typical to our culture now Supine position laying on your back and looking up Prone position laying on your stomach with your face on the ground it is an insult Floatation technique for the recovery of botanical remains good for ecofacts Food collectorshunter gatherers foragers hunting fishing gathering Food producers horticulturalists pastoralists agriculturalists this did not happen until 10000 years ago Horticulturalists gardening Pastoralists raising livestock Agriculturalists farming Fossils remains traces or impressions of ancient life Ground stone tools a class of stone artifacts produced by grinding or pecking and formed into a tool or vessel These include tools made from granite pumice and steatite Halflife the time taken for half of a given amount of radioactive substance to decay into a nonradioactive substance basis of radiocarbon and other radiometric dating methods Hieratic a cursive form of the Egyptian hieroglyphs developed for every day use Hieroglyphics pictographic writing a pictorial script used by ancient Egyptians Historical archaeology using written records as guides and supplements to archaeological research they work with remains more recent than the advent of writing Hollywood s Archaeology Hollywood tends to exaggerate romanticize archaeology its not an accurate depiction of the field Horizontal excavation excavation designed to uncover large areas of a sites reveals spatial association between artifacts and features Hydraulic theory most primary states depend on irrigation irrigation construction required centralized government and administrators controlled the vital water resource and soon controlled a dependent population Some issues with this theory include Large irrigation does not appear until after the primary state in Mesopotamia Some societies had irrigation but never became a state Inorganic material that is neither animal or plant an inorganic ecofacts are ecofacts derived from nonbiological remains including soils and minerals Organic artifactecofact made of organic materials such as living organisms including wood bone horn fiber ivory or hide Irrigation complex combination of canals channels and hoses Irrigation led to the development of civilizations and allowed for agriculture and farming Iared diamond said agriculture is the worst mistake made in human history Landfill compositionWilliam Rathj e and the Tucson garbage project are focusing on composition of landfills our landfills are mostly full of paper Long distance trade theory Mesoamerican Mesopotamia and later kingdoms of Africa were largely involved with trade Organizational requirements of producing items for export redistributing items imported and defending trade parties would foster state formation This isn t true because we see ancient china develop complex societies without trade Material culture the artifacts and ecofacts used by a group to cope with their physical and social environment Includes buildings and tools Physical evidence of a culture Megafauna large animals that existed during the Pleistocene extinction brought on by climate change and humans wooly mammoths carnivorous kangaroos Mousterian middle Paleolithic associated with Neanderthals ake tools instead of core tools retouched levallois technique variety of tools composite tools blades Neolithic revolution domestication and food production ground stone tools composite tools for plant harvesting ceramic pottery During the Neolithic the earth warms up and forests dry out and start to become savannas When people start living together in the Neolithic age a lot of things become more prevalent malnutrition spread of disease government Oldowan Tools earliest tools from the basal Paleolithic found in Olduvai Gorge associated with H habilis akes and mostly choppers made with direct percussion little standardization or retouching mostly unifacial only sharp side on one side would use tools once and then discard them M bones of contention frozen hiker from 3300 BC Paleolithic Old Stone Agequot divided into basal 2600000 h Habilis lower 1600000 300000 h Erectus middle 30000040000 Neanderthals and upper 4000010000 h Sapiens During upper Paleolithic humans move to continents they ve never been to Phytolith microbotanical rigid microstructure in plant cells silica you find these on teeth tools Pictographic semantic only talking about the meaning usually first in evolution of writing Logo syllabic semantic and phonetic sound to represent beginning of word Chinese apanese cuneiform are examples Alphabetic phonetic only symbols re ect pronunciation of the words can be rearranged Piltdown Fraud a set of skull fragments presented in 1913 to be an apelike jaw and claiming to be the missing evolutionary link between ancient and modern humans exposed as a hoax in 1953 uorine uranium dating indicated it was a lie skull was about 600 years old and jaw was from a modern orangutan PotassiumArgon Dating an isotopic method of dating the age of a rockmineral by measuring the rate at which potassium4O decays into argon Prehistory a period for which there is no documentary evidence the study of cultures before written history or of more recent cultures lacking formal historical records Pressure aking tiny extremely thin akes pinched or pushed off a tool to finish shaping it or to resharpen or reshape it Primary burial when a person is put in the ground and left Secondary burial when a person is put in the ground and then dug back up Pseudo archaeology the use of selective archaeological evidence real or imagined to promote fictional accounts of the past Radiocarbon dating aka carbon14 dating Willard Libby awarded Nobel Prize in 1949 for this environmental carbon14 is absorbed by living organisms When they die no more is absorbed and decay rates can be measured halflife is 5730 years this is absolute dating Raised fields aka chinampas a method of Mesoamerican agriculture that used small rectangular areas of fertile land to grow crops on the shallow lakebeds in Mexico Relative dating this is when an archaeologist dates things based on a time frame rather than absolute dates in numbers it includes seriation stratigraphic bone chemistry this is the example given of old cars you can tell which are older and which are newer but you aren t sure of the exact date Absolute dating dating techniques that establish dates in numbers or ranges of numbers examples include the radiometric method of carbon14 Remote sensing use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on the ground Rosetta Stone royal decree by Ptolemy V in 196 BC written in hieroglyphic demotic Greek romans closed the temples it was in found by napoleons troops Screening passing soil through mesh to retain artifacts Seriation creating a sequence of artifact types and variability over time Silver Fox experiment conducted in the USSR in 1959 selective breeding of silver foxes artificial selection for a single trait friendliness towards humans 35 generations over 40 years created domesticated foxes of different colors that were more tame and doglike amp concentrated traces of human activity accumulations of artifacts or features The State a complex civilization includes stratified social system bureaucracy of officials specific territoryarmy and economic specialists Additional characteristics include agricultural innovations cities record keepingwriting monumental architecture public and private warfare Stratigraphy science that examines the ways in which earth sediments are deposited in demarcated layers known as strata Supine position laying on your back and looking up Prone position laying on your stomach with your face on the ground it is an insult Systematic survey the survey area is divided into sectors or grids and these are walked systematically making the recording of finds more accurate Terraced fields graduated terrace steps are commonly used to farm on hilly or mountainous terrain decreases erosion and surface runoff may be used to support growing crops that require irrigation such as rice Tollund man preserved body of an Iron Age man found in Tollund Fen in Denmark he had been hanged in 3rd century BC his body was dressed in a hat and belt his stomach contents were sufficiently preserved for analysis 4 Culture changes in transition to states 1 Agricultural innovation irrigation systems chinampas Humans can take dry infertile land and turn it into a place where food can be grown to support a civilization 2 Diversification of labor a few people could provide sufficient food while others could specialize in crafts religion or leadership roles 3 Emergence of central government made sure that different interest groups did not infringe on one another s rights ensured safety levied taxes 4 Social stratification in ancient Egypt the lowly people wore plain colors as you move up the clothing becomes more intricate and elaborate Small amounts of the population are controlling the majority of society State formation depends on number of interacting individuals or groups systemenvironment what they are building on historyparticulars their goals agency free will Tucson Garbage Project archaeologists used archaeology methods to research human behavior and landfills compared what people said against what they threw away Upper Paleolithic upper40000 Holocene Neolithic10000 h Sapiens bladetool making traditions of early AMHs During upper Paleolithic humans move to continents they ve never been to Use wear analysis microscopic analysis of a tools edge for characteristic wear patterns experimental archeology trying to figure out how a tool was used by looking at the marks it leaves Vertical excavation excavation used to expose strata site formation and chronology Worst Mistakeproposal by Jared Diamond that agriculture was one of the worst mistakes of human history Supported by the fact that agriculture causes malnutrition disease sexism and weaker bones causes people to be shorter due to lack of nutrition Hunter gatherers had a varied diet while early farmers had mostly starchy crops corn rice Farmers ran the risk of starvation if a crop failed Mesopotamian Writing developed for economic reasons trade Used tokens 80003500 BC bulla envelope 3500 BC cuneiform tablet 3200 BC Behistun inscription 500 BC smoothed rock down and put artwork Might have in uenced other writing systems in the Old World Egyptian Writing developed for political reasons propaganda Macehead ceremonial weapon used by Egyptian kings Narmer palette makeup case used to store black pigment for use on your eyes Over 3000 years ancient Egyptians used 3 types of writing hieroglyphic hieratic deomotic First cursive hieroglyphics came from Book of the Dead Oldest Hieratic Edwin Smith papyrus first patient case file 1600 BC 48 different cases Demotic 26th dynasty 6OOBC400AD replaced hieratic except for religious texts Rosetta Stone royal decree by Ptolemy V in 196 BC written in hieroglyphic demotic Greek romans closed the temples it was in found by napoleons troops Shang Dynasty 7661112 BC developed writing for religious reasons earliest writing on oracle bones like a magic 8 ball Mesoamerican writing developed for political reasons record keeping Logograms and phonetic signs Zooarchaeology the study of animal remains especially bones from archaeological contexts Humans are the least protected animals exposed abdomen no claws no shell Stone technology timeline is categorized by which tools are present similar to geological time Know the dates of the UPPER Paleolithic Homo habilis is associated with basal Paleolithic Neanderthals made the switch from the Swiss army knife to a tool kit instead of having an all in 1 tool you see a variety of options Through experimental replication archaeologists try and figure out how to create tools which materials work best and producing tools Oldest musical instruments one found in Germany that was 85 inch ute carved from vulture bone that is 35000 years ago When people start living together in the Neolithic age a lot of things become more prevalent malnutrition spread of disease government There are two main ways to get food food collectors and food producers During the Neolithic the earth warms up and forests dry out and start to become savannas Top five coolest pets humanity has bred into existence silver fox big jungle cats that wont kill you camas mini camels sheepgoats zonkey The earliest domestication was not for food Mesoamericans domesticated gourds as a containers 9000 years ago Food surpluses led to cities and states surpluses made it possible to accumulate wealth beginning of social differentiation specialization of labor craftsmen or artisans traders Civilizations are able to form because certain individuals can control food production When and where did the world s states first develop Old World includes Mesopotamia 5500 Egypt 5100 Indus River Valley 4800 China 3800 New World includes Peru 2200 Mesoamerica AD 100 What changes in culture accompanied the rise of state level societies Developing enough food to feed people diversification of labor emergence of central government social stratification Whyhow did statelevel societies evolve The lower people in a citystate choose to participate for protection The leaders interests are clear they are participating for power and control The lower peoples are interested in protection especially if they live in a place where war is going on Ways archaeologist recognize stratification in ancient civilizations the size of dwellings and burial status Neanderthals are the first to bury their dead Mummification is a product of seeing how death affects the body Boc mo buried for about 3 years state or ancestors dig you up cremate your bones and put in a box Cahokia the largest mound in America mound 72 Burials and monuments in state stratified societiesstrong differentiation Zoser created the stepped pyramid Chemistry 102 chapters 12 notes Chapter 12 book notes Crystalline atoms molecules that compose them are arranged in a well ordered 3D array Amorphous atoms molecules that compose them have no long range order Can change states by changing temperature or pressure or both Intermolecular forces are much WEAKER than bonding forces Moderate strong intermolecular forces 9 liquid solid Weak intermolecular forces 9 gas Dispersion force result of uctuations in the electron distribution within molecules atoms Dispersion forces increase with increasing molar mass Polar molecules have dispersion forces as well as dipole dipole forces this raises melting point Miscibility the ability to mix without separating into 2 states polar liquids are miscible with other polar liquids NOT with nonpolar liquids Hydrogen bond a super dipole dipole force hydrogen bonded to NOF strong intermolecular force substances composed of hydrogen bonds have higher meltingboiling points Ion dipole force when an ionic compound is missed with a polar compound strongest of intermolecular forces Surface tension energy required to increase the surface area by a unit amount Viscosity resistance of a liquid to ow greater in substances with stronger intermolecular forces depends on molecular shape temperature increases with molar mass Capillary action ability of a liquid to ow against gravity Chapter 12 class notes gt Cohesive forces hold matter together in the condensed phases 0 Condensed phases liquids solids gt Ionic bonding cohesive force opposite charges attract Coulomb s law 0 Lattice energy energy released when one mole of an ionic compound is formed from its ions in the gas phase from Coulomb s law NONBONDING forces Dispersion forces when regions have excesss charges and repelattract 0 Heat of fusion Dipole dipole attractions polar molecules have permanent dipole determined by the electron geometry permanent dipole adds to attractive forces and raises lowers boiling point Hydrogen dipole dipole hydrogen bonding is stranger than dipole dipole and dispersion forces Miscible soluble in all parts Surface tension property of liquids tendency to minimize surface area Surface molecules are less stable than those in the interior Raising temperature reduces surface tension Viscosity resistance of a liquid to ow Larger intermolecular forces larger viscosity More spherical shape lower viscosity Raising temperature lower viscosity Capillary action ability of al iquid to ow up a thin tube against gravity Result of cohesive and adhesive forces acting together The narrower the tube diameter the higher the liquid will rise Concave meniscus if liquid is attracted to side of tube Convex meniscus if liquid is stronger in cohesive forces Vaporization cohesive forces holding liquid together then some evaporate Must overcome cohesive forces Larger the surface area the faster evaporation happens Increases with temperature increasing surface area ALWAYS endothermic process requires energy Condensation exothermic process opposite of vaporization Heat of vaporization amount of energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid Always endothermic process requires energy Dynamic equilibrium when 2 opposite processes reach the same rate Vapor pressure pressure exerted by the vapor when it is in dynamic equilibrium If volume of the chamber is increased the pressure decreases As the temperature increases vapor pressure increases Boiling point when vapor pressure is equal to external pressure Melting change from solid to liquid AHfusion Vaporization change from liquid to gas phase Avaporization Water is an excellent solvent dissolves many ionic and polar molecular substances Phase diagrams describes different states and state changes that occur at various temperatures pressures Regions represent states Lines represent state changes on the line both phases exist simultaneously Critical point farthest point on vapor pressure curve Triple point temperature pressure condition in which all 3 states can exist Solidliquid fusion curve Liquid gas vaporization curve Solid gas sublimation curve Supercritical uid at some temperature the meniscus between the liquid and vapor disappears and the states commingle to form supercritical uid 1 Torr 1mmHg
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