April 5 & 7 Lecture Notes
April 5 & 7 Lecture Notes Psyc 2010-003
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Chapter 12: Stress and Health Health Psychology The field of psychology that looks at o How people stay healthy o Why they become ill o How they respond when they do get ill Goals: o Help people understand their role in their health and life expectancy o Discover what causes noncompliance o Help people to understand the role played by stress Stress Stress: the process by which we appraise and cope with threats and challenges Stressors: the events or situations to which people must adjust o The causes of stress Process of stress o Stressors: life changes and strains, catastrophic events, daily hassles, chronic stressors (persistent in the background) o Stress mediators: cognitive appraisal, predictability, control, coping resources and methods, social support o Stress responses: physical, psychological (emotional, cognitive, behavioral) The Stress Response System Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the inner adrenal glands Increasing heart and respiration rates Mobilizing sugar and fat Dulling pain The General Adaptation Syndrome Phase 1: Alarm o Mobilize resources (activation of sympathetic nervous system) “Shock”; fight or flight; hormones (cortisol) released o Temperature, blood pressure, respiration is high o Relatively short period of time Phase 2: Resistance o Cope with stressor; energy depletion continues o Heart rate, etc return to normal o You are especially vulnerable to illness o At certain point, body cannot resist stress o Ability to handle stress declines Phase 3: Exhaustion o Reserves depleted o Prolonged stress damages body/brain o Some people can handle stress longer than others Measuring Stress Can take saliva and measure amount of cortisol o Can simply ask SRSS Sample Items & Scores Example scores o 100 Death of a spouse o 73 Divorce o 47 fired at work o 28 Outstanding personal achievements o 26 begin or end of school Low = 149 Major>300 However, this scale does not consider how we perceive or appraise the stress Stress Appraisal How you appraise the stressor determines your response (and how much stress you feel) Stressful event —appraisal (threat or challenge)—response (stressed to distraction or aroused, focused) Psychological Responses to Stress Emotional Responses o How you feel about it Cognitive Responses o Ruminative thinking (cant get thought out of your head and keep thinking about it) and catastrophizing (thinking of the worst possible thing that could happen) Negative appraisal to stress o Impairs problem-solving and decision-making Behavioral Responses o Escape and avoidance responses; aggression Stress and Personality Type A behavioral pattern o Competitive, verbally aggressive, impatient, anger-prone o Pessimistic Type B behavioral pattern o Easygoing, relaxed o Optimistic Type A personalities are more likely to experience stress and stress-related health problems Pessimism and Heart Disease Pessimistic adult men are twice as likely to develop heart disease over a 10-year period Pessimists have higher percent developing coronary heart disease; then neutral; then optimists Pattern similar for other diseases as well Stress and Gender Males tend to get angry and/or avoid stressors or both o A “fight-or-flight” pattern Females are more likely to help others and to make use of their social support network o A “tend and befriend” style Stress and The Immune System Stress can impair or suppress the immune system Antibody secretion reduced during stressful periods The more stressed you are, the more likely you are to have a cold Predictability and Control of Stressor Predictable stressors (you have control): exams, tax day Unpredictable stressors (you don’t have control): deaths, accidents o Unpredictable stressors have a higher effect than predictable Perception of control can dull the effects of stressors o The belief that a stressor is controllable can reduce the impact of the stressors o The absence of perceived control over stressors is a predictor of health problems o When tested on rats, the rat that thinks it has control had a body makeup that was identical to the one that did have control Aerobic Exercise o Exercise at a certain level of heart rate o Powerful stress mediator o Evaluated depression levels before aerobic exercise and before a relaxation treatment to measure stress o Relaxation treatment group decreased slightly o Aerobic exercise group had a large drop in depression scores Social Support o Supportive family members, marriage partners, and close friends help people cope with stress o Their immune functioning calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure Life-Style Modification o Modifying Type A lifestyle may reduce the recurrence of heart attacks o Modifying life-style reduced recurrent heart attacks Spirituality and Faith Communities o Regular religious attendance has been a reliable predictor of a longer life span with a reduced risk of dying o Small but significant difference in life expectancy of churchgoers QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the a. Thalamus b. Cortex c. Hypothalamus d. Cerebellum ANSWER: B 2. The James-lange theory of emotion states that a. To experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event b. The expression of emotion reduces our level of physiological arousal c. An emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological arousal and the subjective experience of emotion d. To experience emotion we must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the emotion ANSWER: A 3. Test performance is typically _______ when physiological arousal is _________. a. Best; moderate b. Worst; moderate c. Best; very low d. Best; very high ANSWER: A 4. People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of a. Anger b. Surprise c. Happiness d. Boredom ANSWER: A 5. According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are a. Facial expressions; a cognitive label b. Emotion-arousing events; physical arousal c. Physical arousal; overt behavior d. A cognitive label; physical arousal ANSWER: D 6. The two-factor theory of emotion would have difficulty explaining why a a. Person comes to fear snakes after he sees someone else bitten by one b. Person’s fear of snakes is reduced after she receives a calming tranquilizer c. Person automatically fears snakes even though he thinks they are attractive and harmless d. Person’s fear of snakes is reduced after she learns that most snakes are harmless ANSWER: C 7. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system _______ respiration and _______ salivation. a. Increases; increases b. Increases; decreases c. Decreases; decreases d. Decreases; increases ANSWER: B 8. Compared with men, women are _____ effective in discerning whether a male-female couple is a genuine romantic couple or a posed phony couple. They are ______ effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the other’s supervisor. a. More; less b. Less; more c. More; more d. Less; less ANSWER: C 9. Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their a. Self-reported emotions b. Changes in heart rate c. Facial expressions of emotion d. Changes in respiration ANSWER: C 10. The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompanies different emotions. a. Conscious experiences b. Expressive behaviors c. Physiological arousal d. Subjective well-being ANSWER: C Personality and the Psychodynamic Perspective April 7, 2016 What is Personality? Personality o The unique pattern of enduring thoughts, feelings, and actions that characterize a person o A psychological construct A thing that exists only by definition Not directly observable But can be inferred from behavior o Where does it come from? What shapes it? Sigmund Freud Believed that our personalities, behavior, and behavior disorders are determined mainly by o Basic drives o Past psychological events Proposed that people are partly controlled by the unconscious part of their personality Created the psychodynamic approach to personality o The interplay of various unconscious psychological processes determines thoughts, feelings, and behavior Freud’s Conception of the Personality Structure o Visualized as an iceberg that is mostly underwater o Conscious is above water o Preconscious: ego (reality principle) o Unconscious: superego (conscience and ego ideal) and id (pleasure principle) Id: the unconscious portion of personality where the love and death instincts reside o Operates on the pleasure principle o Not aware of the outside world o “Pleasure at any cost” Superego: portion of personality that dictates what one should and should not do o Learned, internalized rules from society, family, culture o Your “conscience” Ego: portion of personality responsible for satisfying the demands of the id o Operates on the reality principle o Ego is aware of the outside world o “How can I obtain pleasure in the real world” Ego is the moderator between: o Id: “do whatever you have to do to get pleasure” (impulsive desires) o Superego: “don’t do the wrong thing/break the rules” (internalized conscience) o Reality Ego Anxiety o Ego does not like anxiety o Conflicts: Superego and id: if you steal (moral anxiety) Ego and reality: when you receive a bad grade and are afraid of failing (reality anxiety) Id and ego: your fear that you may cheat on your spouse (neurotic anxiety) o In these cases, your ego responds with a defense mechanism to protect itself Strategies ego uses to alleviate anxiety Defense Mechanisms Unconscious tactics your ego uses to prevent harmful material from “surfacing” by distorting reality Making stuff up; lying to oneself Therefore, reducing the ego’s anxiety Repression: unconsciously pushing threatening memories, urges, or ideas from conscious awareness: person may experience loss of memory for unpleasant events Rationalization: attempting to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable: the reasons or excuses given sound rational, but are not real reasons for the behavior (“I spank my children because it is good for them”) Projection: unconsciously attributing ones own unacceptable thoughts or impulses to another person: instead of recognizing that “I hate him” a person may feel that “he hates me” Reaction formation: defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite to them: sexual interest in married friend might appear as a strong dislike instead Some behaviors do occur but are not due to conflicts of id/ego/superego Rationally explained as cognitive coping mechanisms Personality Development (Freud) Psycho-sexual Stages o Oral Stage (0-1) years Mouth is the center of pleasure Babies like to put everything in their mouth Oral fixation occurs when this stage is never grown out of o Anal Stage (2-3 years) Most infants are starting to be toilet trained Toilet training clashes with instinctual pleasure in having bowel movements at will Toilet training that is too harsh or starts too early or too late can lead to anal fixation o Phallic Stage o (3-5 year old boys) Boys experience a sexual desire toward the mother Little boys hate the father, who is competing for mother’s affection Boys fear of being castrated by father causes anxiety to the ego Defense mechanisms cause the boy to identify and love father and try to be like him; superego develops o (3-5 year old girls) Girls also love their mother; have strong attachment Girls realize that they (and Mom) do not have penises and develop penis envy Penis envy causes girls to transfer love to the father and hate the mother But afraid of mom, who is competing for father’s love Scared of mom, reaction formation kicks in and she develops a love for mom; superego develops Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) The TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes Rorschach Inkblot Test Seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to do) Criticisms of Psychodynamic Theories Based on case studies o Findings based on counseling sessions with a handful of upper-class women in Victorian Europe (where sex was taboo) o Lacks generalizability Inherently un-testable; not scientific o Can never be supported or unsupported Overestimated the importance of unconscious drives Inherently biased against females o An important basis of theory is that females are inferior (or feel inferior) to males QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. Captive animals are more vulnerable to disease than are wild animals. This is best explained in terms of a. The adaptation-level phenomenon b. The relative deprivation principle c. Spontaneous remission d. A perceived loss of control ANSWER: D 2. A stressor is a(n) a. Lower back muscle that frequently produces a feeling of physical tension. b. Environmental event that threatens or challenges us c. Exercise program designed to increase our ability to handle normal stress d. Hormone released by the adrenal glands during periods of stress ANSWER: B 3. Stress is defined as a. Unpleasant or averse events that cannot be controlled b. Situations that threaten health c. The process by which we perceive and respond to challenging or threatening events d. Anything that decreases immune responses ANSWER: C 4. Type A is to _______ as Type B is to ________. a. Realistic; idealistic b. Introverted; extraverted c. Hard-driving; easygoing d. Optimistic; pessimistic ANSWER: C 5. The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by a. Resistance b. Exhaustion c. An alarm reaction d. A tend-and-befriend response ANSWER: B 6. After Georgiana learns that a tornado has destroyed her house, her brain probably directed the outer part of her adrenal glands to react by a. Releasing testosterone b. Producing androgens c. Increasing the production of lymphocytes d. Secreting cortisol ANSWER: D 7. The field of health psychology is concerned with a. The prevention of illness b. The promotion of health c. The treatment of illness d. All of the above ANSWER: D 8. A perceived loss of control is associated with _____ epinephrine levels and ____ lymphocyte activity a. Increased; decreased b. Decreased; increased c. Increased; increased d. Decreased; decreased ANSWER: A 9. During which stage of the general adaptation syndrome is a person especially vulnerable to disease? a. Alarm reaction b. Stage of resistance c. Stage of exhaustion d. Stage of adaptation ANSWER: B
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