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Biology 1114 chapter 26 notes

by: hannah warren

Biology 1114 chapter 26 notes bio1114

Marketplace > Biology > bio1114 > Biology 1114 chapter 26 notes
hannah warren
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professor nelson

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lecture discussing phylogenetic trees and how they are created
professor nelson
One Day of Notes
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by hannah warren on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to bio1114 at a university taught by professor nelson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.


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Date Created: 02/03/15
Chapter 26 Phylogenetic Systematics Professor Nelson Biology 1114 Linnaean system of classification can be mapped onto a phylogenetic tree Hierarchal Classification broad to narrow domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species taxon taxanomic unit at any level of hierarchy broader taxa not comparable between lineages i2 is the outgrown 15 and B are EistEr groups to A and E manquot E l ll common ancestor of A and E Constructing a Tree reated organisms identified on basis of shared derived traits shared ancestral traits are NOT useful in distinguishing sub groups all members of the group share the trait Ex Hair is share derived for mammals vs reptiles Hair is shared ancestral trait for horses vs carnivores problems in evaluating traits distinguishing share derived traits from convergent evolution Ex Marine mammals all respond to water s density by having the same body shape that allows them to glide through the water but they don t come from the same ancestry Sorting Homology from Analogy homology similarity due to shared ancestry analogy similarity due to convergent evolution distinguished by fossil records degree of complexity development Ex Bat and bird wings are homologous as forelimbs but analogous as functional wings determing the direction of change use the outgroup to determine the ancestral condition Trait state of the outgroup are the ancestral traits cladistics group organisms by common descent clade group of species that includes ancestral species and all its descendants can be nested within larger clades also called monophyletic groups paraphyletic ancestor and some but not all of its descendants polyphyletic several ancestors between species Molecular Systematics nucleic acids or other molecules used to infer relatedness rRNA changes relatively slowly useful for investigating branching points millions of years ago mtDNA evolves rapidly can be used to explore recent events deletioninsertion of gene sequences branch lengths on phylogenetic trees proportional to genetic divergence and time since divergence molecular clock uses assumed constant rate of evolution in genes to estimate the absolute time of evolutionary change mutations accumulate at a constant rate potential problems with molecular clocks does not run as smoothly as expected if mutations were neutral irregularities result from natural selection some DNA favored over others extrapolation beyond fossil record is uncertain


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