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Date Created: 02/03/15
CNJ 108 Writing for the digital age Must have 5 current events from the last 24 hours every class AP style book Numbers Spe out whole numbers below 10 unless specified not to Spe out numbers that start a sentence is the result is awkward recast the sentence Don t but numbers to start sentences and if so spell it out The one exception to this rule is a sentence that begins with a calendar year Use roman numerals for wars For large numbers uses a hyphen to connect a word ending in y to another word twentyone five hundred fortythree Do not use commons between other separate words that are part of one number one thousand and one hundred fiftyfive Spe out casual expressions A thousand times no Proper names use words or numerals according to an organization s practice 3M Twentieth Avoid long numbers with lots of zeros as in 7000000000 instead just say 7 billion know the difference between 1 million and 1 billion For dollars we write 1 million Don t use decimals in money unless there is a demand for it Cents always a number never a word Do not use st nd th with dates use figures alone Comma after day date and year August 2014 spell out if you have complete day than it is abbreviated Aug 15 2014 Dimensions are numeral not words ex 3 inches 2 book bag If you can count it its a number if it is not countable it is amount Academic degrees Put an apostrophe in bachelor s degree and master s degree Shows possession There is no apostrophe in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science The preferred from is to avoid the abbreviation PhD of MA Drop semicolons Keep sentences short Assignment NAME Write two page double spaced autobiography Not where I live where l have been Write about the essential you Get to something meaningful Something you are passionate about you ex Sports What has shaped that passion Direct Objects Nouns that receives the action of the transitive verb Direct objects follow the verb and can be found by asking who or what received the action of the verb ex After dinner Matthew always serves a ex To the average citizen politics offer direct objects considerable frustration Transitive ex He refused because of his immaturity not his lack of contrition lntransitive conveys the action in itself Transitive conveys the action to something Pronouns Subject who Object whom Comma Rules 1 DO NOT use commas before coordinating conjunction and or but nor for yetso FANBOYS 2 Use commas to separate two independent clauses connecting by coordinating conjunctions ex He ran and she followed 3 Compound predicates do not need commas Two or more verbs serving the same subject ex The man voted today and hoped his candidate would win 4 Use commas following introductory phase ex everyday journalist report the news 5 Use commas to set off nonrestrictive non essential clauses phrases and modifiers from the rest of the sentence Pretend you can have parenthesis for that information ex The lawn mower is broken in the garage ex The lawn mower which is broken is in the garage which is relative pronoun the information is not essential proceeds a comma and is closed off by a comma 6 Use comma to separate descriptive modifiers or equal rank in the coordinating conjunction is missing 7 Use commas to set of parenthetical statements and nominative of direct address ex the test you may recall was easy exshe 8 Use commas to set off participialverb acting as adjective phrases that modify some part of the independent clause ex The runner quit having cut his toe on a broken bottle 9 DO NOT use commas to separate two independent clauses that are not joined by coordinating conjunction DO NOT use comma ex The test was today we all passed wrong way ex We all passed the test because it was easy right way 10 DO NOT use comma to separate reflexive pronoun ex The mayor himself will be here today 11 DO NOT use comma to precede a partial question ex The mayor said that his opponent was one of the worst candidates ever to run for office BUT if the quotation is a full sentence it should be preceded by a comma ex The mayor said John Smith is one of the worst candidates ever to run for office Word Choice Affect verb To influence character someone influenced by something else Effect noun Result Allude Indirect reference Elude To escape or avoid detection Among Distribution between 3 or more Between Distribution between 2 or more Anxious Worried negative emotion Eager Excitement AP Style notes We are now spelling out States in body content 100 of the time No more abbreviations Ages are always a number never a word don t write it out Hyphenate ages when not numerically equivalent ex 2yearold boy 2 years old boy Temperature and percentages are always in numbers ex 5 degrees 30 percent Any work of art created composition needs quotation marks when referencing them ex Song plays music and articles Newspapers and magazines to not need quotations bible is capitalized not quoted No quotes around words that you think have special meaning In addresses abbreviate when you have the number St Blvd and Ave cardinal coordinates are abbreviated Do not abbreviate Court and terrace First reference you use the full name second time you reference you can abbreviate and assume people know what it means If people are not going to recognize abbreviation spell it out Acronyms like FBI and CIA are acceptable because everyone knows what they mean When referencing people you use their full name in first reference and then all other references in the article only require last name For articles about families it depends For datelines you do not always need a state following the name of a city You don t use postal codes to abbreviate states am and pm always lower case Singular verbs always end in S plural verbs do not A unit is treated as a single A small group is singular Jury is a singular thing unless content of sentence identifies otherwise Who and whom refer to pronoun That and which refer to things that are not people Informative news writing Informational writing isn t just factual it is created in a way to impart the most information possible The inverted triangle put most important information first digital world has affected this Assignment Miami Herald respective client Research the issue Five bullet points that define the problem and the solution Write one page analysis of the problem from the prospective of representative 350400 words come up with solution Journalistic style Putting the most important information first so reader can look at headline and first paragraph so that they know what is going on Engage the reader in some kind of excitement and energy with narrative hook First paragraph should be so engaging that you want to continue reading Informative After first couple of paragraphs you can write all the stuff that surrounds the story illuminates the first paragraph As reporters we should be accurate and ethical Skepticism plays role in articles news articles need to be written in simple matter for readers convenience Chapter 5 Word choice is essential for a good hook Word choice should create visuals Charged words energy behind the word Milton Jerome of Mississippi unlawfully holds possession of Victoria Fulton s dog Jerome was in care of Fulton s Chinese Sharpei male dog in May of 2008 Fulton temporarily left her dog with Jerome she did not intend to give full custody of the do however Jerome refuses to give back the Sarpei Fulton has decided on a four thousand dollar bond which is almost twice the amount of the dog addresses always full street names unless there is a number ex 101 N Grant St Northwestern Avenue South Ninth Street Ages Always numbers we do not spell it out When number and noun that follow it than there is not hyphen but when number and noun that follows it do not correspond than hyphen is needed ex 1 year old 2 years old Compositions No ltalics for any identification of works of any kind All periods and all commas are put inside quotation marks Dates Day dates with number the month is abbreviated If we do not have number date we spell out the month Commas go around both sides of the year 80 s and 90 s written with apostrophe Much better to say today and give date yesterday is confusing Titles For titles we capitalize before the persons name after the persons name we do not capitalize ex Sergeant Johns or Johns police sergeant Public Relations the two fundamentals that we always have to practice are 1 What is the desired out come what do you want this effort to produce 2 Who it the target audience Formal research quantitative more stats Informal research how much can I learn about what I need to know AP ster dateline ex MIAMI Oct9 2014start news release here CORAL GABLES Florida Oct92014starts news release here For immediate release should be on top of page in bold or underline some news releases are embargo not for immediate release A news release is an advocated point of view they are written to convince Want people to ask for more information News releases are distributed through 3rd party services Business wire and PR wire are the biggest Word choice is everything in a news release Format of news release FIR on top Contact on top headHne dateline begin article end of new release add for more information and then repeat contact info add address and URL 1st paragraph should have most important information but not the inverted pyramid 2nd frames why first paragraph matters 3rd starts background quote from someone and 4th should be about background Assignment Due tuesday Oct14 Representing the Shell oil company Write a news release that overcomes Lego s taking away of their Lego sets that Shell has been using world wide as a gift to premium gasoline users Advocate for the right to continue to give away Lego s Dateline shell headquarters make up day date Add Boiler plate find in website or investors relations tag copy and paste No more than 2 pages point of view should be why Lego should continue to supply shell with the toys Boilerplate At the end of the news release What the company or org wants to say about themselves every company has a boiler plate KIN 202 Lecture 1 Objectives Terry Wahls recommendations for patients with MS Key Vitamins Bene t of sulfur rich vegetables Role of omega 3 fatty acids Type of obesity that is most dangerous in the 1st world country How is obesity de ne in medicine Chronic diseases are all associated with food sh oil creatine and coenzyme q MS damage Myelin insulation for wiring B1B2 Neurotransmitters Sulfur B6 B vitamins sulfur and antioxidants are good for mitochondria eating for mitochondria where e reverse photosynthesisK Green leaf vegetables magnesium and foliage Folic acid does not get converted well whole foods are better than supplements Based on study hunters and gathers took in 2 10 fold of what the RDA is The hunter gather diet is better than any kind of diet Greens vitamins BACK minerals kale has the most nutrition Having greens daily can reduce blindness and lowers cataracts sulfur supports the brain cabbage broccoli and Brussels sprouts are high in sulfur Colors antioxidants berries and carrots etc Wild fish is rich in omega 3 acids Omega 3 acids straighten teeth and are good for brain grass feed meat should be eaten every day Seaweed rich source of iodine brain needs iodine to remove toxins and heavy metals and can reduce cancer risk Maintaining a healthy body weight 1 in 3 children in the US is expected to develop in their lifetime diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure adult blindness and limb amputations 2 in 3 minority children are expected to develop diabetes diabetes elevated blood sugar The average human has 5 grams of sugar in the blood if that goes up it is dead it needs to be regulated diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and blindness and limb amputations Sugar is killing more americans than anything the sugar in the diet is out of control The sugar in actual food is associated with fiber and the fiber blocks how much you absorb Its not so much the number is the overall quality of what you are eating KIN 202 Malnutrition in developing countries and Over nutrition in developed countries Lecture 2 Objectives What metabolic syndrome is Type 2 diabetes malaise Best mechanism to prevent both metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes estimating how many calories you need per day BMI the way insurance companies and health care charge and how they categorize if you are over or underweight Not the best way to determine body composition Clinically proven to not be important but is still used in hospital and insurance companies Swollen bellies most dangerous fat Linked to diseases Abdominal fat fat around organs is dangerous Some people can be lean but have metabolic obesity can be associated with diabetes and Alzheimer39s visceral fat In ammation higher than normal is dangerous and triggers diseases Benty Peterson took healthy college kids and made them live in a lab Had them continue to eat the way they normally did Consumed way more than they outtake Their body fat did not go up lost body fat and weight But had high levels of fat in their organs Their metabolic health suffered Visceral fat turns ransic Every time to exercise its an antiin ammatory Your muscles are in amed Exercising on a swollen ligament or joint is good too When you lose weight there is an antiin ammatory effect Plant chemicals have antiin ammatory effects Sugar promotes in ammation and visceral fats Sugar comes from processing carbohydrates Endosperm consist of sugar and gluten The bran is important it protects the amount of sugar we absorb Metabolic syndrome is only found in developed countries Metabolic syndrome is l abdominal obesity male has waist circumference over 40 and female has waist circumference over 35 2 High blood pressure gt 135 3 high TGs approaching 150 4 Low levels of HDL high density lt 40 5 High blood glucose gt 109 If someone has Metabolic Syndrome their risk of diabetes goes up 2400 Type 2 diabetes malaise Diabetes is elevated sugar in the blood leading cause of kidney failure limb amputations and blindness diabetes 1 in 3 american children are eXpected to develop diabetes in their life time KIN 202 Lifestyle change is 40 more effective than medication Someone Who reduces their body weight by 10 Will have a 60 reduction of diabetes 74 of patients are compliant in taking their medicine and only 74 are compliant with the lifestyle change obesity has to do with excess lipids stored in their body You can t build muscle and fat all at the same time it is impossible and defies the odds You only burn 2 of fat While digesting Protein burns 20 While digesting Burn more calories eating celery then What it is in muscle mass raises the metabolic rate lbs X 11 RMR resting metabolic rate 115 X 11 1265 RMR X 125 ADLs Sed EER 1265 X 125 1581 1581X127 2007 Cups of water needed BER240 Cupsgt L 24 Or Kcals per day ML of H20 if you eXpend 2000 calories a day you should drink 2000 ml of water a day KIN 202 Lecture 3 Objectives De ne the DRIs AMDR for FAT PRO AND CHO Example of diet RDA for protein Caloric restriction should never be below 1200 a day Reverse dieting Increase caloric intake rst and then drop intake to simulate metabolism Chicken and the egg is associated with the idea that is the food you are eating making you fat or are you eating to much because you are over weight An obese child is likely to be an obese adult Fat cells produce chemicals Leptin is one of those chemicals it goes across a special barrier in your brain and activates and controls your metabolic rate and hunger Set point Your set point is establish during childhood CDC guidelines for combating child obesity is to reduce caloric intake it is not based on anything many doctors recommended but it does not work Putting a child at caloric de cit will hurt their bones and ligaments because they will not develop properly Calories in begins in the gut were we absorb everything Someone with fast metabolism will not store as many nutrients as someone with sluggish metabolism Nuts are high in calories because of ber and nutrients They do not make you gain weight Obese subjects are better at burning fat than lean subjects Any BMI above 30 is considered obese RDA recommended daily allowance is the minimum to prevent de ciency it should not be the goal Person can consume many calories but have a nutrient de ciency High preserved foods contain a lot of sodium Biological form of energy ATP Most people lack Magnesium and Phosphate without the 2 you are always tired A vegan cannot get Vitamin B12 on an 100 vegan diet can only be derived from animals Vitamin D is a hormone we get from the sun does good things for skin 4700 ml of potassium a day Hunters and gathers get a lot of potassium far over the RDA Dietary Reference intakes RDA is a mathematically designed allowance Suf cient for 98 of Americans AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range Is the range of intakes for an energy source which prevents chronic disease and adequate intakes of essential nutrients Individuals below or above this range are at risk of poor health Your carbohydrate intake should be proportional to your level of activity Carbs are energy PRO 1033 CHO 4566 FAT 2035 AI Adequate intake when RDA is not set due to insuf cient data the AI is reasonable judgment based on limited scienti c basis Not as well established as the RDA KIN 202 RDA Recommended Daily Allowance Started in 1941 to prevent de ciencies Currently used more to prevent overcompensation and toxicity Lecture 4 Objectives Understand AMDR macronutrient Different types of food pyramids and the strengths and weaknesses DRIs A macronutrient is the big portions of our diet that provide us with energy More important to look at ingredients than food labels Trans fat should not be consumed Trans fat ingredients include hydrogenated vegetable oil Trans fat takes on an unusual shape strange chains of fatty acids When get put in body they get put in your cell membrane UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level 1 highest daily intake of nutrient unlikely to pose risk or toxicity 98 of people 2 NOT intended to be a recommended dietary intake Protein should be lgram per pound the UL for protein is 2 grams per kilo of body weight EAR Estimated Average Requirements 1 Nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of Half a sample of individuals to achieve health conversely the other half will not 2 Used on mathematic formula to achieve the RDA To much protein can cause water loss Protein can harm the liver and the kidneys 98 of Americans fall below the RDA USDA United States Department of Agriculture 611 servings of bread and cereal 35 servings for veggies 34 servings of fruit 23 servings of protein 23 servings of dairy 2535g of ber a day KIN 202 Lecture 5 Objectives Protein AMDR Females 46g per day Men 56g per day 8g per KGBW per day RDA Muscle mass is 22 protein 70 water 454 X 22how many grams of protein there are per pound of muscle 100 grams 14 grams per protein a day 1035 of your diet is protein The RDA of protein of is 8g of KGBW The upper limit of protein is 20 grams m AMDR Sugar is more fattening than fat for a sedentary person Protein and carbs 4 calories per gram fat is 9 calories per gram 20 of calories from protein gets burned off when digesting 20 thermic effect Fat has a 0 thermic effect Not all fat will show up Fat lines the cells and has other purposes The only fat that is essential in the human body is saturated fat 10 GD Linoleic 182 omega 6 16 D is Alpha Linolenic 183 omega 3 not the best omega 3 fish oil is the best form omega 3 Omega 3 is a major deficiency in the USA Omega 6 increases in ammation and blood clotting Cholesterol 300 mgd only found in animal fat The only fat that the body makes is saturated fat butter fat No net change in health if you replace saturated fat with carbohydrates Diet low in cholesterol is a diet low in animal fat Stay away from SOFAS solid fats and added sugars Cal rm AMDR for carbs is 4560 Iron man triathlon are the only ones that consume that amount of carbs 130 G per day Females 25G of fiber Males 35G of fiber Sugar lt 25 of diet Vegetables with a side of meat is the way to eat KIN 202 Fat Soluble Vitamins A 700 Micrograms for females 900 for males can get toxic amounts of this red and orange veggies Can help lower in ammation and vision D should not be thought of as a vitamin it is a hormone 15 micrograms per day 15 min of sun used by our immune cells Helps identify and destroy cancer cells E 15 milligrams per day Powerful antioxidant help reduce fat from getting oxidized Seed nuts and veggie oils can proved vitamin E K 90 Micrograms for females and 120 for males K for Kale Dark green leafy veggies helps with blood clotting factors and bone marrow density BACK Water Soluble Vitamins B1 Thiamin 11 mg a day metabolism energy 75 mg for females and 90 mg for males B2 Ribo avin 11 mg a day for females and 13 mg a day for males metabolism energy B3 Niacin 14 mg a day for females and 16 mg a day for males metabolism energy leafy veggies B5 Banthrophenic acid 5 mg a day mushrooms and whole grains B6 Puredoxine 13 mg a day B9 Folate 400 mg a day folate green leafy veggies is a good source of folate Important for the 1st step in protein synthesis ex pregnancy 1st trimester Folic acid supplements during pregnancy may not be accurate B12 24 ug a day maybe more Can only get from animal products shit bugs and dirt C 75mg for females 90mg for males water soluble antioxidants help preserve the lifespan in tissues Citrus fruits and veggies Rebound deficiencies can t just take in a lot of it because it is water soluble Choline 425 micrograms a day for females 450 micrograms a day for males good for neurotransmitters and metabolism B1 B2 B3 B5 used for metabolism energy B6 B9 B12 used for protein synthesis KIN 202 Lecture 6 Objectives Speci c B12 requirements Folate General functions of vitamins and minerals Water Soluble Vitamins B1 Thiamin 11 mg a day metabolism energy 75 mg for females and 90 mg for males B2 Ribo avin 11 mg a day for females and 13 mg a day for males metabolism energy B3 Niacin 14 mg a day for females and 16 mg a day for males metabolism energy leafy veggies B5 Banthrophenic acid 5 mg a day mushrooms and whole grains B6 Puredoxine 13 mg a day B9 Folate 400 mg a day folate green leafy veggies is a good source of folate Important for the 1st step in protein synthesis eX pregnancy 1st trimester Folic acid supplements during pregnancy may not be accurate B12 24 ug a day maybe more Can only get from animal products shit bugs and dirt can get rid of homocysteine C 75mg for females 90mg for males water soluble antioxidants help preserve the lifespan in tissues Citrus fruits and veggies Rebound deficiencies can t just take in a lot of it because it is water soluble Choline 425 micrograms a day for females 450 micrograms a day for males good for neurotransmitters and metabolism B1 B2 B3 B5 used for metabolism energy B6 B9 B12 used for protein synthesis Methionine is the initial phase in protein synthesis it is an amino acid A diet that is high in animals and low in veggies is a diet that is high in methionine and low in folate Methionine gives birth to homocysteine Macro Minerals Calcium 1300 mg until early 20 s Children should have 1200 mg a day half get less than a third of what they need People that are under eating will have weaker bones early in life 50 of men and woman that fall after the age of 60 will only live for a few years after Maintain bone marrow density Chloride Magnesium 320 mg a day for woman and 400 mg a day for male Used for muscle and organ energy magnesium and phosphorus are essential in ATP energy Phosphorus 700 mg a day obtained by eating plants Potassium 4700 mg a day as the min Best source is plants and nonprocessed diet 98 of americans take in less than they need KIN 202 Sodium UL is 2300 mg a day Other half people with diabetes african americans and people with kidney disease and high blood pressure gets 1500 mg a day Bananas are not a great source of potassium
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