Set One Psy 271
Popular in Psychology of Human Diversity
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Sunday December 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 271 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Jackson in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Diversity in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 12/20/15
Set One Names in Psychology of Human Diversity Katie Albritton Study Soup Diversity Diversity refers to the wide variety of differences that exist among individuals ADDRESSING Framework Aage DDevelopmental disabilities abilities DDisabilities acquired throughout the lifetime RReligion EEthnicity race SSocioeconomic status SSexual Orientation IIndigenous Status NNationality GGender Gender identity A Changing Nation The age pyramid is shifting as the population ages In twelve states including CA FL GA NY and TX a minority of children under five are non hispanic whites By 2023 there will be no majority group represented among school aged children 2013 data indicates white children almost a minority nationwide with Asians as the fastest growing minority By midcentury there might be no single ethnic group that represents a majority The majority of college graduates and those entering doctoral level professions are women 100 million Americans identify themselves as a person of color 50 million Americans have mental of physical disabilities 13 of children are special needs Recent Immigration Trends In 2010 the Pew Research Center estimates 430000 people moved to the US from Asian counties 36 of total immigration 80 of these new residents came from China India Japan the Philippines and Vietnam About 370000 people of Hispanic heritage moved to the US in 2010 Individual Uniqueness Group Identity and the Larger Culture No two people take on their social identities in exactly the same way There is a fine line between appreciating group differences and stereotyping others When we stereotype we put people in a box Noting group differences fails to take into account the overlap in distributions of the groups As best knowing group differences gives us hypotheses for interacting with and understanding others Psychology Behind the Psychology of Human Diversity The history scientific methods and basic principles of human thought feelings and behavior that are the underpinnings of this course The principles that help us understand ourselves and others Some guidelines that allow us to think like a psychologist The Nature of Psychology Psychology is the science of behavior and mental products of brain function It takes a biopsychological approach and concentrates on individual thoughts feelings and actions It is both a natural and social science that uses a variety of research methods including laboratory experiments It is a basic and applied science It is a major health and consulting profession It is a liberal arts major that comments on the human condition The History of Psychology and Human Diversity Psychology has re ected the zeitgeist or spirit of the times and the context of history and culture It was the source of the eugenics movement Mary Calkins 18631930 Mary Calkins completed her PhD requirements at Howard working with William James and Hugo Munsterberg Despite unanimous committee recommendations Harvard refused to grant her degree She established a psychology laboratory at Wellesley But was also interested in combining psychology and philosophy She served as the first woman president of APA in 1904 Calkins had opposition to granting her doctorate Many women faced such opposition Lillian Moller Gilbreth 18781972 Completed her first PhD in UC in 1911second in 1915 at Brown First ever in Industrial Psychology Focus on time motion and fatigue studies Taught at Perdue and founded Gilbreth Inc with her husband Frank Mother of twelve planned children Francis C Sumner 18951954 Received his PhD in psychology in 1920 at Clark University under the direction of G Stanley Hall He was the first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology He headed the psychology department at Howard University and spent his career doing research to counter racism Sir Francis Galton 18221911 Sir Francis Galton was a British scholar and cousin of Charles Darwin He was the father of differential psychology and the progenitor of psychometrics He tried to measure all sorts of individual differences in order to have a science of humanity He asserted that all human physical and mental characteristics should eventually be measured quantitatively He applied the normal curve to human characteristics and studied the inheritance of intelligence Parent of the eugenics movement Galton also developed the concept of regression that is the basis of the correlation coefficient and the concept of correlation His hereditarian views were based on studies that confused shared environments with shared genes He coined the terms nature versus nurture Also developed the term eugenics and helped to begin that movement The Uses and Misuses of Assessment Particularly personality and ability tests are used in assessment for school counseling and clinical psychology Alfred Binet and the IQ Test Alfred Binet 18571911 developed the first intelligence test 1905 as a social reform in order to keep children from being assigned to special classes only on teacher labels Developed the idea of the mental age with tasks involving typical skills of an age group The original BinetSimon scales were the basis for the StanfordBinet Intelligence Test which was a staple individual IQ test for many uses The IQ Score has The concept of the Intelligence Quotient or IQ was developed by a German psychologist named Lewis Stern His original formula was IQ MACA X 100 MA Mental Age CA Chronological Age Thus a child who functioned at the average of his or her mental age had an IQ of 100 Modern IQ scores are based on a normal distribution with a mean of 100 The Wechsler Test a standard deviation of 15 and the StanfordBinet of 16 Most use Wechsler Superior Intelligence greater than 130 and disability less that 70 Henry Garrett and IQ Testing Henry Garrett 18741973 was a major proponent of the hereditarian view of intelligence He used StanfordBinet tests to prove that immigrants from nonWestern countries were less intelligent The fact that they did not speak English was widely ignored Other researchers used group tests similar to the Army Alpha and Beta tests that also attempted to prove group differences in intelligence The reasoning behind these attempts is awed IQ tests are not culturefree Difficult to translate to different cultures Raven39s Progressive Matrices test tried to be culturefree Children who play video games do better on this pattern recognition test Intelligence Richard Nisbitt Eugenics in North Carolina 1883 Galton founds Eugenics movement 19331974 More than 7600 people sterilized under NC Eugenics Board Eugenics programs were in 33 states Most people were affected in California After World War II unlike most states NC increased sterilizations as opposed to those in State institutions Board approved 90 of petitions and post dated some The process became routine People believed this was a straight forward solution to complex problems Some of the science of the eugenics movement may be seen as advocacy science where conclusions were drawn before the data were collected and in uenced the interpretation of those data Kenneth B Clark and Mamie P Clark Kenneth B Clark 19142005 studied under Francis Sumner and was the first African American to receive a PhD At Columbia University In 1950 he and Mamie wrote a report based on their research in Washington DC that spoke to the inherent inequality of segregated schools which was cited in Brown V Board of Education 1954 case Used IQ tests but were aware of cultural inequalities and involved the parents Black children in kindergarten preferred to play with white dolls in segregated schools Mamie P Clark was the first African American woman to receive a PhD at Columbia University Some early studies on Prejudice and Discrimination The Authoritarian Personality and the idea that some people have a personality that makes them prejudiced The Nature of Preiudice a 1954 book by Gordon Allport that discusses the psychology of prejudice and the role of contact to reduce prejudice The Robber39s Cave Experiment where intergroup competition and con ict was generated and then reduced through exposure to the other group in competitive friendly environments
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