Week 12--Lectures 31-33
Week 12--Lectures 31-33 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Sunday December 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 12/20/15
Lecture 31 Early Islamic Art and Architecture from the Middle East to Western Europe November 16 2015 Lecture Themes from slide Islamic religious art is nonfigural focus on scriptural text and ornament New model of sacred space that synthesizes elements from Roman imperial and Byzantine cultures as well as indigenous forms Islamic court patrons of mosque and palace decoration draw on late Roman Byzantine and Sassanian Persian motifs Islamic forms assimilated by European Christian art and architecture in places like Norman Sicily and Spain 8th century on Palace Mosque like Palace Chapel integrated into life of the Court Historical Background from slide 610 Muhammad begins to preach his visions 622 M forced to flee Mecca to Medina 630 returns with army to conquer Mecca and convert population 63261 Caliphs capture Egypt Palestine Syria Iran North Africa Sunni Muslims accept Abu Bakr fatherinlaw of Muhammad as first Caliph Shia accept Ali ibn Abi Talib son inlaw of Muhammad 711 Umayyads capture Spain 718 Christian Reconquista begins in Asturias 732 Umayyads defeated by Charles Martel at Tours 750 Umayyads overthrown by Abbasids in Middle East new capital at Baghdad 9021061 Islamic rule of Sicily under Kalabite emirs Koran Beginning of surah 18 alKahf The Cave Ink gold on vellum Abbasid Iraq 9th 10th centuries 37 7 Calligraphy was very important Chapter headaers were made in gold There was a special display script that was used Inscriptions on items were common 4 f 5 39 397 quot oooo Blue Koran Kufic calligraphy in gold leaf on bluedyed vellum Fatimid late 9th10th century Metropolitan Museum of Art o This is the most luxurious and the oldest decorated Koran o The colors enriched the quality of the manuscript quotHaramalSharif Temple Mount Mount Moriah with Dome of the Rock and West Wall of Herod s Temple 20 BCE63CE Wailing Wall destroyed by Romans in 70 CE 7quot w quotquot3 9 l i attempted sacrifice of Isaac 0 Site of Solomon s Temple 0 Site associated in later Islamic tradition with Ascent of Muhammad Qu ranSurah 17 o Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Umayyad constructed under Caliph Abd al Maik 68792 l I I l gt V I Similar to the San Vitale in Ravenna I Octangular with a dome i 1 L I The original rock is still there there is no floor 0 Dome of the Rock interior from Ambulatory with detail of mosaics glass gold leaf tesserae and mother of pearl common origins of this place 0 The Dome of the Rock is not a regular mosque A mosque is usually a prayer hall Great Mosque Damascus constructed by Walid on site of Byzantine Church 706715 Plan and aerial view of Great Court 0 Interior of Prayer Hall looking west I A Mihrab was a sacred space before the quibla niche pointing in the direction of Mecca I The columns were spolia 0 Great Mosque Damascus Entrance to main prayer hall and courtyard arcade mosaic 70615 I There are nonfigural architectural pavilions on these mosaics and they are similar to the Pompeiian wall paintings Qasr alMushatta Mshatta Umayyad Palace ca 740750 plan and surviving remains in Pergamon Museum Berlin I There are animal motifs Great Mosque Cordoba plan begun 784 under Abd al Rhaman I Aerial view showing Great Mosque with Christian cathedral ii aquot o This is one of the best architectural structures in Islamic Europe 0 This is a hypestyle plan lllflf39f39l39l llltttttt v u u unmim i Llumh c l s htnuquot r I a a39 IImu ll 0 Great Mosque of Cordoba Umayyad Spain Prayer Hall begun 784 expanded under Abd al Rhaman 83352 Hakam II 96176 There are many columns and capitols which are al Roman spolia I This was made to be an nonhierarchical space I There was no alter in this Mosque I This is where the ruler and his family went to pray I It is an enclosed private space I The arches are scalloped with carved stucco 0 Great Mosque Cordoba Domed chamber and entrance in front of Mihrab 961965 I 391 gym1quot The dome inside the minaret is star patterned left picture There is a shell motif in the center I There are writing all around the mosque Palatine Chapel of Roger H 114043 reconstruction and trilingual inscription o 39 39 lary to build his temple 0 Palatine Chapel Palermo Sicily built for Norman ruler Roger II 11431148 interior toward sanctuary Pantokrator in Dome I It is a Christian temple in Islamic form 0 Cappella Palatina view to throne muquarnas ceiling iquot Lecture 32 Islamic Art and Cultural Exchange in the Mediterranean Basin 12th to 15th centuries November 18 2015 Lecture Themes from slide Christian Rulers of Norman Sicily and Spain appropriate Islamic forms to assert authority over multiethnic states Innovation of muqarnas as quintessential Islamic form Nasrid palaces as Paradise in architecture amp poetry Spain develops internal logic of a cultural quotConvivenciaquot or cohabitation shared by Jews Christians and Mulsims Mamluks and Ayyubids create hybrid artistic culture in metalwork and glasswares circulated throughout Mediterranean Ottoman Turks adapt design of Hagia Sophia to create quotimperial mosques of for Islamic empire Historical Background on slide 1060 Normans under Robert Guiscard capture Sicily from Kalabite emirs 12381492 Nasrid dynasty rules Granada 11711260 Ayyubid dynasty established by Salah alDin who ended Fatimid caliphate 12501517 Mamluk dynasty rules Egypt 1299 Ottoman empire established in Asia Minor 1453 Ottomans conquer Constantinople ending Byzantine empire 1492 Forced conversionexpulsion of Muslims from Spain Cappella Palatina Palermo built by King Roger II 114348 Interior to east from throne platform plan 3 4472942 A 71 1 quot6 12 3 E 39 l l39 I u o The inside looks like Islamic architecture not Roman o The columns are Roman spolia o Cappella Palatina Palermo Dome 1143 compared with Monastery of Dormition Daphni Greece Pantokrator in Dome ca 1100 I Sanctuary middle Byzantine church Early examples of Muquaras o Shrine of Imam alDawr near Samarra Iraq 11th century interior of dome showing early use of muqarnas O 0 Friday Mosque Isfahan Iran north dome with muqarnas in supporting squinches 1088 o Muqarnas ornament d vaulting subdivided into a large number of miniature concave cells or squinches sections of semidome 0 Both theological and political associations created material world as combination of atoms and accidents fragile amp continuously changed through divine intervention 0 Political legitimacy implied through connections with Abbasid caliphate Alhambra Granada established as a fortress in late 9th century rebuilt in 11th century under Almoravids then under Nasrids in 13th and 14th centuries Alhambra Plan showing Comares Palace 135070 911 and Palace of the Lions 1823 1380 ra O Alhambra Palace Granada Nasrid Spain Court of the Lions built for Muhammad V 13541391 I Similar to the Pompeii villas the open court 0 There is a large pool similar to the Sea of Solomon but it does not rest on bulls such is the expression of the lions at the pool s edge that the cubs seem to roar through their jaws and like springs they spill their guts through their mouths flowing like rivers Next to the channels are sunken hollows so that that water may be decanted to spray the plants in the garden beds with it and to sprinkle the stems with pure water and to water the garden of myrtles with it Ibn Gabirol poet 0 Behold this mass of glistening pearl falling within a ring of frothing silver to flow amidst translucent gems than marbles whiter than alabaster more translucent bn Zamrak poet 133393 Alhambra Palace of the Lions courtyard looking east 135491 I Carved stucco is all over the place I There are also poetic inscriptions carved into the stucco Alhambra Granada Palace of the Lions detail of pavilion with carved stucco and muqarnas Alhambra Palace Granada Spain Hall of Abbencerrajes with muqarnas dome 1354 1391 I quotI am the garden appearing every morning with adorned beauty contemplate my beauty and you will be penetrated with understanding I excel through the generosity of my lord the imam Muhammad for all who come and go In here is a cupola which by its height becomes lost from sight beauty in it appears both concealed and visible The bright stars would like to establish themselves firmly in it rather than continue wandering about in the vault of the sky Ibn Zamrak court poet 0 View from the Alhambra In this garden I am an eye filled with delight and the pupil of his eye is none other than our lord inscription from Palace of the Lions Mirador I The view from the pavilions El Real Alc zar Seville Pedro quotThe Cruel Patio de la Doncellas 1364 as o The style was adopted by rival nonIslamic rulers Synagogue of El Transito Toldedo 1360 built by Samuel Halevi Abulafia treasurer of Pedro quotThe Cruel of Castille Examples of portable artifacts transported throughout Europe 0 Muhammad bn alZayn Brass basin inlaid with gold and silver quotBaptistere de Saint Louisquot Mamluk Egypt ca 1300 Mamluk Prince on Horseback Hunters Mongols paying tribute freizes of animals hunting O o Pilgrim s Flask brass inlaid with gold and silver with Infancy of Christ Ayyubid Syria 124050 Presentation Nativity Entry into Jerusalem O t W o Ayyubid Glass Beaker with enamel monks in Christian sanctuary represented as Dome of the Rock 13th century O 0 Compare Mamluk Mosque lamp enameled and gilded from Mosque of Mausoleum of Amir Aydakin al Ala l al Bunduqdar Cairo ca 1285 Sultan Mehmed quotThe Conqueror in Hippodrome in 1453 from Book of Accomplishments Ottoman 16th century Tokapi Palace Museum Istanbul o Hagia Sophia was used as the Ottoman style 0 They thought of themselves as the new Roman Empire Sinan architect Mosque of Selim Edirne Ottoman Turkey 156875 Plan exterior v 0 x I 7 A o Edirne interior to dome and to mirab 0 31 5 in m quotW953 3 A 5 ll 5 g39l quot Inn 239 i a a a m I ma 2 3 Lecture 33 Hybridity and Cultural Exchange in the Mediterranean Basin InClass Discussion 10 November 20 2015 Cultural Hybridity a dynamic process of exchange in which competing identities are assimilated and transformed quotan international culture based not on the exoticism or multiculturalism of the diversity of cultures but on the inscription and articulation of culture s hybridity the cutting edge of translation and negotiation the inbetweenthat carries the burden of the meaning of culture Cf Homi K Bhabha Location of Culture 1994 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Focus on roles of circulation of portable objects textiles glass rock crystal metalwork in creation of a hybrid visual culture of objects shared by courts around the Mediterranean and beyond 0 Appropriation and reuse of luxury artefacts in European settings 0 Pathways of Portability O O O O Pilgrimage Trade Gift Exchange Conquest and plunder Capella Palatina Palermo Royal view from north gallery diagram showing throne room at west and royal box in transept Cappella Palatina Palermo Muqarnas Ceiling over quotThrone Room of Roger H 114348 It 39 I quot 5 v o This was used for audiences Byzantine Silk Textile with Emperor driving quadriga 8th century from Tomb of Charlemagne Gunthertuch Bishop Gunther s Shroud Bamberg Cathedral Byzantine textile depicting Emperor John sziskes 96976 or Basil 9761025 on horseback celebrating military triumph received as gift by Gunther 106465 at Byzantine Court Interior and plan of San Marco Venice 1094 modelled on Church of Holy Apostles in Constantinople A 39 A Far right picture Pala d Oro Virgin Mary flanked by Doge Ordelaffo Falier amp Empress Irene Comnena 1105 o This looks like a Byzantine church 0 This is where it is thought that the disciple Mark was buried in Venice 0 It is a 5 domed Greek cross plan Painted Glass bowl Byzantine ca 950 Treasury of San Marco Venice with imitations of ancient cameos Hermes Apollo Arabesques in imitation enamel and PseudoKufic inscription on rim Reliquary of the True Blood Fatimid Rock Crystal 10th11th cent Venetian goldwork 13th century quotChiesolaquot Incense Burner Byzantium or Norman Sicily 12th century made into Reliquary of Holy Blood in Venice 13th century 5 Marco Ayyubid Glass Beaker with Christian sanctuary represented as Dome of the Rock 13th century Walters Art Museum Baltimore Porta dei Fiori San Marco Venice mid13th century Nativity of Christ beneath double ogee Bronze Griffin Pisa Cathedral attributed to Islamic Spain Bronze Lion attributed to Egypt Museum of Islamic Art Cairo o quotThis is what was made in the ROYAL TREASURY khizanah Full happiness honour good fortune perfection long life profit welcome prosperity generosity splendour glory perfection realization of aspirations and hopes of delights of days and nights without end or modification with might care sponsorship protection happiness wellbeing success triumph and sufficiency n Palermo in the year 538 113334 Stanza di Ruggero Palermo Innsbruck Bowl copper gilt with enamel 12th century with Ascent of Alexander the Great dressed in Byzantine imperial costume griffins and lions peacocks Arabic inscription
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