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CLDP 3362: WEEK of 4-5

by: Kimberly Notetaker

CLDP 3362: WEEK of 4-5 CLDP 3362.001

Kimberly Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the material discussed in lecture for the week of 4-5.
Cognitive Development
Dr. Meridith Grant
Class Notes
cognitive development
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Meridith Grant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
ACADEMIC SKILLS: Reading, Writing, & Arithmetic  Literacy Languages are represented differently o Phonological Complexity: Grain Size o Phonemes o Syllables o Morphemes o Orthographic Transparency  Phonological Awareness: » Syllables o Tapping/counting tasks o Same different task o Deletion task (take away a syllable; Party > “part”) o Blending task (adding a syllable; Sis + ter > sister) » Similar results across languages, with 3 y o performing above chance » = Syllable awareness prior to literacy teaching » Onsets & Rhymes o Oddity task o Same different task o Blending (h + at = “hat”) o Nursery rhyme completion (very early on) » Onsets and rhyme awareness prior to literacy teaching across languages » Phonemes o Tapping/counting tasks » Phonemic awareness a result of literacy teaching, particularly letters » Cross cultural differences related to orthographic transparency (English has terrible OT) & phonological structure o CVC: “mom” “house” o CV: “mama” “casa” » Children in US need about a year of phonics training to start mapping sounds  PA: Bottom lines o Developmental sequence of phonological skills appears language universal  Syllables  onset/rhyme  phonemes o Phonemic awareness depends on literacy training and varies across languages  READING in US o Birth-1st grade: prerequisites for reading o 1st-2nd grade: phonological recoding skill o 2nd-3rd grade: reading fluently, learning so-so o 4 – 8 grade: learn information from reading, not as good at perspective taking o High school on: begin understanding info from multiple viewpoints **Preschool correlates with later reading skills  Training to improve reading skills o Phonological awareness (tapping sounds) + letter-sound training (connecting sound to letter) o Not learn the alphabet as early as possible  Kindergarteners’’ ability to name letters is related to reading scores, but training children to name letters does not predict reading scores  Dyslexia o Common misconception:  Letter perception (orientation matters) nd rd  Typically by 2 /3 grade o Difficulties with phonological representations of sound structure of words o Pragmatically: Children with wide vocabularies and high IQ that struggle with reading and spelling  WRITING o Writing development: Overview  2-3 y.o. children know writing direction  Invented spelling  Phonological understanding leads to better spelling  Improved perspective taking leads to better writing o Knowledge-telling strategy (elementary school)  Answer questions directly by writing down information as it is retrieved from memory (short, concise, and unintelligible) o Knowledge-transforming strategy (adolescence)  Deciding what information to convey and how to convey it o Does decreasing working memory demands improve writing?  4 and 6 graders compose essay in 1 of 3 conditions (best essays for standard dictation)  Revising o Children and adults have difficulty identifying weaknesses in texts o Often focus on fixing surface-level errors (e.g., spelling) than meaning-based o Training on perspective taking helps o Using word processing programs helps  Number Concept & ARITHMETIC  Number o Infants:  Can do simple addition and subtraction  Can notice changes in the number of times a puppet jumps too  Connect sounds to visual images  Infants prefer cross-modal congruence  Infants can do simple addition and subtraction**really important study - clip  Can also do some “addition” with large numbers  Make decisions about more and less with large numbers o YET toddlers struggle can’t answer these types of questions verbally  Mathematical Development o Linguistic system o Visually based code o Analog Magnitude Representation  System in which numbers are coded as “approximates” (better sense of what smaller numbers are) versus exact  Follows Weber’s law: ratio sensitive (easier to detect a difference between 5 and 100 vs 5 and 6)  Adults, infants, and animals all use AMR at times…  …STILL to explain simple math: Subitizing  3, 4, & 5 to decide which row has more squares  Children more successful when ratio 1:2 than 2:3  Counting did not affect success rate  Many studies corroborate basic findings  Neuroimaging supports the idea of separate systems  EEG (better temporal info as far as timing) data supports the idea of ratio sensitivity  Counting o Counting Principles:  One-One (only one word per object)  Ordinality (assign numbers in the same order)  Cardinality (last count indicates numbers in the set) o Early Counting:  “Give a number” task  Find: o Grabbers o Counters  Conclusions: o Shifts around 3.5 o Differences in counting for small vs. large numbers  Longitudinal follow-up: ads tasks  “How many?”  “Point to X”  Find: kids learn 1, 2, 3 then larger numbers  Debate regarding representation of larger numbers  Cultural Differences:  Age 3 - children in the US can generally count to 10.  There are cultural differences in the counting level attained by young children.  Math o Kindergarten:  Single-digit addition and subtraction (finger counting) nd th o 2 to 4 grade  Multiplication o Inversion (a + b – b = ?)  4 to 5 years with objects only  6 to 9 years rd th o 3 or 4 graders struggle with Mathematical Equality (3+4+5=__ + 5) o Children develop strategies to help them learn these skills  Retrieval – high confidence  Back-up strategy – low confidence o Individual Differences:  Use 1st grade math test to divide kids into 3 groups  Not so good students: made errors  Good students: fewer errors, faster, used retrieval more  Perfectionists: Equally accurate, but perfectionists used backup strategies instead of retrieval much more often. Very strict confidence criterion needed for retrieval. o Common Problems:  Context of a Problem: children have problems generalizing  9- to 15- y.o. Brazilian children succeeded in problems with sale but not numbers  US kids more sophisticated strategies in academic contest than games  Fractions: Estimate the answer to the following problem. You will not have time to solve the problem using paper and pencil.  How do we help children succeed in academics? o Misconceptions 1: It is best for them to know as much as possible (i.e., my child is smart because she knows X)  WE CAN’T KNOW EVERYTHING o Misconception 2: It is best for them to learn things as early as possible (i.e., my child is smart because she learned to do this at X age)  Academic Preschools: » 4 year olds attending Pre-K programs tested with lots of different types of measures (Hyson et al., 1990)  Compare “high” versus “low” academic  Find:  No significant differences in academic ability  Small difference for anxiety, with children attending high academic programs showing more test anxiety.  Low academic children more likely to have a positive attitude towards school » Earlier is not necessarily better » “It may be developmentally prudent to let children explore the world at their own pace rather than to impose our adult timetables and anxieties on them.” o Misconception 3: Children need lots of toys, books, and activities to fully succeed (i.e., more money = better life).  What can we do to help children succeed? o Good health and physical well-being o Social and emotional preparation o Language and general knowledge  Has familiarity with letters, numbers, shapes, and colors  Is encouraged to notice opposites, make comparisons  Is encouraged to ask questions  Has opportunities to draw, dance, hear music, hear books » Blocks…a case study - Low-income children given blocks show increases in verbal skills 6 months later  What can we do to help children thrive on school? o Recognize that it’s not about how much they know, how fast they know it, and how much they have. o Be familiar with what schools expect for children to be ready to succeed in school and beyond. o Bolster language and general knowledge. o Strengthen children’s self-control. o Encourage positive approaches to learning.


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