PsychJan27-Jan29 Psychology 2351
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PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittney Okorocha on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 2351 at University of Houston taught by Derek De La Pena in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescence in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
January 27 2015 The Science of Adolescent Development 0 Theories of Adolescent development 0 Psychoanalytic theories 0 Cognitive theories 0 Behavioral and social cognitive theories 0 Ecological theories 0 An eclectic theoretical orientation Psychoanalytic Psychodynamic Theory Development is primarily unconscious goes into the realm of unconsciousness O Sigmund Freud 18561939 I Id unconsciousinstincts sex hunger Freudian slips I Superego partly unconscious conscience moral side of personality guilt right from wrong I Ego partly unconscious deals With demands of reality and makes rational decisions defense mechanisms Freud s Psvchosexual Stages of Development Oral Birth 15 years old Anal 153 years old Phallic 36 years old Latency 6 years oldPuberty Genital Puberty Onward U PP Ni Erikson s Psvchosocial TheorV I We develop in psychosocial stages that take place throughout the life span rather than psychosexual stages Which take place Within first 5 years of life 0 Identity v Identity confusion or discovery Who Am I 1020 years old Coanitive Theories emphasis on conscious thought What you re thinking Piaget s Coanitive Development Theorv individuals construct their understanding of the world 4 stages of development 1 Sensorimotor Birth2 years old 2 Preoperational 27 years old 3 Concrete Operational 711 years old 4 Formal Operational 1 ladulthood vaotskv s Sociocultural Cognitive TheorV Emphasis on individuals active construction of their knowledge Gave social interaction and culture far more important roles in cognitive development than Piaget Infoprocessing Theorv Emphasizes that people manipulate info monitor it and strategize about it memorythinking We develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing info Behaviorism We can study scientifically only what we can directly observe and measure Skinner s Operant Conditioning 0 Through Operant conditioning the consequences of behavior produces changes in the probability of the behavior s occurrence behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus will increase the likelihood of that behavior recurring If it s a negative stimulus the behavior is less likely to recur Bandura s Social Cognitive TheorV Behavior Environment and PersonCognition are all interrelated Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Theorv image on page 3233 The in uences on an individual are 0 Microsystem O Mesosystem O Exosystem O Macrosystem O Chronosystem An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation No single theory can explain entirely the complexity of adolescent development Doesn t follow any one theoretical approach selects from each theory whatever s considered its best features Methods for Collecting Data Naturalistic observation studies by observation only Surveys and interviews Standardized tests IQ tests SAT ACT Physiological measures MRI Experience Sampling Method ESM Participants are given pages and researchers beep them at random Participants must report different aspects going on in immediate situation mood What they re doing Where they are etc Case Study Indepth look at a single person Mainly done by mental health professionals Correlational Studies based on a statistical analysis used to describe the degree of association between 2 variables Coefficient ranges from 100 to 100 0 Negative inverse relation 0 Positive direct relation 0 Closer to 1 the stronger the correlation 0 Correlation of 0 no correlation Correlation does NOT equal causation Experimental Research to study causality lresearchers use experiments 0 Independent Variable What s manipulated O Dependent Variable What s being measured January 29 2015 Chapter 2 Pubertv Health and Biological Foundations Puberty Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes brain neuroendocrine process Hormones Chemical substances secreted by endocrine gland into blood stream Androgen Male sex hormones Estrogen Female sec hormones Testosterone important role in male development increase height voice changes Estradiol important role in female development wider hips breasts development Endocrine svstem role puberty involves the interaction of the hypothalamus pituitary gland and gonads testesovaries 0 Culmination of hormone activity results in menarche a girl s first period and spermarche a boy s first ejaculation Adrenarche hormone change in adrenal glands changes start around 69 years old in girls and a year later in boys before what s generally considered the start of puberty Gonadarche follows adrenarche about 2 years later what most consider puberty 810 for girls 1011 for boys involves the maturation of internal primary sex characteristics OvariesTestes and external sex characteristics pubic hair breasts etc 0 Weight has been implicated as a precursor to puberty individuals with more body fat ten to start puberty earlier Growth Spurt the average beginning is 9 years old for girls peak at 115 years old and 11 years old for boys peak at 135 years old During growth spurt girls grow 35 inches per year and boys grow 4 inches per year 0 Peak weight gain is about the same time as peak in height girls gain 18 pounds by age 12 and boys gain 20 pounds by age 135 0 Increase hip growth in girls increased shoulder width in boys Sexual Maturation lMalesz increased penis and testicle size pubic hair minor voice change spermarche armpit hair greater voice change facial hair lFemalez breast increase andor pubic hair armpit hair wider hips menarche
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