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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Brittney Okorocha on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 161 views.
Reviews for PsychJan27-Feb3pdf.pdf
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Date Created: 02/03/15
January 27 2015 The Science of Adolescent Development 0 Theories of Adolescent development 0 Psychoanalytic theories 0 Cognitive theories 0 Behavioral and social cognitive theories 0 Ecological theories 0 An eclectic theoretical orientation Psychoanalytic Psychodynamic Theory Development is primarily unconscious goes into the realm of unconsciousness O Sigmund Freud 18561939 I Id unconsciousinstincts sex hunger Freudian slips I Superego partly unconscious conscience moral side of personality guilt right from wrong I Ego partly unconscious deals With demands of reality and makes rational decisions defense mechanisms Freud s Psvchosexual Stages of Development Oral Birth 15 years old Anal 153 years old Phallic 36 years old Latency 6 years oldPuberty Genital Puberty Onward U PP Ni Erikson s Psvchosocial TheorV I We develop in psychosocial stages that take place throughout the life span rather than psychosexual stages Which take place Within first 5 years of life 0 Identity v Identity confusion or discovery Who Am I 1020 years old Coanitive Theories emphasis on conscious thought What you re thinking Piaget s Coanitive Development Theorv individuals construct their understanding of the world 4 stages of development 1 Sensorimotor Birth2 years old 2 Preoperational 27 years old 3 Concrete Operational 711 years old 4 Formal Operational 1 ladulthood vaotskv s Sociocultural Cognitive TheorV Emphasis on individuals active construction of their knowledge Gave social interaction and culture far more important roles in cognitive development than Piaget Infoprocessing Theorv Emphasizes that people manipulate info monitor it and strategize about it memorythinking We develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing info Behaviorism We can study scientifically only what we can directly observe and measure Skinner s Operant Conditioning 0 Through Operant conditioning the consequences of behavior produces changes in the probability of the behavior s occurrence behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus will increase the likelihood of that behavior recurring If it s a negative stimulus the behavior is less likely to recur Bandura s Social Cognitive TheorV Behavior Environment and PersonCognition are all interrelated Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Theorv image on page 3233 The in uences on an individual are 0 Microsystem O Mesosystem O Exosystem O Macrosystem O Chronosystem An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation No single theory can explain entirely the complexity of adolescent development Doesn t follow any one theoretical approach selects from each theory whatever s considered its best features Methods for Collecting Data Naturalistic observation studies by observation only Surveys and interviews Standardized tests IQ tests SAT ACT Physiological measures MRI Experience Sampling Methodg ESM Participants are given pages and researchers beep them at random Participants must report different aspects going on in immediate situation mood What they re doing Where they are etc Case Study Indepth look at a single person Mainly done by mental health professionals Correlational Studies based on a statistical analysis used to describe the degree of association between 2 variables Coefficient ranges from 100 to 100 0 Negative inverse relation 0 Positive direct relation 0 Closer to 1 the stronger the correlation 0 Correlation of 0 no correlation Correlation does NOT equal causation
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