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International Journal of Management Volume 1 • Issue 1 • May 2010 • pp. 1 – 16 http://iaeme.com/ijm.html I J M © IAEME A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A PRIVATE SECTOR UNIT 1 2 3 Dr.C.Vijaya Banu , Mr. N.Santhosh , Mr. Y.B. Venkatakrishnan ABSTRACT This study in SRF limited a technical textile business organization studies the stress factors for the employees and recommends the solution for minimizing the stress effects. High stress jobs refer to work, which involves hectic schedule and complex job responsibilities that result into imbalance between personal and work life. This study is limited within the Low level of employees. Key terms: Stress, organization , individual, techniques 1 Senior Assistant Professor, School of Management, SASTRA University, Thanjavur,Tamil Nadu, India. 2Lecturer, MBA Department, Ramakrishna College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. 3 Assistant professor, School of Humanities & Sciences SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. INTRODUCTION TO STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress Management has become a most important and valuable technique to boost the employee morale and the company’s productivity in all companies. All the organizations have understood that the employees play a key role and they should be out of stress to give a high performance atmosphere. There are varieties of techniques to manage stress in organizations. High stress jobs refer to work, which involves hectic schedule and complex job responsibilities that result into imbalance between personal and work life. Overwork may affect physical health of individual resulting into ineffective work and dissatisfaction among employees leading to imbalance in family or personal life also. Due to improper job International Journal of Management role assignment, improper working conditions, under utilization of skills and organizational politics the employees could be stressed. There are lots of individual stressors like role ambiguity, psychological hardiness, and type of personality that affect the morale of the employees as a whole. Effective stress management should overcome the stressors and it is obvious that no technique can completely remove stress but only can minimize it to negligible level. And the organizations are trying to minimize and cope up with the stress factors by implementing various trends and techniques in minimizing stress. SRF limited is a technical textile business organization and this study is implemented in one of its manufacturing plant, which is at Viralimalai, Tiruchirappalli district. The production plant consists of Type cord fabrics, belting fabrics and coated fabrics manufacturing machineries, which are worked by more than hundreds of three hundred employees. This study is very useful in finding the stress factors for the employees and to analyze the solution for minimizing the stress effects. The findings and suggestions can be used in all units and other production plants too, which would be helpful for effective maintenance and management of stress of the workforce. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A study on stress management in SRF Limited Company will be done in the low level of employees because the management of the company feels that the employees working in the machinery units and the production plants face a lot of stress. There are many employees working in day and night shifts. Around 150 employees work in functional floor handling production and machineries. The study examines the individual stressors and organizational stressor in a manufacturing unit SRF Limited. Objectives • To study the socio-economic background of the employees of SRF Ltd. Viralimalai Tiruchirappalli. • To study the impact of organizational factors that contributes stress for the employees. 2 International Journal of Management • To study the impact of the individual factors that contributes stress for the employees. • To study the physical and behavioral consequences that result due to stress. • To recommend suitable coping strategies to overcome the stress as preferred by the employees of the organization. Scope of study A study of stress management in SRF Ltd. Viralimalai comprising of 280 employees under various categories in Low level of organizational hierarchy like Work associate department, Learners department, Area leaders department. The Top management recommended in studying, the Low level of organization and to the reveal the stress factors affecting them and also the overcoming strategies preferred by the employees. This study is limited within the Low level of employees of SRF Ltd. The period of study is April-May 2009. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Hoskins and Sherry have identified the factors affecting leadership position of staff nurses, Brooks and Jason has concluded the factors that have relationship with work stress and life of executives. Moffitt and Karen Rogers have stated the modeling relationship of stress with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover. Shane and Jon have 4 studied the various factors that influence the performance of police people. Atkins and 5 6 Nancy has studied the influence of spirituality on wok stress.Spinal Matthew F., (2007) 1 Hoskins, Sherry, Factors influencing staff nurses' rejection of nursing leadership positions , University of Phoenix, 2009 2Brooks, Jason T, The relationship between life balance and work stress in corporate executives ,Capella University, 2009 3Moffitt, Karen Rogers Modeling the relationship between traumatic caregiver stress and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions, The University of Memphis 4Shane, Jon M. organizational stressors and police performance, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - Newark, 2008 5Atkins, Nancy P ,A correlational investigation: Individual spirituality's impact upon workplace stress, Capella University, 2007 6 Spinale Matthew F., Ph.D., Alliant International University, San Diego, 2007 3 International Journal of Management revealed a research in the relationship among commuter stress, work engagement, and proactive behavior of employees. The purpose of this study was to explore driver stress and its relationship with organizational behaviors. First, it sought to determine if there was a relationship between driver stress and work engagement. Second, it was designed to determine if there was a relationship between driver stress and personal initiative at work. Third, it sought to determine if there was a relationship between driver stress and learning- goal orientation.Mierswa and Mark has studied the emotions at work place that create 8 stress and the factors that lead to team work and professionalism. Sims and Doreen have examined the job factors and impact on behaviors of personnel of front line social service. 9 Collins, Allison E., studied promoting well-being in the workplace which was a tailored approach to stress management. Work stress is associated with profound individual and organizational consequences Peg Games 10 have highlighted the positive factors of stress. Philip dewed and Michael O’Driscoll has studied various interventions and triggers of stress. James Striker; Leonard Dim berg; Bernhard H Lies 12 studied the individual and 13 organizational perspectives of stress. Fitzgerald, Shillelagh, (1991) studied the stress- illness relationship among managers The investigation of the factors that contribute to health and illness is one that inherently involves psychological as well as physiological processes. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the links between two factors - burnout and illness - and range of personality and environmental conditions 7 Mierswa, Mark ,A Emotion at work: Stories of teamwork, stress, and professionalism, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2006 8Sams, Doreen, An empirical examination of job stress and management of emotionally-based behavior: Frontline social service personnel perspective ,University of South Florida, 2005 9 Collins, Allison E., Ph.D., Bowling Green State University, 2004 10Peg Gamse, Stress for success,HRMagazine. Alexandria:Jul 2003. Vol. 48, Iss. 7; pg. 101 11 Philip Dewe, Michael O'Driscoll,. Stress management interventions: What do managers actually ?o Personnel Review. Farnborough: 2002. Vol. 31, Iss. 1/2; pg. 143, 23 pgs 12 . James Striker; Lennart Dimberg; Bernhard H Liese, Stress and business travel: Individual, managerial, and corporate concerns,National Productivity Review; Winter 2000; 20, 1; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 3 13 Fitzgerald, Sheollagh, Ph.D., The University of Regina Canada, 1991 4 International Journal of Management RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The data collection involves both primary and secondary data collection and they are collected from the respective sources. The primary data is collected by the help of a questionnaire from Low level employees of organization (Work associate, learners and Area leaders) comprising of organizational factors and individual factors of stress. The secondary data is collected from online database, books and the journals available as sources of information. Sampling method There are around 280 employees in the lower level region and they are to be analyzed for stress management effectiveness of which there are three categories namely • Work associates-133 • Learners-102 • Area Leaders-48 The Sampling method followed is stratified random sampling and data is collected from 85 employees under the required field of analysis based on various strata like work associates, learners and area leaders. HISTORY OF THE COMPANY Established in 1973, SRF has today grown into a global entity with operations in 4 countries. The company comprises of three core businesses of Technical Textiles, Chemicals and Packaging Films employing nearly 2000 employees. Equipped with in-house R&D facilities for Technical Textiles and Chemicals Businesses, SRF has seven plants in India and one in Dubai. A winner of the prestigious Deming Application Award for its Tire Cord business, SRF is world's one of the leading manufacturers of Nylon Tire Cord Fabric and Belting Fabrics. SRF is also known for its pioneering efforts in the country to invest in UN's CDM technology that is aimed at cutting carbon emissions. Besides, SRF is India's first company to develop indigenous technology and set up a manufacturing facility to produce new generation of refrigerant gas. Apart from Technical Textiles Business, in which it enjoys a global leadership position, SRF is a domestic leader in Refrigerants, Engineering Plastics and Industrial Yarns as well. The company also enjoys a significant presence among the key domestic manufacturers 5 International Journal of Management of Polyester Films and Fluorospecialities. SRF continues to redefine its work and corporate culture with the TQM as its management way. Table: 1 Demographic classification of the respondents Age (yrs) % Educational % Experience % Income level % Gender % Marital % level (yrs) (Rs) status 21-30 17.6 ITI 2.4 1-5 4.7 5k-7k 16.5 Male 68.2 Married 45.9 Diploma 50.5 6-10 32.9 8k-10k 4.7 Female 31.8 Single 54.1 31-40 14.1 40 -50 36.5 PG 1.2 10-15 34.1 11k-13k 21.2 Source: Primary Data Table: 2 Descriptive statistics of demographic variables Particular N Mean Std. Deviation Age 88 2.94 1.087 Gender 88 1.31 .464 Marital status 88 1.56 .500 Educational level 88 2.49 .567 Experience 88 3.23 .867 Income 88 3.47 .970 Source: Primary Data The above table shows details regarding the educational qualification of the workers in the work associate department. About 50.5% of the employees were found to be diploma holders and the second highest 45.9% was found to be UG holders. Only 2.4% of the workers are found to be with ITI and the least was 1.2% of workers with the PG degree. The experience levels of the work force were also examined. The organization is actually gifted to have the highest percentage of workers of about 34.1% who have already served 15 years and above in the same organization. This shows the loyalty level of the employees. Then the second highest cadre is found in the 6-10 years of experience level (32.9%). Then comes the category of 11-15 years served employees ranking third with 28.3% of employees. The last is the 1-5 years of experience level where the percentage is found to be very less i.e. 4.7%. The above table reveals further details regarding the income level of the employees under the survey group. 57.6% of the respondents were in the Rs.13000 and above group due to their service level and the experience level in the organization. The second highest 6 International Journal of Management is 21.2% of the employees who were in the Rs.11000 – 13000 group. The least was 4.7% in the Rs.8000-10000 group and 16.5% was found in the Rs.5000-7000. Table: 3 Reliability Statistics for demographic variables Cronbach's Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Alpha Items N of Items .099 .015 6 Source: Primary Data From the value Cronbach’s Alpha.0it known that the reliability of the scaling used for determining the stress level is appropriate and reliable. Table 4 Percentage analysis of Organizational stressors Particulars Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Total agree (%) disagree Job role 0 4.7 18.8 31.8 44.7 100 Company infrastructure 0 0 14.1 58.8 27.1 100 Leadership (task oriented) 0 0 47.1 43.5 9.4 100 Timing of the job 9.4 0 9.4 68.3 12.9 100 Salary allowances issues 0 0 5.9 36.5 57.6 100 Incentive issues 0 0 23.5 61.2 15.3 100 Transport 0 9.4 45.9 30.6 14.1 100 Canteen facilities 0 17.6 30.6 30.6 21.2 100 Refreshment facilities 0 23.5 5.9 44.7 25.9 100 Noise pollution 13 37.6 15.8 16.5 17.1 100 Lack of participative mgmt 0 5.9 21.2 57.6 15.3 100 Job prone to physical 12.9 10.6 22.4 15.3 38.8 100 threats High targets and high 45.9 17.6 12.9 9.5 14.1 100 concentration Source: Primary Data 7 International Journal of Management 80 70 Strongly agree 60 50 Agree 40 Neutral 30 Disagree 20 10 Stronglydisagree 0 … … … … … … … … … … … High Salary Noise Job role Timing ofncentiveanteen Lack of CompLeadershi TransporRefreshm Job prone Chart: 1 Percentage analysis of Organizational stressors Organisational stressors (table: 4 and chart: 2) have a significant importance. There is a considerable amount of investment in human resources in an organization And it increases if people work in unhealthy and stressful environment. Organisational culture that leads to “dysfunctional culture”. When the human resources have negative view, stressed, they feel worthless in working such organization. They also show less interest in achieving organizational objectives along with individual objectives .the self esteem of the individual is lost and self-pity and stress is results in lesser productivity, creativity and job dissatisfaction This table 2 and chart: 1 is helpful in analyzing the various organizational factors that create impact on stress level of employees... Various factors like job role, company infrastructure, leadership type, timing of the job, salary issues, transport and canteen facilities, recreation facilities, noise pollution, lack of participative management, job prone to physical threats, high targets etc. In the percentage analysis, each and every factor is analyzed. And the percentage of people agreement and disagreement are clearly identified. About 37.6% of the respondents have said noise as a stressor. About 17.6% of the people agree that the high targets and high concentration creates stress. 57.6% of the respondents have said that salary allowances are not a stressor in the organization. Above all these factors 45.9% of the people accept strongly that high target is one of the major stressors of the organization. Work pressure and targets are UN avoidable in the work place but if it becomes excessive and unmanageable it creates stress and it can 8 International Journal of Management damage employee’s health and ultimately business performance. High targets can be a reason if there is mismatch between the work demand on one hand and employee potential, skill level on the other hand. As per WHO (1986) health doesn’t mean that absence of disease but also mental and physical well-being. Excessive and unmanageable targets are due to poor planning and work design. Based on research, work related hazards can be monotonous job, long duration of job and Heavy targets and work load. Further two hypotheses has been formulated to test the significant relationship of the organizational and individual factors of stress with age Null hypothesis: 1 there is no significant relationship betworganizational factors. Table: 5 ANOVA showing the relationship between age and organisational stressors Sum of Mean Particulars Squares do Square F Sig. Between age 10.523 3 3.508 2.560 .060 Within organizational 115.102 84 1.370 stressors Total 125.625 87 Source: Primary Data From the above table 3 is clear that calculated value is 2.560 and table value is 2.713, and it is more than the calculated value so the null hypothesis is accepted. Age does not play a predominant role with organizational stressors. The common view point that aged people are over stressed compared with newly hired young employees. But the organization stressors are more hectic and it creates an imbalance in personal life and it act as a root cause for employee stress at all levels of age. It also creates health problems and leads to ineffective work, absenteeism, aloofness, role ambiguity and dissatisfaction. Conflicting demands and dissatisfaction in job will make the person to lose the control over health ,which has no significant relationship with age .The expectation from job varies with age, the cause of stress also varies, but stress is constant at all levels of age. 9 International Journal of Management Strongly Strongly Particulars agree Agree Neutral Disagree disagree Total Role ambiguity 5.9 16.5 0 37.6 40 100 Psychological hardiness 9.4 0 24.7 43.5 22.4 100 Personality wise flexibility 3.5 0 54.1 15.3 27.1 100 Personal life factors reflected0 4.7 23.5 53 18.8 100 to work Lack of self respect 0 18.8 29.4 9.4 42.4 100 If affected by bodily diseases 9.4 23.5 23.5 28.2 15.4 100 Threat to job security 12.9 20 37.6 22.4 7.1 100 Table 6 Percentage analysis of the Individual stressors Source: Primary Data Chart: 2 Percentage analyses of the Individual stressors 120 100 80 Strongly agree 60 Agree 40 20 Neutral 0 Disagree Strongly disagree Total Role ambiguity Lack of self security Pewise flexibility Threat to job This table 5 and chart: 2 are helpful in analyzing the perception of people towards the individual factors that have an impact on stress level. Among the reasons bodily 10 International Journal of Management diseases, lack of job security and role ambiguity are noted factors that create stress in. In the percentage analysis, each and every factor is analyzed and the percentage of people agreed and disagreed are clearly found out. This table clearly shows that 12.9% of the total respondents strongly agree that the threat to job security is one of the major factors of stress. 20% of them agree that job security is a factor of stress if not provided by the organization. 42.4% of the employees agreed that the lack of self respect is never a stressor in the organization. 40% of the respondents strongly disagree to the fact that the role ambiguity in the organization creates a stress. Their view is to reveal that the role ambiguity is not an issue in the organization. Null hypothesis: 2 There is no significant relationship between age and individual factors. Table: 6 ANOVA showing the relationship between age and Individual stressors Sum of Mean Particulars Squares do Square F Sig. Between age 4.918 3 1.639 .214 .887 Within individual 644.672 84 7.675 stressors Total 649.591 87 Source: Primary Data From the above table 5 is clear that calculated value is .214 and table value is 2.713, and it is more than the calculated value so the null hypothesis is accepted. The stress affects each person individually irrespective of the age level. The tolerance level to cope with stress varies with age for the individuals. Table: 7 Reliability Statistics for organisational variables and individual variables that create stress Cronbach's Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Alpha Items N of Items .210 .260 20 Source: Primary Data 11 International Journal of Management From the valuCronbach’s A.210 and it is known that the reliability of the scaling used for measuring the impact of organisational stressors and individual stressors on individuals is appropriate and reliable. Hence, the conclusion that the level of age together with the organisational and individual stressors has no association with stress among the individuals is proved. Table: 8 coping methods to stress- Life style management Techniques Std. N Mean Deviation Yoga 88 1.3182 .46844 Meditation 88 1.8409 .67613 Time management 88 4.2955 1.83928 Classical music 88 5.7727 2.36705 Worries 88 5.6023 1.30022 Reframe of strategie88 5.5114 .99417 Acceptance 88 6.1932 1.30303 Hobby 88 5.4659 1.80643 7.0000 6.0000 5.0000 4.0000 Mean 3.0000 Std. Deviation 2.0000 1.0000 .0000 ON AL ES YOGA ATI SI I AME DIT TIMEMGT ORR EFR HOBBY ME CLA W R CEPTANCE AC The personality and personal well being determines what sort of perception and mindset individuals need to cope with stress. An integrated holistic approach is needed to increase 12 International Journal of Management the positive urge or energy with in individual, which let out stress. The composition of Yoga, Meditation, Time Management, Classical Music, Distinguishing productive and unproductive worries, Stop the action and reframe, Acceptance, Getting in to a hobby called “Life style management Techniques”. The respondents are surveyed (table: 6 and chart: 3) and they are asked for the suggestions to recover from stress in their organization. Among the 85 respondents surveyed, 85% of them have said that they are in need of yoga and 82 % need to have formal procedural meditation training to keep them free and fit mentally without stress. The next maximum recommendation goes to the option of time management, classical music, distinguishing productive and unproductive worries; stop the action and reframe, acceptance getting in to a hobby. RESULTS The major findings from the study are, the stress management survey revealed the following details. 17.6% of employees are of the age group 21-30 years. The least crowded group is in the organization 31-40 years i.e. 14.1%. The largest group is 50&above group (36.5%). Then 31.8% of total people are found in the age group 41-50 years. Under the considered sample of 85 respondents, 68.2% of the workers were male and the remaining 31.8% were females. The survey also helped in knowing the marital status of the employees i.e. 54.1% of the workers was single and 45.9% were family men. About 50.5% of the employees were found to be diploma holders and 45.9% of the respondents were found to be UG holders. Only 2.4% of the workers are found to be with ITI and the least was 1.2% of workers with the PG degree. The organization is actually gifted to have the highest percentage of workers of about 34.1% who have already served 15 years & above in the same organization. Percentage of 1-5 years of experience level is found to be very less. 57.6% of the respondents were having an income of 13k& above. 21.2% of the employees were in the 11k – 13k groups. The least was 4.7% in the 8k-10k group and 16.5% was found in the 5k- 7k groups. These were the categories of the respondents surveyed. From the data analysis performed from the collected primary data some of the major findings can be written as follows: 13 International Journal of Management Only 4.7% of respondents agree that job role is a stressor in organization, 9.4% accept that due to commuting problems the stress occurs and the 37.6% agree that the noise pollution is also one of the major stressors. About 17.6% of the people agree that the high targets and high concentration creates stress. 57.6% of the respondents have said that salary allowances are not a stressor in the organization. About 38.8% of the employees interviewed said that the job is not prone to physical threats and hence that cannot be a stress factor. Above all these factors 45.9% of the people accept strongly that high target is one of the major stressors of the organization. Discussing about the Individual factors contribution to stress, 12.9% of the total respondents strongly accept that the threat to job security is one of the major factors of stress. 42.4% of the employees surveyed, say that the lack of self respect is never a stressor in the organization. 40% of the respondents strongly disagree to the fact that the role ambiguity in the organization creates a stress. Thus these are the major findings of the research done at the lower level of the employees in SRF Ltd Viralimalai It is very difficult for the organization to provide a work environment with less stress individuals should envisage some coping strategies to balance their work and personal life. CONCLUSION Thus the effectiveness of the stress management in SRF Ltd is surveyed using a questionnaire and interviewing method. And the data collected are analyzed and the solutions and recommendations suggested by the employees are enlisted. The stress management is a leading fact that each and every organization should concentrate so that they can keep an eye on their performance and productivity. The organizations should be a watch dog in the stress management process. All the employees regardless of his age, gender, experience, income, or any other priority should be treated equally and the business tactic of managing without any dissatisfaction is necessary. Today’s organizations are becoming a learning organization by which the management learns from mistakes. Employees themselves are becoming trainers of 14 International Journal of Management managing stress. This trend will definitely lead to empower employees which is the aspiration of not only SRF Ltd but for all the companies. REFERENCES 1. Ajay Sheila, “The 4 Lane Expressway to stress management”, Fifth edition, Unicorn Books, 1986 2. David Allen, “Stress Management & Quality of life”, Second edition, Pearson Publications, 1980. 3. Jessica Macbeth, “Stress and Psychology”, Workman Pub Co, 1985 4. Jerrold S. Greenberg, “Comprehensive stress management” McGraw-Hill,, 2005 5. Martha Davis, “The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook”, Pearson Publications, 1989. 6. Mike George “1001 Ways to Relax: An Illustrated Guide to Reducing Stress”, First edition, Chronicle Books, 2004 7. Olin, Margie Hesston, Hesston, “Stress Management for Life: A Research- Based, Experiential Approach”, Thomson Learning publications, 2006. 8. Richard Blond, “Coping With Stress in a Changing World”, McGraw-Hill College, 2006. 9. Dr Mesh Sharma “'Stress Management’, Third edition, Macmillan India Press, 2005. Websites referred • http://www.helpguide.org/mental/work_stress_management.htm • http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/en/oehstress.pdf • http://www.srf.com • http://www.mindtools.com/smpage.html • http://www.hse.gov.uk/stress/standards/ • http://www.clarityseminars.com/ • http://www.comp-unltd.com/~randolfi/WorkStress.html 15 International Journal of Management • http://www.icmrindia.org/business%20Updates/micro%20casestudies/Human%20 Resource%20Management/MCHR0007.htm • http://www.byestress.com/byestress-articles/stress-at-work.htm 16
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