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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- September (2012), © IAEME ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) IJCET Volume 3, Issue 2, July- September (2012), pp. 372-377 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.html Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.9580 (Calculated by GISI) © I A E M E www.jifactor.com A NOVEL PROTOCOL TO IMPROVE TCP PERFORMANCE – PROPOSAL P.Vigneshwaran Assistant Professor (SG) Rajalaskhmi Institute of Technology Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Email: email@example.com Dr. R. Dhanasekaran Professor & Director Research, Syed Ammal Engineering College, Ramanathapuram, Tamilnadu, Chennai ABSTRACT Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) plays a crucial role in adjusting data rate to avoid congestion from happening. TCP performance degrades significantly in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) due to the packet losses. In this work, a survey is carried out to identify the research issues related to all layers which will help in developing a routing protocol to improve the TCP performance. Keywords: TCP, MANET, Congestion I. INTRODUCTION A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of a collection of mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other without help of a fixed infrastructure. The interconnections between mobile nodes are capable of changing on a continual and arbitrary basis. Nodes within each other’s radio range communicate directly through wireless links; while those are far apart use other nodes as relays in multi-hop routing fashion. This type of networks 372 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- September (2012), © IAEME is useful in any situation where temporary network connectivity is needed, such as in disaster relief or in the battlefield. Each node participating in MANET acts as a host as well as a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for other nodes. For this purpose, routing protocols used in wired networks are inappropriate and there is a need for new routing protocols . Recent work  –  has given more concentration on developing Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocols in MANETs. With respect to a path that connects two nodes, congestion usually occurs in a bottleneck node. The congestion control within the TCP plays a critical role in adjusting data rate to avoid congestion from happening . TCP performance degrades significantly in MANETs due to the packet losses. This is because the packet loss induced by the wireless link failure (Channel Error) is erroneously interpreted as congestion-induced, which triggers an inappropriate response by the TCP mechanism. Most of the packet losses result from route failures due to node mobility  . In MANETs, the main problem of TCP lies in assuming every packet loss or delay exceeding retransmit timeout as a signal of indicating congestion in the network even though the source of loss or delay might be unrelated to congestion, such as losses due to high Bit Error Rate (BER) of wireless channel, delays due to reordering of packets in case of frequent route changes etc. Hence it is necessary to develop a routing protocol to improve TCP performance which can able to handle the packet losses related congestion (Transport Layer Issue) and non-congestion related issues such as channel error (MAC Layer Issue), and frequent node mobility (Network Layer Issue). To best of our knowledge, none of the routing protocol deals the issues of MAC, Network, and Transport Layer together. Thus the main impetus of this work lies in realizing core research issues in designing such a routing protocol. II. EXISTING APPROACHES – A SURVEY In this section we have done a broad literature survey on TCP performance degradation in MANETs due to packet losses. Table I Summarizes the existing approaches for Non-Congestion 373 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- September (2012), © IAEME and Congestion related issues in nut-shell. Issue Existing Approaches Layer concerned TCP / RCWE  Channel Error (Non – ADTCP  Congestion Related ADTFRC  MAC Layer Issues) Edge-based approach , TCP – F  ELFN  TCP – BuS  Fixed RTO  ENIC  TCP – RC  Route change (Non – ATCP  Congestion Related Cross Layer Information Network Layer issues) awareness  TCP – DOOR  Pre-emptive Routing Atra  Signal-strength based link management  Multipath-TCP  TCP – Tahoe  TCP – Reno  TCP – New Reno  Congestion related issues Transport Layer SACK  Modified slow start  Vegas  TABLE I: Existing Approaches for the Research Issues related with Different Layers This helps us to realize the need for a routing protocol to improve TCP performance which can able to handle packet loss related to congestion and non-congestion related issues of MAC, Network, and Transport Layer together. This leads to realization of research issues in designing such a protocol which is discussed in Section III. III. ISSUES TO BE SOLVED BY THE PROTOCOL TO BE DESIGNED In this section the research issues to be taken care by the new protocol to be developed for improving TCP performance for MANETs. The issues are as follows. 374 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- September (2012), © IAEME o Hidden and Exposed Terminal Problem Near and Far Terminal Problem o Collision of packets (Data) o Contention of medium (Channel) Route Failure due to node mobility o Packet loss due to Timeout Error (Latency) Buffer Overflow (Traffic) o Low data rate (Throughput) and Fairness IV. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In this work, we have done a broad survey on improving TCP performance in MANETs, to find the research issues for developing a protocol which will consider MAC, Network and Transport layer issues together. 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