Energy & the Environment UC Santa Barbara
Energy & the Environment UC Santa Barbara
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ES 115 Energy and the Environment Winter 2012 Syllabus When we try to pick out anything by itself we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe John Muir My First Summer in the Sierra Boston Houghton Mifflin 1911 Class Goals Students will learn that 1 The laws of thermodynamics are a central organizing principle for the ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE INDUSTRY AND THE OVERALL ECONOMY 2 The future belongs to those who can manipulate entropy Frederic Keffer Eric M Rogers Physics for the Inquiring Mind Princeton University Press 1960 p 395 3 Energy and entropy provide an integrative capability for addressing environmental problems 4 Energy production distribution and use are a major contributor to social injustices that are prevalent in today39s societies Lectures MWF 300350 AM BUCH 1910 Attendance is required tardiness will be noted Instructor Mel Manalis Office hours Wed 10301150AM Bren Hall 4005 or after class or by appointment Teaching Assistants Required Readings Assignments will be made on Mondays Problem Sets Exams Grade Web Lec Week 1 1 Jan Week 2 Jan 1 ES 115 Workbook Grafikart 6550 Pardall Rd IV 9683575 2 Sustainable Energy without hot air David MacKay wwwwithouthotaircom download at no cost 3 CoaIA Human History Barbara Freese UCSB Bookstore 4 Beyond Smoke and Mirrors Burton Richter UCSB Bookstore or Amazoncom 4 ES 115 Supplemental Readings GauchoSpace Located in ES115 Workbook assigned in class Will cover lectures required readings and problem sets First Midterm Exam Friday Feb 10 Section see section syllabus 40 First Midterm exam 30 Second Midterm exam 100 Unit Conversion wwwdigitaIdutchcomunitconverter ES 115 Winter 2012 Tentative Schedule Date 11 13 16 18 20 MWF 300PM BUCH 1910 Title Introduction Why Study Energy amp Video Shift Happens Energyamp Significance of the Human Development Index HDI Video TED Talk Bill Gates talks about Terrapower Martin Luther King Jr Holiday Power Time Spreng Triangle amp Ragone Plots Simple Energy Balance Environmental Implications ES 115 Winter 2012 Tentative Schedule Lec Date VVeek3 6 Jan 23 7 25 8 27 VVeek4 9 Jan 30 10 Feb 1 11 3 VVeek5 12 Feb 6 13 8 14 10 VVeek6 15 Feb 13 16 15 17 17 VVeek7 18 Feb 20 19 22 20 24 VVeek8 2O Feb 27 21 Feb 29 22 Mar 2 VVeek9 23 Mar 5 24 7 25 9 MWF 300PM BUCH 1910 Title The Impact of CO2 Energy Policy Energy Waste amp 2 Law of Thermodynamics Entropy and Exergy The Nature amp Significance of Heat Engines Heat Engines amp Their Systems FueceHs Space Heating amp Cooling Using Heat Pumps Calculating the 2 Law Efficiency Summary amp review Midterm Exam Ethics and values of energy development Film Modern Marvels Power Plants Conventional Sources of Oil Presidents Day Holiday How long will fossils fuels last Coal Energy Bridges Electricity and Oil Use in Transportation Natural Gas amp the Emergence of LNG amp Marcellus shale Extreme Energy NonConventional Oil amp Gas Sources Environmental Strengths amp Weaknesses of Nuclear Energy Basic Nuclear Processes Nuclear Reactors and Their Future Week 10 26 Mar 12 Film High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors 27 14 Summary amp Review 28 16 Conclusion k j Energy and the Environment Winter 2012 Section Syllabus Teaching Assistants Quentin Gee Sarah Richman Jewel Snavely Geneva Travis Feel free to contact your TA with questions or concerns via email during office hours or beforeafter section In addition any student can utilize the office hours of any TA which should allow for greater flexibility with student schedules Section Learning Objectives Sections are an opportunity for students to engage the course content in a more active and dynamic environment With fewer students than lecture there is more room for student questions and student input Our primary role in section is to serve as discussion facilitators although at times we will work on homework answer questions that arise directly from lecture and the readings and provide some input on ideas for studying Section Requirements Attendance Students are required to show up on time to section with at least two questions from the readings andor lecture Students may miss one section without an absence penalty but each additional absence will result in a lowered attendance grade Participation Each student should contribute to discussion by either asking questions or providing commentaryfeedback to questions that other students or the TA raise Homework Homework must be turned in via hard copy on the due date assigned in lecture Late assignments will be reduced one level but will not be accepted past 2 days Group Presentation Students must sign up for one short group presentation to be given during section Topics will roughly correspond with course content ofthe given week We will hand out a signup sheet and provide more information on the group presentation in the second section Section Grade Section represents 40 of your final grade so it is very important Section grades will be determined by the following 40 Homework 20 Attendance 20 Participation 20 Group Presentation Test Challenges Students must wait at least 24 hours upon receipt of their graded midterm before speaking with or emailing their TA or Dr Manalis about the midterm If a student believes that a test question was unclear unfair or that his or her answer was at least partially acceptable the student may challenge the question The student must type a written response to each question stating 1 the question in its entirety 2 the correct answers 3 the student39s answer and 4 a defense of the student39s answer or critique of the question39s fairnessclarity Grading Rubric for Homework We grade each homework assignment based upon a general recognition ofthe pattern ofcontent throughout the assignment If a large majority of the assignment fits into the check x range then the student receives a and so on for other grades A is generally considered to be a good grade while a indicates work that needs improvement 0 Answers questions completely and 0 Answers questions nearly 0 concisely completely may ramble on points 0 Provides examples that are clear and that are less relevant or tie too many indicate engagement with the distinct ideas together o reading Occasionally creates 0 Provides examples that are relatively examples that the student thinks of concise but may be rushed and only or looks up as an application of the loosely related to the relevant o general principle or idea in articles examples may be pulled shown consideration directly from text showing less o 0 Gets all calculations correct correct engagement with the ideas at hand sentences units in answer clear setup and use 0 Gets most calculations correct but of appropriate formulas may forget to include appropriate or 0 Answers are written with good prose any units and style but not overly wordy 0 Answers may contain grammatical mistakes or have a clunky style Example Answer of a for a Written Question Answers questions with little or no explanation or elaboration on issues Assignment seems rushed If context or explanation is present there is a general misapplication of principles or examples Calculations are incorrect or no work Answers are not in complete Discuss Daniel Yergin s Prologue and Chapter Hydrocarbon Man from The Prize in terms of the following a What are the three great themes that underlie the story of oil in the 20 Century b Briefly explain each theme Yergin s three main themes as discussed in his book The Prize are the rise of capitalism and modern business the effect on global politics and power and what he terms hydrocarbon society Quick internet search for an example homework isn39t a research project so a rough citation of applicable facts is fine for us as your graders Capitalism Yergin points to the rapid rise of oil corporations as a key foundation of the world economy Of the top 20 of the Fortune 500 seven are oil companies with ExxonMobi taking in 383 billion in revenue and 30 billion in profits for 2010 Wikipedia Major changes in the economy such as inflation and recession are deeply affected by changes in the oil market In the 20th Century corporate investment in new technology and infrastructure resulted in methods of getting as much as possible out of a barrel of oil For G instance refiners were able to increase the yield of high value products such as gasoline and Example from the quotHydrocarbon Man chapter which shows comprehensive reading and contemplation of the text heating oil from 50 to 90 of each barrel 111 words Global Politics complete on your own as part of the H W Hydrocarbon society Yergin emphasizes the cultural impact of oil on America39s identity Suburban society is planned and built upon the assumption of the automobile as the major method of transportation Plastic is the main substance of modernit Example from common knowledge no citation necessary for those civilization can literally be thought of as oi based I 39 an element of our culture that slogans such as dri baby drill d the rationales that underlie them even if not embraced by all of American Society are nevertheless understood by everyone 80 words Although length indicated by word count is NOT the only indicator of answer quality listing it here gives a rough idea of the level of word count that correlates with an excellent answer ENV S 115 Energy amp The Environment 12914 616 PM Check out Syllabus on Gauchospace Purchase workbook 50 Graffik art Coal UCSB Bookstore Beyond Smoke amp Mirrors Amazon Without Hot Air David MacKay download online free wwwdiqitadutchcomunitconverter lifeboat and tragedy of the unmanaged commons Readings Week 1 Workbook xiixvii chapter one with emphasis on 14 and 830 and 45 SE pp 25 Real cost of energy BSM Preface pp 16 217218 HW 118 and 7779 Know the laws of thermodynamics Frederick Keffer The future belongs to those who can manipulate entropy Three Components of the Energy Problem 1 Climate Change 2 Energy Poverty 3 Security of Energy Supply 11112 Recent News 0 Remembering Kyoto 0 Some reductions in Japan and European nations 0 China India still rapid increase 206 amp 144 This is a big deal Extreme weather 0 Increasing trends in past 20 years 0 Rise in insurance External costs of energy What you can39t count counts Definition 0 Factors in internal economy and external environment costs 0 And how it cumulatively effects overall well being 0 Extremely difficult to account for these costs financially Are external costs related to sustainability 0 William D Ruckelshaus understanding the complexity of external costs Director of the EPA 0 Dec 59 1952 Great Smog of London Positive feedback look temp drop fuel burning Interfacing Energy Technology with People Population and human development index HDI 01 average 74 o Longevity 0 Educational attainment 0 Standard of Living 0 WeathHealthEducation People with no electricity Integration solutions to energy poverty Technology learning from failure World Average energy consumption 2190kWhpersonyr US 12000 kWhpersonyr Numerical Prefixes to know 0 10quot3 kio 10 6 mega 10 9 giga 10 12 tera 10 15 peta 10 18 exa 10 21 zeta 10 24 yoda Homework 1 due in section on forth week Questions 118 pVI 1questions 77 78 and 79 ppVI8amp9 i War amp EnergyStrait of Hormuz ii TED Talk Bill Gates talks about Terrapower bill gates vision for global carbon emission from energy production 0 SigmaCO2 9 Temperature Increase 9 Negative effects 0 Poorest 2 billion are most impacted by climate change and energy costs 0 Innovating to Zero 9 attain net zero carbon emissions 1 Basic Research Funding 2 Market Incentives to reduce C02 3 Rational Regulatory Framework 4 Entrepreneurial Opportunity Minimizations through efficiency 0 CO2 People x Servicesperson x Energyservice x CO2 per service of people and of services will increase energy efficiency and CO2 emission are the only factors that can be manipulated in the right direction need an alternative source of energy 0 Miracles needed Nuclear CSS Wind Soar Therma Soar Photovotaic all have their issues 0 Push to invent new technology Half the Cost with no CO2 Fukashima Cruise Ship Italy 32pp missing Insurance Take early measure to prevent disaster Megaponte 100 laptop Sea of vermouse Iran 1202012 Energy Units Review 0 Work Force x Distance Joules Caloire how much energy it takes to heat 1kg of water one degree K Gram Calorie c how much energy it takes to heat 1g of water 1 degree K BTU energy required to raise a pound of water to 1 degree Fahrenheit 1055kiajoues Hybrid Energy Unit Power x Time Power energytime unit watts E PT Giant units Significance of Mt Everest and the kilowatthour 0 Energy required to raise a bucket to the top Thermodynamics and Three Definitions of Energy BOE TOE First law and the nit Joule Perpetual motion machines Types of primal energy Net energy analysis 571 GJ 4188 GJ QUAD 105 GJ Check out reading posted on Gauchospace Mechanical Energy MgH 12MV 2 BILLARDS WHEEL First Law of Thermodynamics Three definitions of Energy 1Work FXD Highly valued organized form of energy high efficiency Heat is low quality 2 Concept that is Conserved 3 Energy is the only life and is from the Body and Reason is the bound of outward circumference of energy Energy is Eternal Delight William Blake Marriage of Heaven and Hell Net Energy Analysis 0 Annual World Energy Consumption 500 EJ or 500 Quads 0 US consumption 100 EJ o It takes energy to get energy Factors extraction processing construction speed of implementation restoration decommissioning waste disposal Tar Sands Much higher cost of energy use in factors to obtain Examples of Mechanical Energy PE KE mgh 5mV 2 A Pile Driver Problem 27A 0 Kinetic energy of the driver just before it hits 1000kg weight dropping 5m 0 Answer mgh energy is conserved 0 Potential energy mgh Helms Hydro Project pp ii 41 and the electricity load curve 0 Load curve chart showing the amount of electricity customers use over the course of time o Utilization of water39s mechanical energy to story energy Pump water up a hill when consumption is low run it downhill to generate more electricity during peak hours 0 Base continually produced 9 intermediate load 9 peak load 0 Similar issues with wind power most of wind power generation does not intersect with peak hours Denmark 9 Norway load management imited sites 0 96 EFFICIENCY Rivers of Patagonia Chile p i 55 Examples of Thermal Energy heat MCdetaT The Joule Experiment Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 0 Converting kinetic energy to heat 0 Thermal heat energy J MCdetaT 0 Where M is the mass of water T is temperature in degrees C 0 Specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree of Celsius or Kelvin o C 4186x10 3 JKg OK 0 MEH Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 4186 J Solar Energy Enhanced Hydroelectric Plants thermoclines Eqs 1amp2 p ii 44 o Thermocline energy Exploitation of the temperature gradient between water at different depths MCdetaT 2 detaT Th Tc Check out slide 0 Compare Kinetic and Thermal Energy Definition of Power PET and problem 18 Ragone plot pg ii 80 0 Shows the energy storage and power handling capacity of some alternative storage techniques 0 Energy density v Range Spreng triangle p iii 64 0 Energy 0 Information 0 Time 0 Time and Energy slowly costs time but uses less energy haste makes waste 0 Information and Energy energy can be uses to compensate for a lack of info 0 Time and information with unlimited time we need little information with scarce time we need information to make fast decisions Simple Earth39s Energy Balance with no Greenhouse Effect p ii38 SC M aphaSC 4CRohT 4 Where M Ptides Phuman Pgeothermal Let R Heat the earth must radiate away DetaTT 4 detaRR Alpha albedo refectivity on a scale from 01 4C 9 C piR 2 represents cross sectional area S 1370wm 2 Inputs 0 Solar electromagnetic radiation o Tides human contribution and geothermal energy Outputs 0 Reflectivity albedo 0 Infrared electromagnetic radiation Earth39s temperature sensitivity as a function of energy input EnvironmentalSignificance httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvx59MptHscxY Say it takes 5 minutes 300 sec to fill a 20 gallon fuel tank with gasoline 1 gal gasoline 013 GJ How much power flows through your hands as you fill the 20 gallon tank Solve for Power Energy in 1 gallon of gas 13 GJgal Number of gallons 20 gal Time 300 sec P ET 13 GJgal x 20ga E 26GJ 26GJ300sec 87 x 10 6 Jsec 87MW Radiation Balance the essential basis of climate 0 Visible solar energy input 9 Infared Energy Output SC P Tides P Human P geo Trophosphere 9 Stratosphere 9 Balance 15 giga tonnes CO2 go out annually 0 Currently 30 coming in 3000 in reservior pH High numbers basic Low numbers acidiv Oceans are most acidic in 20 million years 3 factors in Sea Level rise Thermal expansion 60 o responsible Melting of sea ice Mechanical collapse of glaciersice shef s risk of rapid change Amount of Gas in Atmosphere CO2 386000ppm GWP 1 CH4 1774ppm GWP 23 CFC 319ppm GWP 6500 HW 18 Given Power per square meter 1370Wm 2 Assumed area 1m Energy in a barrel of oil 61 GJ Solve for Time hours 1370W T EP 9 61GJ1370W 1370 Wm 2 x m 2 61 x 10 9J137x10 3 Jsec 1250 Hours Energy intensity energy per unit gdp Problem 6 11 billion 60 kw kilowatthoursl terawatts 4 pizso dance floor that kinetic energy soccer ball sidewalk in toluse kinetic movement HW 2 problems will be covered in the Midterm next week 20 21 23aampb 24 25 27a 29aampb 31 and 42 Due in section during 6 week Feb 4 2012 Lecture 11 Results and Summary energy balance changes Review Effective forcings 17502000 pii 63 o Small change in the energy equation SC Ptide Ppeople Pgeothermal aphaSC 4CRT 4 Aquot Transition Scenario p i668 A possible Carbon Future 2000 o 90 fossil fuel o 400 exajoules o atm CO2 370ppm 2100 No ong term policy o 82 fossil fuels o 1350 exajoules o atm CO2 900ppm 2100 with globally imposed carbon tax o 60 fossil fuels o 800 Exajoules o atm CO2 525 ppm Current Information on Impacts See level rise o 7700 Laborador Ice Cap melt 10 m sea rise in a couple of centuries o Coastal regions in Indonesia and Africa will be most impacted Dense coastal populations lacking the ability to adapt Ice Melt o Glaciers supply a very significant portion of the world39s population o Retreat of 14m50years Extreme Weather Events World Averages HDI 75 Per capita energy consumption 2200kWhpy Per capita CO2 eq produced 5 tonnes CO2eqpy Three truths of climate change 1 CO2 and other trace greenhouse gases are rapidly increasing in the atmosphere as a direct result of human activity 2 Theses gasses absorb the earth39s waste heat in the form of infra red radiation and trap additional heat in the lower atmosphere Imposes a small change on earth39s energy balance a forcing Responsible for 19 degree Celcius 3 Conservation of energy requires that climate must respond in some way to this change in energy 262012 Lecture 12 Climate Proposal Puts Practicality ahead of Sacrifice WSJ Climate Change Op ed and Response Geoengineering Ethics Climate Feedback Loops Methane potentially huge impact o Stored methane in earths crust and within frozen regions CO2 feedback loops o Low Cloud Cover Negative o Atmospheric Water Vapor Positive Extreme Weather Events Hurricane Katrina o 30000 miles of US oil pipelines in the Gulf Coast Number of total extreme events and economic losses and costs have increased decade to decade Geo Engineering Definition and History 0 See discussion in Beyond Smoke and Mirrors 0 How can we increase Earth39s albedo to reduce global warming o Intentional continental or global scale manipulation of the environment to offset global climate change 0 YOU CANT CHANGE JUST ONE THING Process and Technologies Summary 0 Big unknowns no one really knows results Key Questions 0 Pelky Rule 0 Global economy is based on use of fossil fuel Forcing small change in the earths energy balance wattsm 2 Kurt Zenz House Climate Change Abatement Mitigation Technology Greenhouse Effect 0 Reduce CO2 Emissions Alter energy sources Improve Efficiency CCS with fossil fuel 0 Remove CO2 Biological Schemes 2 CCS with biomass 2 Iron Fertilization 2 Reforestation Chemical Schemes 2 Air captureSolvent regeneration Changing alkalinity 2 Electrochemicalweathering Incoming Solar Energy 0 Ways to Increase Albedo Cloud Seeding Sulfur or other engineered Particles in stratosphere Space Mirrors Billards Wheel Perpetual motion machine 130039s Know Global Warming Potential Scale based on CO2 One molecule can absord x number the energy of a C02 molecule Pinatubo Layer of aerosols in the troposphere Black Ironwood Densest tree Dale Jamieson Ethics and Intentional Climate Change Issues of Moral permissibility are not currently satisfied Jamieson s Ethical Foundation Common sense morality Principles accepted in Western Tradition many globally shared ethics Moral Disagreements disputes within the specifics Social and Economic Preferability Research on ICC but no forms of action until repercussions are better understood Should not rely on it as a solution only a potential fail safe Gamma emmisivity In the SC M Equa on Must be balanced imput vs output Fossil fues change in albedo or change in temp Inversely proportional on same side directly proportional on opposing detaTT 14deta RR detaRR is a percent increase 2102012 Reading for 5 week GS Climate proposal puts practicality ahead of sacrifice WJS climate change op ed and response Reading for 6 week WB Chapter 3 p 127 SE Picky details pp 2627 Pielke Observation Principle amp the Alternate Scenario The A Scenario pH68 When there39s a conflict between policies that promote economic growth and policies restricting environmental degradation Concluding discussion on Geoengineering Summary 0 Human actions that change climate mitigation 9 Climate system Geoengineering 9 Climate impact on human welfare adaptation Suffering 0 Should we do serious research 0 How can we best avoid moral hazard 0 Do we need a treaty norms Processes amp Technologies Air Retraction of CO2 Emissions NaOH C02 9 Na2CO3 ES 115 Section 12914 616 PM 4 Sarah Richman 5 Office Hours Monday 13PMP Bren 4008 6 Smichee101gmaicom ES 115 PostMidterm I 12914 616 PM 2Introducing the 2quot Law Feb 15 2012 Readings for the week Chapter iii Meaning of energy pp 2527 CHP systems amp doubly efficient hybrid top of pp 3637 Virtual power plant box p 46 0 Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency pp 94121 Entropy Measured in units of energy divided by temperature State of any closed system become every more disordered Heat flow only downhill hot 9 cold unless you add work quality of energy degrades higher the temperature gradient between the hot and cold sides the more energy can be extracted from the engine energy must dump entropy as waste in the form of heat energy dissipates Exergy avaiabe energy this available energy is reduced in nearly all processes Eg through friction electrical current flow through resistors anything without 100 efficienct energy conversion Some is lost as heat and entropy and is no longer useful not longer exergy This means the process is irreversible o Randomization at the microscopic level always characterizes irreversibility Friction of steel flywheel with air molecules 1 The Nature of Waste Energy the waste of energy is a virtue not a vice energy economy centers on entropy our main use of energy is to refine process and purify energy itself Huber amp Mills Squid and pyramid diagrams 0 Main usewaste of energy is purifying energy 0 Measures in millions of millions of kilowatt hours of oil equivalent 0 US average efficiency as of 1990 was 42 28 quad of effective use vs 45 quads lost as of 1979 US only very poor efficiency largest waster is electricity use Pyramid Diagrams o Pyramid of Energy Bits and Electrons 0 Information processing takes a huge amount of energy Energy Waste Engineering imperfections 0 Real heat engines 0 Real heat pumps 0 Reeversibilities 2quot law tolls o Carnot heat engine 0 Carnot heat pump 0 Reversible Highly organized energy 0 No entropy 0 Can be converted with very high efficiency 0 Examples Electricity work gravity 0 Heat is low quality and poorly Entropy content and energy value are inversely proportional Significant sectors 0 Transportation Shipping Charges Plot 2 Units y axis ton mie x axis coast to coast delivery time days Industrial Production Residential and commercial 0 Conventional electricity production Categories of energy waste OOO 0 Engineering imperfections friction 0 Second law tolls infrastructure 2 Entropy Why learn about entropy o Keeps track of the 2quot LAW 0 Entropy thermodynamically grades energy Low entropy is high valued energy and is ordered eg Work electricity gravity kinetic energy 0 Managing entropy is necessary for effective environmental management of energy The Entropy Concept 0 Qualitative 0 Experimental 0 Theoretical Entropy and the 2quot law of thermodynamics Examples Energy order of merit 22712 Generating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion OTEC Working fluid propane Condensed with cold water and heated and boiled with warm water Water is cycled with pumps Combined cycle power plant combines two or more thermodynamic cycles Uses waste heat from first exchange to run one of more additional cycles Entropy management through energy ecosystems Future Electricity production Thermoelectric Devices o Semiconducting elements in the heart of thermoelectric devices convert a temperature difference into electric and vice versa Piezoelectric Materials 0 A flexible eectricity producting sheet of rubber implanted in the body can be used to run medical devices Fuel Cell 0 Electrochemical cell that converts fuel into an electrical current H20 and head IV122 and III 45 Bloom Box Portable fuel cell box Heat pump is a heat energy in reverse Heat pump Exergy using device consumes and leverages exergy Coefficient of performance COP QhW fThdetaT Reading on heat pumps and heat engines Carnot efficiency for heat engine fdetaTTh Heat Pumps Heat Pumps are future proof Heat pumps and the temperature hill Perfect Ideal and real heat pumps Coefficient of Performance COP QhW FThdetaT o How heat pumps work 0 General considerations efficient and lazy Heat pump configurations Air ground and sewage reservoirs Heat pumps deliver heat at a much lower costhigher efficiency They use energy like electricity to move heat rather than to produce iy Efficiencies pp iii 5759 First law efficiency Second law efficiency 0 Gas furnace 0 Real heat pump Electrical resistance can 100 converts electricity to heat exergy Second Law and it39s corollaries Perfect heat engines are impossible Entropy lost energy input to move from cold to warm areas Must be able to draw Heat Engine or Heat Pump for MIDTERM 0 Note just reverse arrows from elc going in to elec coming out Categories energy lost 0 Second law tolls engineering imperfections Review slide with heat engines and pumps Efficiency Entropy and Reversible David Mackay Utilization for heat pumps far out sees the utility of combined heat and power Energy Waste Irreversibles Real heat engines Real heat pumps Engineering imperfections 2quot Law tolls Carnot heat engine Carnot heat pump reversible E minimum exergy for the taskactual exergy used for the task COP Wc minimum exergy input Carnot Wr minimum exergy input Real Qt heat from environment Qh heat ourput When temperatures are low a real heat pump is more effective Carnot 2quotd law efficiency stays below 10 even just 86 with 100 efficiency Real heat pump approaches 30 Define balance point Where heat pump just equals heat loss 2quot law efficiency Distinguishes between 2 major wastes Perpetual motions machine of the 2quot kind Perfect heat pump nad perfect heat engine impossible because they destroy entropy Matching energy grade with use saves energy and preserves the environment 2quot law efficiency is a measure of how well this matching is being accomplished Do reading on Fracking US shale oil 352012 Review of 2quot law and entropy Quality of energy used affects efficiency Heating with highly organized energy is inefficient eg Electricity to heat water Matching energy grade with use saves energy and preserves the environment 2quot law efficiency is a measure of how well this matching is accomplished Introduction to Tar Sands Fossil fuel resource base World oil production 0 Types of growth 0 Semi ogarithmic plots of production 0 Expiration times iv 4amp12 A world full of oil growth vs no growth 0 IV 62 Reserve production rate deos not account for growth Fractional growth rate k or P Is what most influences the consumption of the supplies of energy 10 11 yrs at no growth vs 342 yrs at 7 growth rate COAL 50 of US electricity comes from coal 80 of China39s electricity comes from coal Coal fires American car and light trucks CO2 output ES115 I Midterm 1 Study Guide Understand HDI and its components What is the world average Human Development Index sacle 01 Based on 3 factors 1 Longevity 2 Educational Attainment 3 Standard of Living Judged by GDP World Average 74 World average electricity consumption relationship of use and high HDI Energy is a necessary component in Standard of Living and corresponds directly to HDI World average 1290 kwhpy US 12000 kwhpy Hybrid energy units Units of energy that include time E Power x Time eg kwh or twy External Costs of Fossil Fuels What you can t count counts Human Health Costs Environmental Degradation Government taxessubsidies Ragone plot Shows the energy storage and handling of some alternative energy systems Plots energy density acceleration against range length of sustained energy MacKay Readings Definitions of and differences between energy and power Energy is the ability to do work on a system Joules Power is energy delivered per unit time watts Joulessec The three truths of climate change 1 CO2 and other greenhouse gasses are rapidly increasing in concentration in our planet s atmosphere 2 These gasses trap infrared electromagnetic energy bouncing off the earth creating a small change in the earth s energy balance 3 The 15 law of thermodynamics energy is conserved means that this change in energy must have some impact on the earth manifested in climate change Thermocline Energy Equivalent Head Solar thermal energy Exploits a significant temperature gradient that occurs between across a depth of water Heat engines can theoretically be used to drastically increase the pressure head of dams doubling or quadrupling hydroelectric power output HthdetaT Hoover dam increase by factor of 30 230m 9 6400m Thermal and potential energy Thermal or heat energy is highly disorganized Thermodynamics provides governing rules and scientific foundation for how we harness and use energy Focus on the use of heat energy to produce more organized forms ie electricity Energy balance equation SC M aphaSC 4CgammaTquot4 Solar Constant is 137 wmquot2 Some of the UV visible radiation is reflected off the earth as infrared red radiaiton A Inputs 1 Solar electromagnetic radiation 2 Tides human contribution and geothermal energy B Outputs 1 Reflectivity albedo 2 Infrared electromagnetic radiation C Earth s temperature sensitivity as function of energy input D Environmental significance Distribution of Solar Energy on the Earth Reflection 10 Micron Radiation Albedo 70 H20 1 Evaporation 7 3 0 47 Heating Wind Waves amp Currents lt1 Photosynthesis ltlt1 e 0 A Hluimaini acitioinis that Climate Climate impact change climiate 7 System on hUlI39I39lIEini W BlfElFe i T i Mlitiigation Geoengiinieeiring Adaptatioini Examples of Thermal Energy heat MCdetaT The Joule Experiment Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 0 Converting kinetic energy to heat o Thermal heat energy J MCdetaT 0 Where M is the mass of water T is temperature in degrees C 0 Specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree of Celsius or Kelvin o C 4186x10quot3 JKg OK Radiation Balance the essential basis of climate Visible solar energy input 9 lnfared Energy Output SC P Tides P Human P geo Trophosphere 9 Stratosphere 9 Climate forcing and feedbacks Forcing anything that creates a small change in the earth s energy balance Feedbacks Methane release from ice positive CO2 water vapor positive low cloud cover negative Power and energy conversions Kgmquot2squot2 Joule Watt JouleSec WattSecond Joule 1 kWh 3600000 Joules Thermal Energy MCdetaT Kinetic Energy 12mvquot2 Potential Energy mgh Where g is the gravity constant 98 or 10msquot2 Mechanical Energy PE KE energy is conserved A kW is 1000 watts An hour is 3600 seconds A wattsecond is a joule A watt joulesec multiply the number of seconds by the number of watts and you get the number of joules A joule is kgmquot2squot2 a watt is a kgmquot2s so one watt equals 60 joules per minute and as you can see 60 minutes in an hour gives 3600joules per watt Geoengineering Technology and Proposals Intentional continental or global scale manipulation of the environment to offset global climate change Human manipulation of factors affecting the earths climate systems and the energy balance to reduce global climate warming Climate Change Abatement Mitigation Technology Greenhouse Effect 0 Reduce CO2 Emissions Alter energy sources Improve Efficiency CCS with fossil fuel 0 Remove CO2 Biological Schemes U CCS with biomass iron wood U Iron Fertilization U Reforestation Chemical Schemes D Air captureSolvent regeneration in Changing alkalinity 392 Electrochemicalweathering Incoming Solar Energy 0 Ways to Increase Albedo Cloud Seeding Sulfur or other engineered Particles in stratosphere Space Mirrors Select Social Issues in Energy Thomas Friedman Chile amp Hydropower Ethics of Geoengineering Unknown results Who is responsible Changes by one nation can have global affects First law of thermodynamics Conservation of Energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only transformed Perpetual Motion Machine Impossible because of conservation of energy and entropy Billard Wheel 1300 s Falling ball supposedly recaptured by a magnet Standard notation prefixes Kilo 10quot3 mega 10quot6 giga 10quot9 tera 10quot12 peta 10quot15 exa 10quot18 zeta 10quot21 yotta Energy in the Developing World GS African Huts Deployment of offgrid personal and portable energy solutions Difficult to form a business model for makes it challenging to fund and implement on a large scale Mechanics of sea level rise Thermal Expansion of H20 with temperature increase 60 Melting of ice 40 Mechanical falling of ice chunks rapid rise Antarctic ice shelf s Affected areas of sea level rise Africa and eastern Asia especially those nations without the money and infrastructure to cope with changes lntercoastal zones with dense populations and poor infrastruture Anthropogenic greenhouse gasses Flourocarbons GWP Global Warming Potential Impact of forcing from GHG s varies Scale with CO2 as base 10 numbers increase with decreasing impact CO2 386000ppm GWP 1 CH4 1774ppm GWP 23 CFC 319ppm GWP 6500 Removal Times vary immensely means that some GHGs have very long lag times and even if we reduce emissions we will still be subject to the consequences for years to come CO2 gt100 yrs Methane 10yrs Ozone 10100yrs NOxide 100yrs Flourocarbons gt1000yrs Fine Aerosols 10 days Global Carbon Cycle 30 gigatonnes produced annually 15 remains in atmosphere total volume 3000 gigatonnes 7 absorbed by biosphere 8 sinks in ocean Spreng Triangle Energy Information Time Max on sides mins on opposing points Shows the relationship between the three resources Can trade one for the other two More time less energy and information required More energy less time More information better allocation of time Ocean Acidification Most acidic in 20 million years H Acidic OH Basic 01 pH decline since 1750 82 at beginning of industrial revolution 78 predicted in Y21OO Risk of destroying phytoplankton shells Destroys entire food web and created vast dead zones External cost of fossil fuels Review key lecture slides Bill Gates Ted talk Helms Hydro Project Peak LoadBase Load Storage of base production energy for use during peak loading times Pumps water uphill and stores it in a reservoir Then uses water to turn turbines and generate power when demand existsq Annual CO2 emissions and current atmospheric concentration Avg CO2 emissions 5 tonnespy Current Atm Concentration 386 ppm Glacial 190ppm Basie line 285 ppm Today 380ppm Capacity 570ppm Pielke Observation Principle When there s a conflict between policies that promote economic growth and policies restricting CO2 economic growth wins every time All Homework Problems and associated content Example Multiple Choice Questions Which of the following does Dr Manalis use in lecture Green Laser Red Laser Wooden Stick Retractable metal rod QOO39QJ Which of the following are TRUE of energy E mgh E 2 mv2 E mCDT2 OO39QJ3 d EJs 44 24 Note the student correctly circled a but didn t circle b 1 and then incorrectly circled c 1 but correctly left d blank a amp b are TRUE of energy while c amp d are NOT TRUE of energy for c T is not squared for d Js is power a rate not energy a quantity FYI you don t need to MEMORIZE the correct formulas listed ie write them out with no hints but you do need to be able to IDENTIFY them if we provide them for you ie there will be some sort of hint given Of course the key slides do point to the formulas you do need to know
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