Week 13 and 14--Lectures 34-38
Week 13 and 14--Lectures 34-38 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Sunday December 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 12/20/15
Lecture 34 Romanesque Architecture Pilgrimage and Monasticism November 23 2015 Lecture Themes from slide Romanesque architecture deliberately evokes ancient Roman and Early Christian forms as part of Gregorian reform ideals of returning to the quotecclesia primitivae formae and apostolic ideals Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela and other centers as transcultural vehicle in the wake of the collapse of a centralized imperial state offering support to Reconquista and Christianization of Europe Innovations in vaulting combinations allow creation of new forms of lofty lightfilled structures to represent monasticpilgrimage church as mediating spaces between Heaven and Earth Pilgrimage church plans facilitate access to relicsreliquaries and private masses in honor of the deceased Distinct models of monastic spirituality produce very different architectural expressions Italy culturally distinguished by a certain conservatism retains EC basilica and by close ties to Byzantium Romanesque coined by William Gunn in 1813 to describe medieval architecture that looks Roman uses Roman building structural and vaulting techniques It was never a term used in the Middle Ages Example 0 Arch of Titus Rome 781 CE 0 O St Trophime Arles portal w Second Coming 113060 O o This is Romanesque Historical Background from slide 813 Discovery ofJames s tomb construction of first shrine at Compostela in support of Reconquista 10781188 rebuilding of shrine and cathedral of Compostela with support from King Alfonso VI 108586 Toledo captured by Christian forces 910 Foundation of Benedictine Abbey of Cluny by William of Auvergne 1073 85 Pope Gregory W former abbot of Montecassino promotes Gregorian reforms 1099 Foundation of Cistercian Order at Citeaux by Robert de Molesme 1099 10881150 Rebuilding of Cluny Abbey Cluny III with support from Alfonso VI of Castille 10901153 Bernard of Clairvaux chief spokesman leading abbot of Cistercian order St Sernin Toulouse Languedoc France 10701120 Exterior from the east plan i 224 This is the best preserved example on route to Santiago Similar to Old St Peter s For of a Roman Basilica Monks snag private masses for the deceased o Built in brick St Sernin Toulouse Languedoc France 10701120 interior nave elevation plan 0000 OOOOCOOOOO quot0 a o d 0 039 a39 39 Very similar to Roman interiors 39 The vaulting enhanced the accustics o Groin vaulting in side aisle quot Iquot I 39 1 I39 v V a a 39 I III I v v if Sainte Foy Conques ca 10501130 exterior from northwest and from the east o Conques interior of nave and choir to east Detail of dome over crossing with ribbed vaulting o Reliquary of Saint Foy Conques hammered gold and gems over wooden core ca 1000 a 39 e 0 Abbey of Cluny III South Transept 10881130 Fontenay Interior and Plan 113947 Cloister abbey church m 27gtVIIK M 39 gt A 5 v San Miniato detail of facade mosaic with Christ Pantokrator flanked by Mary and Mniatus 1260 O 39 53 1 0 San Miniato Interior to east and crypt Lecture 36 Ideal and Monstrous Bodies and the Senses in Romanesque Architectural Sculpture November 30 2015 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Revival of sculpture connected to monastic practices of meditation and valorization of the senses 0 Body beautiful imprinted with the Godgiven likeness of Genesis 0 Body monstrous as reflection of spiritual deformity diabolical dreams and fantasies and the means of neutralizing diabolical visions modifying behavior 0 Inscriptions and ritual texts give voice to the portals as backdrops to oral performance enlivening scripture Fontenay Abbey Cistercian Order 113947 West facade of church O 0 Very plain 0 There is no room for sculpted images in this era They were seen as distracting Santo Domingo de Silos cloister relief sculpture 12th century Doubting Thomas 0 4 W7 7 0 William of StThierry Meditations o quotFor since I have not yet progressed beyond the elementary stage of sensory imaginationmy stillundeveloped soul dwells naturally on your lowliness by means of some mental picturing You will allow her for example to embrace the manger of the newborn babe to venerate the sacred infancy to caress the feet of the crucified to hold and kiss those feet when he is risen and to put her hand in the print of the nails It was not the least of the chief reasons for your incarnation that your babes in the Church who are not strong enough spiritually might find in you a form not unfamiliar to themselves In offering their prayers they might set this form before themselves while they are still unable to gaze into the brightness of the majesty of your divinity 0 quotlike Thomas that man of desires I want to see and touch the whole of him and what is more to approach the most holy wound in his side and to put my finger or my whole hand into it Benedictine Abbey of StPierre Moissac Languedoc France ca 11151130 south porch I v v r e v 7 0 Roman Triu phalArch looking 0 Seen as a portal into the church an anticipation into entering the space 0 Abbey of SaintPierre Moissac south porch 111530 3 g his is the quotgoa 0 quotAt once I was in the spirit and lo a throne stood in heaven with one seated on the throne And he who sat there appeared like jasper and carnelian and round the throne was a rainbow that looked like an emerald Round the throne were 24 thrones and seated on the thrones were 24 elders clad in white garments with golden crowns upon their headsAnd round the throne on each side are 4 living creatures full of eyes in front and behind Revelation 4 0 Eyes ofJesus face down to the viewer o This gives the viewer the perspective of connecting with Jesus 0 Elders are sitting underneath at the bottom 0 MoissaclrpeJeremiah L 0 You have to look up at it though 0 Moissac left wall Abraham with Lazarus Lazarus outside the house of Dives quot ta 339 1 I 39 1 07 iwm a I Moissac detail of left wall with Lust Luxuria and a Demon bquot g o Lust is on the right o quotdecomposing beautiful female nude 0 Snakes are attacking her breasts crotch and feet SaintLazare Autun Burgandy France Tympanum of Last Judgment made by Giselbertus ca 11201135 0 Another powerful entrance to a church 0 Artist s signature is beneath Christ s feet I This was very rare at this time o Underneath Christ are bodies rising from the dead I They all represent different professions o Autun Last Judgement separation of blessed and damned as they rise from their tombs g a v39 l 39 7 39 39 39 39 39 l Pentecost and the Mission of the Apostles central west tympanum Abbey of La Madeleine V zelay 112032 Including Monstrous Races Cynocephali Panotii Sciritae noseless Pygmies and Zodiac Calendar Lecture 38 Chartres Cathedral nClass Discussion 11 December 4 2015 Lecture Themes from slide Chartres Cathedral as pilgrimage church devoted to Relic of Tunic of the Virgin Mary Stained Glass represents relationship between church and state ideology of French monarchy as patrons also contributions of the lay guilds Sculpture highlights cult of Virgin and cathedral School university in pursuit of knowledge Formal transformation of sculpture to create autonomous figures projected into viewer s space Development of perspective in relation to devotional practices Emphasis on natural observable world traced also to development of optical science revival of Aristotelian philosophy at end of 12th century Emphasis on suffering fleshly body of Christ relates to Eucharistic theology transubstantiation 1215 Chartres Cathedral plan 114555 west front 11941220 Interior nave to east 11941220 o Celebrated as a pilgramage church Chartres Cathedral chevet and section showing Flying Buttresses O Belle Verriere Chartres Cathedral quotW u an o Chartres Cathedral North Transept Rose window w Genealogy of Christ Priests and kings commissioned by Blanche of Castille and Louis IX ca 1240 J O 7 I The Rose Window is the greatest expanse of glass I Stained glass was very important at this time o Melchizedek David Anne amp Mary Solomon Aaron Nebuchadnezzar Saul Royal Shield Jeroboam Pharaoh 39 I 7 39 quotHaiti 1 n 399 l j39 2 127quot 4 2LL39L1L gtLL quot v g v o Chartres Cathedral west facade 114555 Portail Royal Royal Portal west facade quot7quot k quot L l il l r 39 3 739 w 1 I Fall I 1 my f 339 lis lllllf f I In 1194 there was a fire and only the front of the cathedral survived I There are three portals that have visual manifestations of Chirst Chartres Portail Royal right doorway with Infancy of Christ 114555 J B we r39 Ar 39 a O o Detailof Lintels Chartres Cathedral Portail Royal right tympanum with Sedes Sapientiae Madonna and Child enthroned compared with quotMorgan Madonna Sedes Sapientaie from Auvergne ca 115075 o Chartres Portail Royal Liberal Arts Music and Grammar 1 35 1 ransept central doo way of Last Judgement121015 11 7quot 39 O r r 7 7 o Chartres Cathedral South Transept Last Judgment 121015
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