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Feb 2 notes

by: Danielle Dever

Feb 2 notes 15503

Danielle Dever
GPA 3.8
Biology 1114
Dr. Douglas Nelson

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About this Document

Biology 1114
Dr. Douglas Nelson
One Day of Notes
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Danielle Dever on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to 15503 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Douglas Nelson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biology 1114 in Biology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 02/04/15
Molecular Systematics 0 Nucleic acids or other molecules are used to infer relatedness rRNA changes relatively slowly and is useful for investigating branching points hundreds of millions of years ago mtDNA evolves rapidly and can be used to explore recent evolutionary events 0 A molecular clock uses assumed constant rates of evolution in genes to estimate the absolute time of evolutionary change Prokaryotes ch 27 The major lineages of life 0 Until recently most biologists used the quot ve kingdomquot classi cation system 0 Biologists have long recognized two major types of organisms Pro cells are simple and lack a nucleus Eu cells are complex and have a nucleus Three domain system 0 Carl Woese recognized that there are two kinds of prokaryotes each as distinct from each other as they are from eukaryotes Characteristics of prokaryotes 0 Very small approx 01 micrometers to 10 microeters They have a cell waas do some eukaryotes o Theylack Nucleus Membrane bound Cell wall 0 They come in very simple shapes 0 They divide by quotbinary ssionquot rather that mitosis and meiosis 0 Have great metabolic diversity 0 Essentially every possible kind of energy yielding reaction is exploited by some prokaryote or another Mode of nutrition Energy source Carbon source Autotrophs Photoautotroph Light C02 Chemoautotroph Inorganic chemicals C02 Archaea vs Bacteria The two grousp were originally seperated based on bosoes Archaea look like bacteria BUT 0 Their cell wall has no peptidoglycan o Lipids of their plasma membrane are different Many archaea are extremophiles they like extreme conditions 0 Very salty halophiles 0 Very hot thermophiles o Methanogens strict anerobes 0 Use C02 to oxidize H2 Prok rigid cell wall prevents them from engul ng other cells or particles as food a lifestyle often ued by eukaryotes Instead they live by absorptive nutrition they secrete enzymes and absorb the digested products Diffusion 0 Movement of nurientswasteionsgases etc down a concentration gradient 0 Rate of diffusion is proportional to the surface area Consequences to prok anatomy o Absorptive nutrition requires a high surface to volume ratio They achieve this just by being small


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