February 3rd Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amalia Cristiano on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 21648 at San Diego State University taught by Hay in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.
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Date Created: 02/04/15
February 3rd 2015 Christianity Began as an offshoot of Judaism Founder was Jewish Jesus of Nazareth Jesus primarily wanted to purify and simplify Judaism Jesus crucified in Jerusalem approximately 30 CE for being a troublemaker Jesus followers after his death began to separate his teachings from Judaism EX Suggestion that Jesus of Nazareth had been the Messiah or Savior sent by God Jewish leaders rejected that idea false Messiah Jesus Christ Christ comes from the Greek word Christos meaning savior His followers rejected traditional Jewish laws such as dietary laws against eating porkshellfish and Christianity began to develop more of a following during the 1st century Attempts at separation continued including arguing that Jews were responsible for killing Jesus and they rejected the savior gtgtgtgtApprox 300 CE Christianity was the largest religion in the Roman Empire Developed institutional structure becoming organized religion Early Christian leaders called this the Roman Catholic Church Catholic means universal At the heart of the institution is the papacy the popes or leaders Early on leaders had strong opinions about Jewish people which became a part of the culture of Europe Popes made it officially acceptable to persecute Jews although at the time not too relevant because Jewish communities were small and widely scattered The Roman Empire collapsed in the 400s but the Roman Catholic Church became the dominant force in Europe both religiously and politically gtgtgtAfter the fall of Roman Empire Jews began to migrate to Spain because they were free from persecution there due to the Muslim rulers 600s 7th century emerged a new religion Islam Islamic warriors established a large empire known as the Unmayad Empire Jews were now under the authority of Muslim warriorshowever considered a golden age in Jewish history because Jews were accepted in society Muslims accepted Jews because they were Peoples of the book they believed in many of the same things as Muslims such as one God books as holy resources and prophets such as Abraham and Jesus Muslims suggest that Jews Christians and Muslims all listenrespect the same prophets so there was no reason to oppress J ewsChristians on religious grounds Europe s Middle Ages Approx 5001400 CE Germanic Tribes precivilized people who were not literate or settled were present in Europe Members of Germanic tribes converted to Christianity the last group being the Vikings although it took hundreds of years Germanics were warlike they placed a high value on warfare 800 CE a Germanic kingCharlemagneestablished a new empire around FranceGermany Entity was called the Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne invited Jewish families to live in his kingdom despite his strong Roman Catholic views He respected the Jews educational level and business skills things his empire needed He granted Jews who migrated there royal protections Jewish people began to appear in the area known as the Rhineland region around the Rhine River in Germany They were prosperous and secure there gtgtgtgt1096 CE the Crusades begin Christian warriors tried to conquer the Middle East Major target was Jerusalem in 1096 under control of Muslim warriors Crusades were called for by the Church set off a long period of con ict Crusaders told to kill Muslims as called for by God thus also making it acceptable to kill Jews 10961294 10 major Crusades each starting off with pogroms or attacks against the Jewish people in the Rhineland New restrictions were placed on Jews after the Crusades in much of Europe Ex Forced to live in designated areas ghettos and were not allowed to be farmers or own land fight as soldiers engage in craft trades Jews could only do retail trade shops or be moneylenders usury because Christians weren t allowed as moneylending was considered sinful by the Church These restrictions led to more stereotypes about Jews such as the stereotype that Jews are greedy with money Crusades were accompanied by the Reconquest of Spain Christian warriors tried to reconquer Spain from the Muslims Ended in the year 1492 the last Islamic ruler of Spain was ousted The Christians then targeted Jews living in Spain Given three options Convert to Christianity go into exile majority took this route or be killed Most Jews left Spain or were executed It became a habit to use Jews as scapegoats in the Middle Ages of Europe Key example the Black Death 13471352 was a massive epidemic of Bubonic Plague in Europe that killed 13 of Europe s population It became common to blame Jews for the plague because it tended to be worse in overcrowded areas and Jews were forced to live in overcrowded ghettos Thus Jews were massacred to get rid of the plague sometimes by being nailed into barrels and thrown into the Rhine Eastward Migration Jews in 13001400s moved East and left Western Europe Destination was Kingdom of Poland which at the time was a major European power Kingsnobles of Poland invited Jews and promised them protection from persecution and oppression They were essentially free to practice any religion or occupation Large Jewish communities emerged and thrived By 1939 most Jews lived in Eastern Europe about 8 million out of 11 million in Europe Vast majority of victims of the Holocaust were eastern European Jews Many Jews lived in shtels small villages made up of mostly Jews In shtels distinctly European Jewish culture evolved such as their own customs traditions and language Yiddish gtgtgtgt1700s1800s Included the EmancipationAssimilation of Jews in Western Europe In the early 1700s Jews achieved legal emancipation in Western Europe thus no more restrictions Happened mostly because of liberal revolutions happening around the world such as the French and American revolutions that stressed the idea of all men created equal and all people are born with certain natural rights such as freedom of worship In the early 1800s Reform Judaism took shape This type of Judaism is not a fixed set of beliefs and claimed that Judaism is an ongoing conversation Assimilation Reform Jews said it was acceptable to change so that Jewish people could fit in with mainstream European society For example they did not have to wear prayer shawls or observe dietary laws Jews essentially became the same as Christians Industrialization also helped this process due to the new importance of skills rather than connections or family heritage Industrialization wanted people who could build a bridgereligion was irrelevant In the late 1800s mixed marriages were becoming more common By 1914 in Western Europe most Jewish people identified with their national citizenship first before their Jewish roots In the late 1700s the Kingdom of Poland ceased to exist it was partitioned by Russia Partitioned Poland Jewish shtel communities became Russian Russian leaders hated Jews so they placed new restrictions on them They established the Pale of Settlement a big area where Jews could live but they could not live outside of it or even move from their home villages Sons had to perform same jobs as fathers Jews also not permitted to get educations outside of their own communities They had to pay special taxes Leaders of Russia also used Jewish manpower young Jewish men often drafted into 25 years of service Pale of Settlement kept Jews in Eastern Europe isolated they did not become modernized gtgtgt187 Os The Russians staged pogroms against the J ews they were not random but elaborately planned Intent was not to kill Jews but rather to terrorize them by burning buildings villages and crops Also delivered beatings and public humiliations The reason was that the Russian government believed the Jews were associated with radical political groups such as Communists and Terrorists Long Depression 18741892 This was a long economic downturn that led to feelings of antiSemitism Resulted in high unemployment and draining of life savings for many Europeans Lead to scapegoating the Jews because they were believed to be in charge of the ecoomy Jews were also doing well at the time Politicians used antiJewish sentiment to garner votes most famous of these is Karl Lueger the mayor of Vienna from 1895 to 1910 It is likely that Hitler learned how to be antiSemitic politically from Lueger because Hitler lived in Vienna at the time Alfred Dreyfus and the Dreyfus Affair Dreyfus was a Russian Jew living in France He was an Army officer who had won medals and was felt to be fully assimilated In 1894 Dreyfus was arrested on charges of treason against the French state for allegedly giving military secrets to the Germans He was found guilty even though the trial was clearly bogus Sentenced to life imprisonment on isolated island Caused a huge uproar in Europe and France Some in the French army were afraid that the army was losing public support so they staged the whole thing to gain public support and attention Chose a Jew because no one would work that hard to defend a Jew Dreyfus was brought back for a second trial and found guilty again French president pardoned him but he was still technically considered guilty so his medals and pension were taken away Whole incident suggested that assimilation might not mean that much Protocols of the Elders of Zion 1890s Was a record of a meeting held among Elders of Zion Jewish leaders Protocols suggested that Jewish leaders planned to take over the world by setting off waves of panic through bombings and terrorist attacks in major Western European cities Then the Jewish leaders would stepin and create a oneworld army The document became extremely popular it was translated into 50 languages It was required reading in some schools and in 1919 the Ford Motor Company published it in their newspaper It was known to be made up and written by the Russian secret police Responses of Jews 1 Immigration Over 1 million Jews left Russia Two main destinations Western Europe and the US There were two different communities in Western Europe for the Jews such as the wellassimilated and then the traditional eastern European Jews In the USA it was mostly Eastern European Jews who migrated By 1939 NYC was the biggest Jewish city in the world There was some antiSemitism but not much 2 Zionism The Dreyfus Affair got so much attention that reporters traveled to France Jewish reporter Theodor Herzel from Austria was convinced that Jews would never truly be accepted in Europe He argued that Jews needed their own country In 1898 Herzel published The Jewish State saying that Jews needed a refuge where they would be safe have representatives to advocate internationally on their behalf and earn full selfrespect By 1900 Zionist offices in every major city worked to fundraise and send small groups to Palestine to buy and lease small tracts of land and make that land productive The ultimate result is modern Israel This provided many Jews a sense of activism and the idea of a way out
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