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AGR 201 MODULE 1 NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA COURSE CODE :AEM 411 COURSE TITLE: GENERAL AGRICULTURE 1 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE COURSE GUIDE AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE Course Developer/Writer Professor M.A.K Smith Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management Federal University of Technology, Akure Programme Leader Professor A. Adebanjo National Open University of Nigeria Course Co-ordinator Dr. N. E. Mundi National Open University of Nigeria NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA 2 AGR 201 MODULE 1 National Open University of Nigeria Headquarters 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way Victoria Island Lagos Abuja Office No. 5 Dar es Salaam Street Off Aminu Kano Crescent Wuse II, Abuja Nigeria e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.nou.edu.ng Published by National Open University of Nigeria Printed 2009 ISBN: 978-058-583-8 All Rights Reserved Printed by: 3 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE CONTENTS PAGE Introduction……………………………………..………………….. 1 The Course………………………………………..………………… 1 Course Aims……………………………………..…………………. 4 Course Objectives………………………………..………………..... 4 Working through the Course………………………………………… 5 The Course Material…………………………...……………………. 5 Study Units……………………………………….………………… 5 Textbooks and References ………………………..……………….. 7 Assessment…………………………………………………………. 10 Tutor-Marked Assignment……………….…………………………. 10 Final Examination and Grading …………………………………….. 10 Summary……………………………….…………………………… 10 Introduction Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fibre, fuel and other goods through the systematic raising of plants and animals. It encompasses farming, tending of orchards and vineyards and ranching. Ordinarily, agriculture means the cultivation and tillage of the soil of a field, in order to prepare a suitable seedbed, eliminate weed growth and improve the physical condition of the soil. Farming covers a wide spectrum of practices, ranging from subsistence agriculture (traditional production of food for family consumption and animal feeding), intensive agriculture, industrial agriculture to animal traction and farm mechanization. All these activities have a common objective of maximization of financial income from grain, produce or livestock. However, modern agriculture covers all activities essential to food, feed, fibre production, including techniques for raising and “processing” livestock, and increasingly widening areas of human efforts and practices to ensure survival and sustainable development. Modern agriculturalactivities include pastoralism (nomadic farming), horticulture,fisheries,aquaculture,apiculture,forestry, wildlife conservation, food science technology, production of industrial chemicals and drugs, application of chemical fertilizers, wood ash and limestone, pest control, soil management, hydroponics, crop improvement, irrigation and sanitary engineering, packaging, processing and marketing of agricultural products. The use of radio and television for disseminating vital weather reports, etc. as well as computerization of farm operations are also agricultural activities. Agriculture is not only basic to human existence but also an important factor in determining the complexity of the global socio-economic change from the original, simple and primitive hunter-gather cultures. While the latter ancient practices ensure a subsistent food and fibre 4 AGR 201 MODULE 1 supply, intensive and industrial farming guarantees large-scale supplies of raw and processed foods, feeds, fibre, fuel and other goods for community consumption and incomes, and foreign exchange earnings for national development as well as global advancement. The role of agriculture in human development can therefore, not be over- emphasised. The Course This Course Guide gives a brief description of the topical areas of this course material. There is the need not only to understand the meaning and scope of agriculture as a basic activity to human existence, but also to appreciate the distinct classes of activities which combine to ensure international (global) food security. Agriculture is also a major contributor to diverse environmental alterations which threaten human existence on the planet earth, in respect of the multitude of cultural operations used to achieve optimum crop, animal and forest yields. The ownership of land is critical to land use for agriculture and other purposes, and this varies widely with the existing laws and customs in different parts of the world. In Nigeria, agriculture is the largest contributor to national development, and its development is greatly influenced by political history. Several intervention schemes have been implemented to ensure increased food production. Agriculture is ancient in origin, but has witnessed several random and systematic transformations resulting in complex, more sustaining and efficient modern systems of food, feed and fibre production. This accounts for the wide variations in the systems of farming, depending on the intensity of cropping and duration of bush fallow. Thus, tropical agriculture consists of largely the traditional multiple cropping systems which are strongly influenced by population growth, commercialization and modernization. Tropical cropping systems range from nomadic herding, and bush fallowing to crop rotation, monocropping, Taungya farming, alley cropping, mixed farming, which guarantee soil sustainability and environmental preservation. Cultural operations adopted in crop production not only ensure a favourable environment for optimum crop yield and quality, but also include breeding of improved varieties, adaptation to diverse environments and provide alternative to herbicides. Seed propagation of crops is more ancient than asexual propagation, which in recent times led to the evolution of micro-propagation to produce new disease and pest-resistant crop varieties. In spite of these, the onset of the cropping season, cropping pattern and systems and the number of crops cultivable by farmers depend on the climatic factors, especially rainfall and temperature. In Nigeria, the distribution of crops 5 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE across ecological zones depends largely on the seasonality of rainfall, and the duration and regimes of the wet season. This accounts for the cultivation of the long-season root and perennial tree crops in the wetter south and the short-season grain crops in the drier north. Soil type, fertility and land use systems also exert considerable influence on agricultural production. Animal husbandry involves the breeding and raising of animals not only for meat, milk, eggs and wool on a continual basis but also for companionship, farm work and secondary benefits such as pharmaceuticals, drugs, organic manuring and farm income. Farm animals vary widely in their feedings habits (ruminants, non-ruminants, monogastrics), the type of food they eat (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores) as well as the purpose of management (beef, dairy, work, egg-laying). In Nigeria, farm animals vary widely in their spatial distribution across ecozones depending on the husbandry system, cultural, social, religious, ecological factors and the type of animal breed. However, the main livestock types are cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, donkeys, horses and poultry. The systems of management of these animals depend mainly on the intended scale of output (subsistence versus export), farmer’s convenience, financial base and available resources such as land and pasture. The systems are largely traditional, nomadic and free range and to a smaller extent, semi-intensive, intensive and ranching. Certain practices are critical to adequate supply of good- quality animal products and by-products, not only to guarantee huge profits but also to sustain livestock production. These include selection of good animals, feeding, housing, disease control, etc. Fish production is major source of animal protein for human consumption. Non-food fish products can be used as dietary supplements in livestock production while parts of fishes have several direct and indirect benefits to humans, particularly industrial uses. In Nigeria, fish production is highly valued as a renewable source of cheap, high-quality animal protein from large supplies of fish and other aquatic living organisms such as sea weeds and coral reefs. Fish production systems range from capture fisheries, industrial fisheries, small-scale fisheries and artisanal fisheries to culture fisheries (aquaculture). Fish vary widely in type depending on the habitat characteristics and body skeleton, and include tropical and coldwater fish, freshwater and marine fish, cartilaginous and bony fish. Forest management is an important area of agriculture, which provides man with several economic, social, religious and environmental values. The forest contains not only a great quantity of timber reserves and manufacturing wood products (alcohol, plywood), but also abundant non-woody plant and animal resources such as mushrooms, honey, 6 AGR 201 MODULE 1 biomedicals and spices. Sustainable forest management involves silvicultural systems which assure full and inexhaustible benefits and services from natural forests, forest reserves and forest plantations. Silviculture is based on principles of forest ecology and ecosystem management which are targeted at the creation and maintenance of pure, even-aged stands of single tree species. Wildlife management is a particularly important sub-sector of agriculture, because it generates huge foreign exchange through exports, game-viewing and tourism. It is also highly valued for its socio-cultural, religious and trado-medical benefits. In Nigeria, wildlife conservation is targeted at increasing animal protein supplies through bushmeat production, education, research, rural employment and ecological diversity. Ecotourism is the tourism industry’s fastest growing sub- sector, and offers new opportunities for effective national development, improved socio-economic life for citizens and a safe environment. From the foregoing, it is apparent that agriculture is central to Nigeria’s economic growth and development. There is therefore, a need to improve and sustain productivity through a critical analysis of the inherent production problems and careful planning and implementation. Course Aims The aim of the course is to elucidate the fundamental aspects, principles and practice of agriculture with particular reference to Nigeria. Course Objectives Arising from the aims as mentioned above, the course is set to achieve the following objectives: • increase the student’s knowledge of the multi-faceted nature of agriculture, with a view to encourage capacity building for self- reliance • highlight the contribution of agriculture to national development and human survival • explain the negative effects of agricultural activities on the environment • discuss the influence of land ownership on agriculture and non- agricultural activities; • discuss the trend, evolution, current status and opportunities for profitable investment in agriculture in Nigeria; • explain the need to adapt traditional farming techniques in order to improve productivity 7 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE • explain the primary contribution of diverse crop groups to national production and spatial distribution in various ecological zones • identify the basis for the dominance of multiple cropping and the external factor which affect the systems in tropical Africa • learn about the fundamental aspects of cropping systems, their practical benefits and limitations in food production • understand the aim, sequence, benefits and practical application of cultural practices in crop production • understand the methods, advantages, limitations and practical application of crop propagation techniques • learn about the roles of climatic and soil factors in crop production • learn the various direct and indirect benefits of farm animals of various types, their distribution, aspects of good husbandry and management systems • enumerate the food, non-food, socio-economic, cultural, religious and industrial benefits of various fish types; the aims and techniques of fisheries management in Nigeria; and aquaculture fisheries i. learn about importance of forest trees, especially wood and non- wood products, and sustainable forest management, especially silvicultural systems; ii. understand the scope of wildlife management, its significance to the national economy and concepts of wildlife management and conservation; iii. appreciate the principles, economic importance and impact of ecotourism in the environment; and to iv. understand the pertinent measures for improving agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Working through the Course The understanding of this course is critically dependent on a patient and meticulous review of the course material. Much time has been devoted to the preparation of the material, and this accounts for its simplicity, extensive technical content and readability. The allocation of extra time to attend to the Tutor-Marked Assignment cannot be over-emphasized, in view of the immense benefits to knowledge acquisition. The Course Material The course materials comprise of • Course Guide • Study Guide • List of Recommended Textbooks, and 8 AGR 201 MODULE 1 • Internet Literature, which provides the most current information on most of the Course Units. Study Units The following are the Study Units contained in this course: Module 1 Unit 1 Scope of Agriculture Unit 2 Importance of Agriculture Unit 3 Agriculture and the Natural Environment Unit 4 Land Tenure and Use Systems Unit 5 Agricultural Development in Nigeria Module 2 Unit 1 History of Agriculture Unit 2: Classes of Crops Unit 3 Characteristics of Tropical Agricultural Systems Unit 4 Systems of Crop Production Unit 5 Cultural Practices in Crop Production Module 3 Unit 1 Propagation of Crops Unit 2 Climatic Factors affecting Crop Production Unit 3 Edaphic Factors affecting Crop Production Unit 4 Distribution of Crops in Nigeria Unit 5 Economic Importance of Animal Husbandry Module 4 Unit 1 Classes of Farm Animals Unit 2 Distribution of Farm Animals in Nigeria Unit 3 Livestock Management Systems Unit 4 Principles of Livestock Management Unit 5 Economic Importance of Fish to Man Module 5 Unit 1 Fisheries and Fish Production in Nigeria Unit 2 Aquaculture Unit 3 Types of Fish Unit 4 Importance of Forest Unit 5 Sustainable Forest Management 9 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE Module 6 Unit 1 Silvicultural Systems Unit 2 Non-Timber (Non-Wood) Forest Products (NFTs/NWFPs) Unit 3 Wood Products and Wood Components Unit 4 Basic Principles of Forest Management Unit 5 Importance of Wildlife Module 7 Unit 1 Concepts of Wildlife and Wildlife Management Unit 2 Ecotourism Unit 3 Measures for Improving Nigerian Agriculture Textbooks and References Adams, C.R., Bamford, K.M. and Early, M.P. (1999). Principles of Horticulture. Third Edition. U.K.: Butterworth-Heinemann. Adegbola, A.A., Are L.A., Ashaye, T.I. and Komolafe, M.F. (1972). Agricultural Science for West African Schools and Colleges. Nigeria: Oxford University Press. Adesiyan, S.O., Caveness, F.E, Adeniji, M.O. and Fawole, B. (2000). Nematode Pests of Tropical Crops. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Plc. Agboola, S.A. (1979). An Agricultural Atlas of Nigeria. U.K.: Oxford University Press Ltd. Akegbejo-Samsons, Y. (1996). Introduction to Wildlife Management in Nigeria. 55 p. Abeokuta, Nigeria: GOAD Educational Publisher. Akobundu, I.O. (1987). Weed Science in the Tropics. Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Alokan, J.A. (1998). An Introduction to Pasture, Fodder Crop Production and Conservation. Akure, Nigeria: Topfun Publications. Arendse, W., Braber, K. den, Halder, I. van, Hoogerbrugge, I., Kramer, M. and Valk, H. van der (1995). Pesticides: Compounds, Use and Hazards. The Netherlands: AGRODOK 29. CTA. 10 AGR 201 MODULE 1 Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (1999). The Nature and Properties of Soils. Twelfth Edition.07458. 881 p. N.J.: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River. Brenan, C. (2006). Barley: Genetics, Composition, Structure and Uses. Lavoisier. Doohan, D.J., Carchia, J. and Kleinhenz, M.D. (2000). Cultural Practices in Vegetable Crop weed Management Programs. Bulletin 888-00. ohioline.ag.ohio-state.edu Hamzat, R.A., Olaiya, A.O., Sanusi, R.A. and Adedeji, A.R. 2006. State of Cacao Growing, Quality and Research in Nigeria: Need for Intervention. The Biennial Partnership of the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF), May 16-18, Brussels, Belgium. Harper, F. (1983). Principles of Arable Crop Production. U.K.: Blackwell Science Ltd. Hartley, P.V. (1991). Irrigation Systems for Research Farms. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA Research Guide 14, IITA. Hayma, J. (1995). Storage of Tropical Agricultural Products. The Netherlands: AGRODOK 31. CTA. IITA (1992). Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: 1. IITA’s Contributions. IITA. Introduction to General Agriculture (CSP 201). School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology. Akure, Nigeria: The Federal University of Technology. Kang, B.T. (1993). Sustainable Agroforestry Systems for the Tropics: Concepts and Examples. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA Research Guide 26, IITA. Kaypers, H., Mollema, A. and Topper, E. (2002). Erosion Control in the Tropics. The Netherlands: AGRODOK 11. CTA. Kays, S.J. and Silva Dias, J.C. (1996). Cultivated Vegetables of the World. Athens, GA: Exon Press. Kumar, R. (1984). Insect Pest Control with Special Reference to African Agriculture. U.K.: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. http://www.arnoldpublishers.com 11 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE Lipps, P.E., Dorrance, A.E. and Rhodes, L.H. (2000). Efficacy of Seed Treatment Fungicides for Agronomic Crops in Ohio-2000. The Ohio State University Extension Bulletin 639A-01. ohioline.ag.ohio-state.edu Louwaara, N.P. and Marrewijk, G.A.M. Seed Supply System in Developing Countries. Technical Centre for Agriculture & Rural Cooperation. The Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University. NACWC (1994). Weed Control Recommendations for Nigeria. Series No. 3. Department of Agriculture, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Africa-Link Books. Ngeze, P.B. 1994. Bananas and their Management. Bukoba, Tanzania: Kagera Writers & Publishers Cooperative Society Ltd. O’Hair, S.K. (1990). "Tropical Root and Tuber Crops”. In Janick, J. and Simon, J.E. (eds.) Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Okigbo, B.N. and Greenland, D.J. (1976). Intercropping Systems in Tropical Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA Reprint Series N0. 96, Multiple Cropping, IITA. Oludimu, O.L. and Imoudu, P.B. (1998). Institutional Reforms for Agricultural Development. Essays in Honour of late Professor Segun Famoriyo. Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria: Triumph Books Publishers. Oluyege, A.O. (2007). Wood: A versatile Material for National Development. Inaugural Lecture Series 45. Akure, Nigeria: The Federal University of Technology. Rehm, S. and Espig, G. (1991). The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Cultivation, Economic Value, Utilization. CTA/Verlag Josef Margraf Scientific Books. Saliu, R.G. (2005). Essential Agricultural Science for Junior secondary Schools. Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria: Hammed Printing Press. Simone, van Ee (1999). Fruit Growing in the Tropics. The Netherlands: AGRODOK 5, CTA. 12 AGR 201 MODULE 1 Sparling, C.R. and King, S.R. (1990). Andean Tuber Crops. Worldwide Potential. In: Janick, J. and Simon, J.E. (eds.). Advances in new Crops. Portland, OR: Timber Press. Taylor, T.A. (1977). Crop Pests and Diseases. Studies in the Development of Resources. Ibadan, Nigeria: Oxford University Press. Van Scholl, L. (1998). Soil Fertility Management. The Netherlands: AGRODOK 2, CTA. Assessment The Course consists of two components, namely a) Tutor-Marked Assignments (TMAs) and b) End of Course Examination. Tutor-Marked Assignment The TMA is the continuous assessment component of your course. It accounts for 30% of the total score. You will be given 4 TMAs to answer. Three of these must be answered before you are allowed to sit for the End of Course Examination. The TMAs will be given to you by your facilitator and returned after you have done the assignment. Final Examination and Grading This examination concludes the assessment for the course. It constitutes 70% of the whole course. You will be informed of the time for the examination since it may or may not coincide with the University Semester examination. Summary This course is intended to provide you with the fundamental knowledge of agriculture and its components. By the end of this course, you should be able to answer the following questions: i. What is “agriculture”? ii. State the difference between primary and secondary agriculture? iii. Why is the agricultural sector an important source of employment in Nigeria? 13 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE iv. List four raw materials and the corresponding industries using the raw materials in Nigeria. v. Enumerate five ways through which agriculture causes environmental degradation? vi. Briefly describe two land use systems in Nigeria. vii. Which post-colonial agricultural development intervention is most impacting on agricultural growth in Nigeria? viii. What is the consequence of poor performance of agriculture relative to population growth? ix. State the highlights of the development of present-day agriculture. x. State the differences between the following groups of crops: k. Class Gymnospermae and Class Angiospermae; l. biennials and annuals; and m. dicots and monocots. xiv. Enumerate five characteristics of tropical agriculture. xv. State four factors which influence the type of cropping system practised by a farmer. xvi. Briefly explain four benefits of cultural practices to optimum crop yields and produce quality. xvii. What factor differentiates the types of irrigation system? xviii. Name four methods of air-tight storage of farm products and four limitations of the methods. xix. State four desirable features of budding and grafting. xx. In what five ways is soil organic matter maintained on croplands? xxi. Why is guinea-corn regarded as the most versatile cereal crop in Nigeria? xxii. Identify, and enumerate four secondary benefits of farm animals. xxiii. State any four advantages of the ruminant pre-gastric fermentation. xxiv. State four reasons for the preponderance of pigs in southern Nigeria than in northern Nigeria. xxv. List and define the different management systems of managing farm animals. xxvi. Why are grass-legume mixtures more desirable than sole grass or legume pastures? xxvii. Write short notes on “fish waste products”. xxviii.Outline any five criteria for selecting the fish species for aquaculture fish production. xxix. Identify five categories of freshwater fish and name two examples of each category. xxx. In what two broad ways do forests serve Man? 14 AGR 201 MODULE 1 xxxi. What is “sustainable forest management”? xxxii. State four factors to consider in implementing silvicultural systems. xxxiii.What are “non-timber forest products” and “special wood products”? xxxiv. Write short notes on “sericulture”. xxxv. In what two ways do wildlife species help in scientific development? xxxvi. Why is political will critical to sustained agricultural development and economic growth? xxxvii.Mention the areas of focus of ecotourism. We wish you the best of luck in this course. It is expected that you will be able to appreciate the importance of agriculture as the ancient activity which ensures human survival and sustainable national development. 15 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE MAIN COURSE Course Code AGR 201 Course Title General Agriculture Course Developer/Writer Professor M.A.K Smith Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management Federal University of Technology, Akure Programme Leader Professor A. Adebanjo National Open University of Nigeria Course Co-ordinator Dr. N. E. Mundi National Open University of Nigeria NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA 16 AGR 201 MODULE 1 National Open University of Nigeria Headquarters 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way Victoria Island Lagos Abuja Office No. 5 Dar es Salaam Street Off Aminu Kano Crescent Wuse II, Abuja Nigeria e-mail: email@example.com URL: www.nou.edu.ng Published by National Open University of Nigeria Printed 2009 ISBN: 978-058-583-8 All Rights Reserved Printed by: 17 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE CONTENTS PAGE Module 1 ………………………………………….………….. 1 Unit 1 Scope of Agriculture……………………….……….. 1 Unit 2 Importance of Agriculture……………………..……. 5 Unit 3 Agriculture and the Natural Environment…………..9 Unit 4 Land Tenure and Use Systems………………..…….. 13 Unit 5 Agricultural Development in Nigeria…………..…… 18 Module 2 ………………………………………………………. 21 Unit 1 History of Agriculture……………………..………… 21 Unit 2 Classes of Crops……………………….……………. 25 Unit 3 Characteristics of Tropical Agricultural Systems…… 34 Unit 4 Systems of Crop Production……………..………….. 38 Unit 5 Cultural Practices in Crop Production………………... 46 Module 3 …………………………………..……………………. 58 Unit 1 Propagation of Crops…………………………………. 58 Unit 2 Climatic Factors Affecting Crop Production…………..71 Unit 3 Edaphic Factors Affecting Crop Production………….. 77 Unit 4 Distribution of Crops in Nigeria……………………… 84 Unit 5 Economic Importance of Animal Husbandry………….92 Module 4 …………………………..……………………………..95 Unit 1 Classes of Farm Animals………………………………95 Unit 2 Distribution of Farm Animals in Nigeria……………..100 Unit 3 Livestock Management Systems…………………..… 106 Unit 4 Principles of Livestock Management……………..…. 109 Unit 5 Economic Importance of Fish to Man……………..… 116 Module 5 ……………………………………………….………. 121 Unit 1 Fisheries and Fish Production in Nigeria……………. 121 Unit 2 Aquaculture…………………………………………...125 Unit 3 Types of Fish………………………………………….129 Unit 4 Importance of Forest………………………….………136 Unit 5 Sustainable Forest Management……………………...139 Module 6 …………………………………………….………….142 Unit 1 Silvicultural Systems…………………..…………….142 Unit 2 Non-Timber (Non-Wood) Forest Products 18 AGR 201 MODULE 1 (NFTs/NWFPs)………………………..……… 147 Unit 3 Wood Products and Wood Components….….. 151 Unit 4 Basic Principles of Forest Management…….... 154 Unit 5 Importance of Wildlife…………………..…… 164 Module 7 ……………………………………………….....168 Unit 1 Concepts of Wildlife and Wildlife Management 168 Unit 2 Ecotourism…………………………………….. 175 Unit 3 Measures for Improving Nigerian Agriculture…182 19 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE MODULE 1 Unit 1 Scope of Agriculture Unit 2 Importance of Agriculture Unit 3 Agriculture and the Natural Environment Unit 4 Land Tenure and Use Systems Unit 5 Agricultural Development in Nigeria UNIT 1 SCOPE OF AGRICULTURE CONTENTS 1.0Introduction 2.0Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Definition of Agriculture 3.2 Agricultural Activities 3.3 Classification of Agricultural Practices 3.3.1 Primary Agriculture 3.3.2 Secondary Agriculture 4.0Conclusion 5.0Summary 6.0Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION Simply defined, “agriculture” means cultivation and tillage of the soil of a field, in order to prepare a suitable seedbed, eliminate weed growth and improve the physical condition of the soil. However, modern “agriculture” covers all activities essential to food, feed, fibre production, including techniques for raising and “processing” livestock, and increasingly widening areas of human efforts and practices to ensure survival and sustainable development. 2.0 OBJECTIVES This study unit is expected to: • increase the student’s understanding of the multi-faceted nature of agricultural practice • encourage capacity building in the various entrepreneurship opportunities for self-reliance. 20 AGR 201 MODULE 1 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Definition of “Agriculture” Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fibre, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. It encompasses farming, tending of orchards and vineyards and ranching. 3.2 Agricultural Activities Farming covers a wide spectrum of practices, ranging from subsistence agriculture (traditional production of food for family consumption and animal feeding), intensive agriculture, industrial agriculture to animal traction and farm mechanization. All these activities have a common objective of maximization of financial income from grain, produce or livestock. In modern times, agricultural activities include pastoralism (nomadic farming), horticulture, fisheries, aquaculture, apiculture, forestry, wildlife conservation, food science technology, production of industrial chemicals and drugs, application of chemical fertilizers, wood ash and limestone, pest control, soil management, hydroponics, crop improvement, irrigation and sanitary engineering, packaging, processing and marketing of agricultural products. In advanced countries of the World, airplanes, helicopters, trucks and tractors and combines are involved in seeding, spraying operations for insect and disease control, harvesting, aerial top dressing and transportation of perishable products. The use of radio and television for disseminating vital weather reports, etc. as well as computerization of farm operations are also agricultural activities. 3.3 Classification of Agricultural Practices Agriculture can be distinctly classified into “primary” and “secondary” branches. 3.3.1 Primary Agriculture This involves farming in all its branches. These include certain specific farming operations such as cultivation and tillage of soil, production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodity and the raising of livestock, bees, poultry and fur-bearing animals. Other primary activities include dairying (including putting the milk in containers, cooling it, and storage on the farm), the production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of trees or timber products by a farmer or on a farm, the production and processing of crude gum 21 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE (oleoresin), gum spirits of turpentine and gum resin from a living tree and by the producing farmer. The employment of man in any of these direct farming activities is called agriculture, irrespective of whether he is employed by a farmer or the activity takes place in enclosed houses (greenhouse or mushroom cellars) or on an open field in a village, city, industrial premises or non-farm premises. 3.3.2 Secondary Agriculture This includes operations other than those which fall within the primary activities of agriculture. These are either farming or non-farming practices performed either by a farmer or on a farm leading to, or in addition to, such farming or non-farming operations. Typical examples are the separation of cream from milk, bottling of milk and cream, or making butter and cheese by a farmer or on a farm, when not performed on milk produced by other farmers or produced on other farms. 4.0 CONCLUSION In this unit, you have learned about the meaning of agricultural activity, classes of farming and non-farming activities and the diverse nature of farming. This knowledge will facilitate the understanding of the subsequent study units in this course. 5.0 SUMMARY Agriculture involves direct (primary) and non-direct (secondary) farming practices which deal with the production of food, fibre, animal feeds and processing of agricultural products for man’s use. 6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Define the term “agriculture” in its broad sense. 2. List four modern farming activities. 3. State the difference between primary and secondary agriculture. 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS US Department of Labor in the 21 Century. www.dol.gov Agricultural Wikipedia Nigeria’s Agricultural Sector. General Meaning of “Agriculture or Horticultural Activities”. 22 AGR 201 MODULE 1 http://www.dol.gov/dol/allcfr/ESA/TITLE_29/Part_780/29CFR780.112. htm U.S. Department of Labor. http://www.dol.gov History of Agriculture. Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www. Britannica.com/eb/article-910607/history-of-agriculture 23 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE UNIT 2 IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Roles of Agriculture 3.2 Global Contribution of Agriculture 3.3 Sectoral Contribution of Agriculture in Nigeria 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION Agriculture is not only basic to human existence but also an important factor in determining the complexity of the global socio-economic change from the original, simple and primitive hunter-gather cultures. While the latter ancient practices ensure a subsistent food and fibre supply, intensive and industrial farming guarantees large-scale supplies of raw and processed foods, feeds, fibre, fuel and other goods for community consumption and incomes, and foreign exchange earnings for national development as well as global advancement. The role of agriculture in human development can therefore, not be over- emphasised. 2.0 OBJECTIVES This unit is expected to: • discuss the various ways through which farming sustains human existence • identify the contribution of the agricultural sector to Gross World Production (GWP) in general, and Nigeria’s economic development in particular. 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Roles of Agriculture i. Provision of the basic food requirements of human populations. ii. It is the predominant occupation of the working population, especially in agrarian nations. 24 AGR 201 MODULE 1 iii. An important way of life, culture and custom of the people. Customs and festivals are observed in consonance with agricultural seasons, activities and products in most rural communities. Hunting on both agricultural and wild areas is a way of life, and hobby, in rural settings. iv. The major source of income, especially for the rural populace. v. Provision of raw materials for manufacturing industries, such as feed mills, textile factories, vegetable oil mills, packaging, biopharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and leather. vi. Agricultural experts are of great importance in foreign exchange earnings and government revenue. 3.2 Global Contribution of Agriculture About 42% of the World’s labourers are employed in agriculture, thus making it by far the most common occupation. In spite of this, agricultural production sector accounts for less than 5% of the Gross World Production, GWP (i.e. 5% of the aggregate of all national Gross Domestic Products, GDP). 3.3 Sectoral Contribution of Agriculture in Nigeria i. Nigeria still remains an agrarian economy, in spite of the growing importance of oil. Subsistence agriculture is most important in the provision of staple foods (especially rice, maize, beans, taro/cocoyam, yams, cassava, sorghum, millet) for the teeming Nigerian populace. However, limited excess quantities of the harvested produce are sold in local markets for little incomes. The groups of agricultural crops grown in Nigeria are shown below (Table 1): Table 1. Groups of crops grown in Nigeria. __________________________________________________________ Group Crops Cereals Guinea-corn, millet, maize, rice Roots & Tubers Cassava, yam, cocoyam, potatoes (sweet, Irish) Grain legumes & Cowpeas, locust bean, soyabean, groundnut, pigeon pea, Other legumes Bambara nuts Oil seeds & nuts Melon, benniseed, kolanuts, coffee Tree crops Cocoa, oil palm, rubber Vegetables & fruits Vegetables: Onion, African spinach, Indian spinach, pumpkin, sweet Pepper, hot pepper, waterleaf, carrot, lettuce 25 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE Fruits: Pineapple, pawpaw, mango, banana, plantain, citrus, guava. __________________________________________________________ ii. Generally, agriculture employs about 70% of the active labour force of the population, and this serves to augment the earnings from local produce sales. The raising of livestock (principally goats, sheep, cattle and poultry) and artisanal fisheries are also significant for income generation. iii. New yam festivals and most traditional wedding and customary ceremonies are usually observed during farm seasons. iv. Several industries use local agricultural products in their production operations. These include textile factories (cotton), oil mills and soap factories (groundnut, soyabean, and palm oil), packaging (jute, sisal), biopharmaceuticals (legal, illegal drugs), industrial chemicals (starch, sugar, and alcohols), plywood factory (timber), paper mills (timber), beverage industries (cocoa, coffee, and tea), canning factory (tomato, sweet peppers, beef), leather factory (hides) and tyre factory (rubber). v. The agricultural sector remains the largest contributor to the Nigerian economy. The World Bank estimated an annual growth rate of 2.9% for agricultural GDP in Nigeria from 1990-1998. In 1998, the agricultural sector GDP contribution to the economy was 32%. Figures for the sectoral contribution and growth rate of agriculture GDP to the Nigerian economy for 1999-2006 are shown in Table 2: Year Sectoral contribution Growth rate (%) (%) 1999 43.45 43.45 2000 42.65 42.65 2001 42.30 42.30 2002 42.14 42.14 2003 41.01 41.01 2004 40.98 40.98 2005 41.21 41.21 2006 41.95 (estimate) 7.17 __________________________________________________________ 4.0 CONCLUSION Agriculture is fundamental to human existence, not only at the individual and community levels but also at the global level, where international agricultural and associated trade fosters food security. 26 AGR 201 MODULE 1 5.0 SUMMARY In this unit, you have learned that • agriculture gives food, employment, income and clothing, • exported crops and crop products give foreign exchange for national development, • agriculture makes significant sectoral contribution globally, and locally with respect to the Nigerian economy. 6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. State two roles of agriculture. 2. Why is the agricultural sector an important source of employment in Nigeria? 3. List four raw materials and the corresponding industries using the raw materials in Nigeria. 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS The Nation Newspaper. ‘The State of the Nation. Overview’. May 25, 2007. National Bureau of Statistics. Opportunities in Nigeria’s Agricultural Sector. http://www.nigeriabusinessinfo.com/agric.htm AGRICULTURE. Importance of Agriculture. http://www.manage.gov.in/RRSites/Maheshwaram/agriculture.htm Boulder County Colorado Government Online. The Importance of Agriculture to Wildlife. http://www.co.boulder.co.us/openspace/resources/agriculture/ag_wildlif e.htm 27 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE UNIT 3 AGRICULTURE AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Natural Environments are Fragile but Ecologically Stable 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION In all agricultural production systems, the multitude of cultural operations which enhance optimum crop yields also impact on the farm environment in particular, and the macro-ecosystems in general. For instance, in subsistence agriculture farmers adopt uncontrolled burning to get rid of excess, aggressive vegetation before sowing their crops. Even in intensive agriculture, the advanced technologies of farming and livestock production such as land preparation, conventional tillage, pesticide and fertilizer application for producing good-quality crops also have adverse effects on the natural environment. In the poultry industry, extensive odours from huge piles of faecal droppings cause serious pollution of the environment. 2.0 OBJECTIVES This unit is aimed at highlighting the various negative effects of agricultural activities on the natural environment of man. 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Natural Environments are Fragile but Ecologically Stable However, agricultural activities cause serious environmental problems because they alter the natural ecosystem, and in the process, produce harmful by-products. The ultimate consequence of the alteration is the degradation of ecosystems through the following adverse effects: i. Loss of biodiversity. This arises from the reduction of forests and other habitats after farming as well as the reduction in genetic diversity and increased vulnerability of high yielding varieties to 28 AGR 201 MODULE 1 pests which thus necessitate heavy pesticide use. Global forest cover has been reduced by 20% since the industrial revolution. Tropical forest areas are being deforested at a rate of nearly 50 000 sq. miles per year. The conversion of virgin temperate forest to plantation is similarly continuing unabated, especially in Russia. ii. Increasing contamination of waterways and wetlands by excess nitrogen and phosphorus release to rivers and lakes. iii. Fertilizer application leads to soil salinisation. iv. Detrimental effects of inappropriate and heavy use of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, other biocides) such as contamination of food and environment, and health hazards to farmers. v. Pesticides also kill the natural enemies of pests, which subsequently multiply rapidly and create considerably more environmental nuisance than when pesticides are not used. vi. Pest resistance to agro-chemical pesticides is currently very appreciable, necessitating the development of more effective, but hazardous chemicals and their mixtures. vii. Large-scale slash-and-burn techniques of subsistence farming result in nutrient-poor soil, especially in tropical forest environments. It is particularly ecologically destructive (of the forest integrity) where fields are not allowed sufficient time to regeneration before subsequent application, under high population pressure and under loss of a large number of vulnerable and endangered plant fallow species. viii. Extraction of biomass in harvests of wood or charcoal diminishes further growth of any vegetation type due to poor residual soil productivity. ix. Consolidation of diverse biomass into a few species. x. Advances in agriculture technology require a large energy input, often from fossil fuel to maintain high levels of output. xi. Increasing diversion of crop production strategies from food supplies to bio-fuel supplies. xii. Heavy use of fresh water, depleting water supply for human consumption. xiii. High dependence on technologies which further degrade the soil. For instance, in the United States a dead spot, due to fertilizer runoff into the Mississippi River has been discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. xiv. Large-scale soil erosion is a major land degradation feature in tropical agriculture. xv. Intensive agriculture depletes soil fertility over time, and potentially leads to desertification. Unfortunately, further growth 29 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE of any vegetation type is practically impossible for future generations. xvi. Aggressive weed colonizers and associated pests, pathogens and dangerous animals (snakes, mosquitoes, etc.) are important environmental nuisance. xvii. Extensive growth and surface cover of floating aquatic weeds is a menace to navigation. Also, eutrophication of water bodies by decomposing weed residues reduces the drinking and irrigation benefits. xviii. Global climate changes, especially global warming due to excess CO 2nd NO em2ssions into the atmosphere. xix. In particular, the United Nations consider the livestock sector (especially cows, chickens, pigs) as one of the most significant contributors to most serious environmental problems, both at local and global levels. The sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, which accounts for 18% of the world’s gas emissions. Also, it produces 65% of human-related NO2 (296 times more warming potential than CO2) and 37% of all human-induced CH4 (23 times more warming potential than CO2). The sector also generates 64% of the NH3, which contributes significantly to acid rain and acidification of ecosystems. 4.0 CONCLUSION In this unit, you have learned that agriculture is a major contributor to diverse environmental alterations which threaten human existence on the planet earth. 5.0 SUMMARY Agricultural activities cause serious environmental problems in water, on land and in the atmosphere. These problems strongly affect the ability of man to optimally explore the benefits of agriculture in producing food, feeds, fibre and other products. 6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. In what main way does agriculture cause serious environmental problems? 2. What is the ultimate consequence of the adverse effect of agriculture on the environment? 3. Enumerate five ways through which agriculture causes environmental degradation. 30 AGR 201 MODULE 1 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Human Appropriation of World’s Food Supply. http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/foo d_supply/food.htm Agriculture, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture 31 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE UNIT 4 LAND TENURE AND USE SYSTEMS CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Land Tenure System 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.2 Classes of Land Tenure System 3.2 Land Use 3.2.1 Land Use Systems 3.3 Factors Causing Changes in the Usage of Agricultural Lands 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION The way the land is held or owned differs in different parts of the world, depending on the existing laws and customs. Similarly, the ownership of land is critical to the purpose of use of the land. Traditionally in West Africa, land ownership is either communal or individual. Also, although most land is used for agricultural purposes land ownership affects the development of agriculture. 2.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you should be able to: • understand the different forms of land ownership • appreciate the way land is used for various purposes, including agriculture. 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Land Tenure System 3.1.1 Definition Land tenure is defined as the system of land ownership by individuals, family, community or government agency either for temporary use or as permanent property. 32 AGR 201 MODULE 1 3.1.2 Classes of Land Tenure System i. Communal Land Tenure: The land belongs to the entire community, as represented by a family, a village, or a clan. This is a typical traditional practice in Nigeria. Every member of the community is entitled to a piece of the land for agriculture. Also, allottees have the freedom to grow choice crops, to use the land for any purpose and freedom to make desired improvements on the land without restriction. However, the individual allotted can neither sell any part of the land nor under normal circumstances, transfer the land to a stranger. The land tenure system involves a small population of users and subsistence farming, which hampers mechanization and economic exploitation in spite of abundance of land. There is a limitation to the acquisition of more available land by an intending farmer. Communal land cannot be used as security for accessing credit facilities in commercial banks. ii. Inheritance Land Tenure: This involves the acquisition of land by inheritance from parent(s) or generation to generation. In Nigeria, most agricultural lands are acquired through inheritance. iii. Leasehold System: This system involves the payment of a certain amount of money for the use of the land over a specified period of time. iv. Rent Land Tenure: This system involves the payment of a certain amount of money as rent for the use of a land by a farmer over a short period of time. v. Individual Land Tenure: This involves the ownership of a piece of land by an individual through either freehold or rent tenancy. Freehold Ownership Advantages are - complete freedom of owner over the land, - permanent ownership of land, - freeholder can use the land for any purpose, and - freeholder ownership of land offers great security to freeholder, with high prospects of huge investment and returns on investment on land. 33 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE Disadvantages are - Individuals who have none or inadequate land can neither rent or buy from freeholder, - Possibility of land fragmentation by freeholder, thus making intensive or large-scale agriculture difficult and reducing the associated economic efficiency. Rent Tenancy: This land tenure system involves the renting of portions or all of the land by the individual land owner to farmers as tenants. The tenants pay rent for using the land as well as remit a proportion of the yield from the land to the land owner. vi Land tenure by purchase or freehold: This involves an outright purchase of the land for agriculture. vii Land tenure by free gift or pledge: This involves the acquisition of land as a gift. viii. Tenancy at the will of government: In Nigeria, the Federal Government reformed the land tenure system by the Land Use Decree of March 1978. The decree removed land from all traditional custodians and placed it in the hands of State Governors and local Government Authorities. Each individual is entitled to ½ ha of land for house building purpose in urban areas, 500 ha for intensive agriculture and 5000 ha for grazing land. A Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) obtained from government would certify the owner’s authority. The limitations of this system are that there is no provision to freehold title to land, procedures for freehold title to land are difficult and there is no provision for consolidation which militates against the issue of C of O. 3.2 Land Use Nigeria’s total land area is 92.4 m ha. About 91 m ha of this is adjudged suitable for cultivation. Also, approximately half of this cultivable land is effectively under permanent and arable crops while the rest is covered by forest wood land, permanent pasture and built-up areas. 3.2.1 Land Use Systems i. Agriculture: In Nigeria, as shown in 3.2, most land is used for farming. The various farming activities include growing food crops, plantation crops or feed crops; pastoralism, bush or planted fallow, and forest reserves. ii. Non-agricultural land: The use of land for housing, roads, railways, sea-ports, airports, reservoirs, shops, industries and 34 AGR 201 MODULE 1 warehouses. Others are military installations, offices, hospitals, parks and wildlife resorts. Non-agricultural land use involves a small proportion of total land area in Nigeria, in spite of the increasing population and industrial growth. 3.3 Factors Causing Changes in the Usage of Agricultural Lands i. The establishment of forest reserves. ii. Road and railway construction, especially connecting farm production centres. iii. Construction of houses, hospitals, office complexes and non- agricultural structures essential for human welfare, which commands some prices on land sale by the farmer. iv. Population growth and the need to increase food crop production for consumption and export earnings for national development. 4.0 CONCLUSION In this unit, you have learned: • the different systems of land tenure, their benefits and limitations in agricultural land use; • the different land use systems in Nigeria, and • the factors which influence the use of agricultural lands. 5.0 SUMMARY In West Africa, especially Nigeria, land is traditionally held in trust by the entire community, but this limits the acquisition of land for agricultural purposes. Other systems of land tenure have their inherent benefits and limitations. Also, the usage of agricultural lands greatly depends on other non-agricultural sectors such as forestry, construction and population growth and pressure. 6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Define the term “Land tenure”. 2. Mention five classes of land tenure system in practice in West Africa. 3. State the difference between leasehold tenure and rent land tenure systems. 35 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Adegbola, A.A., Are, L.A., Ashaye, T.I. and Komolafe, M.F. (1972). Agricultural Science for West African Schools and Colleges. Oxford University Press: Nigeria. ‘Opportunities in Nigeria’s Agricultural Sector’ http://www.nigeriabusinessinfo.com/agric.htm 36 AGR 201 MODULE 1 UNIT 5 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA CONTENTS 1.0Introduction 2.0Objectives 3.0Main Content 3.1Phase of Agricultural Development 3.2Growth of Agriculture 3.2.1 Contribution of Agriculture to GDP 3.2.2 Growth Rate of Agriculture 4.0Conclusion 5.0Summary 6.0Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION Nigeria is primarily an agrarian nation. However, the agricultural history of Nigeria evolved with its political history in three phases, namely pre- colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. In spite of the persistent influence of political changes, agriculture has witnessed dramatic transformations from the colonial era. In t his era, agriculture was tied to intensive production of choice crops for export to the colonialist’s nation for processing into highly diversified advanced products, such as beverages. Specifically, the post-colonial period is characterized by the establishment of increasingly sophisticated and notable schemes and institutions of agricultural development. 2.0 OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you should be able to understand: • the trend of agricultural development during Nigeria’s political history • the evolution of agricultural development schemes and institutions which have facilitated food production • the current status of agriculture, and the opportunities for profitable investment in the agricultural sector. 37 AGR 201 GENERAL AGRICULTURE 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Phases of Agricultural Development i. Pre-colonial era: Agriculture was the mainstay of the traditional economy during this period. ii. Colonial era: During this era (1861-1960), the British colonialists paid an ad hoc attention to agricultural development, in favour of considerable emphasis on research and extension services. iii. Post-colonial era: The first national development plan (1962-1968) was drafted. The plan emphasized the introduction of more modern farming techniques, establishment of farm settlements, co-operative plantations, supply of
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