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Hair Color Research Update contents Hair Color History Old Science vs. The Bigger Picture New Science 1 Scientiﬁc Breakthroughs 13 Free Radical Formation Across Chemistry through the ages 8 Carbonate + Glycinate = Multiple Disciplines Hair Fiber Integrity Hair color’s contribution to Superior color results with understanding these molecular 2 Global Impact less damage culprits How hair color crosses cultures around the world 14 P&G Research Partnerships Hair Color Explored Cross-discipline connections spur innovation Biology Basics 10 Factors In Fading Color Mechanical to environmental 2 Layer Up causes investigated What’s Next? Hair composition, cycles, and the effects of color 10 Shine and Color 14 Pigmentation Breakthroughs 3 Color Processes Revealed Human perception of light Biochemical inﬂuence on hair Temporary to permanent reﬂection pigmentation color possibilities 12 Conditioning Breakthrough 15 Summary Modiﬁed aminosilicones Chemistry At-a-Glance 13 Hair Color Safety Government and research 4 Oxidative Dye Formulas institute ﬁndings The components of conventional oxidative colorants 6 How Coloring Alters Biology The effect of coloring on the f-layer 6 Free Radical Formation—EDDS Addresses the HO* Radical Consequences of hair colorant deﬁned Hair Color History Beyond its biological function of keeping the head protected and warm, hair’s true value lies in its ability to make a highly personal, visual statement about oneself. Throughout history, hair color has deﬁned cultures, social status, professions, age and self-image; so when humans discovered ways to change hair color, it signiﬁ ed a major step in self-expression. This self expression, however, has always been inﬂuenced by innovative science. 4 Scientiﬁc Breakthroughs Te introduction of salon and by more than 500 percent. Soon The ﬁrst major breakthrough in then home hair dyes during the after, with the abundance of safe, same period brought about a inexpensive, easy-to-use products, hair coloring history came in 1863, revolutionary change worldwide and home hair dying quickly grew when chemist Dr. August Wilhelm von Hofmann reported the dye an explosion of hair color options. in popularity. properties of para-phenylenediamine Clairol’s founder, Lawrence M. Gelb, Fast forward to 2007, where the next introduced hair color to salons more (PPD). His discovery led to the birth than 70 years ago when he discovered hair color breakthrough is currently of the synthetic hair dye industry, unfolding, the ﬁrst in over 50 years. and PPD still dominates the ﬁ eld a European preparation and brought Advances in understanding the today. Hofmann was also known it to the U.S. When Clairol launched molecular structure f air have allowed its ﬁrst salon colors in 1931, millions for his studies of organic derivatives of women began using them. Instant scientists to develop improved of ammonia and for discovering the technologies that minimize the ﬁrst unsaturated alcohol and several Clairol Oil Shampoo Tint soon 3 amount of damage in the coloring organic dyes.1 changed the look of Americans. process, and even create specialized On the heels of Hofmann’s discovery, In 1950, Clairol introduced Miss products that restore health and in 1867 London chemist E.H. Thi- Clairol Hair Color Bath, the ﬁ rst brilliance to colored hair. Th e new chemistry of hair color is here, making ellay and Parisian hairdresser Leon real breakthrough that lightened hair color easier, quicker, and more Hugot demonstrated the advantages hair without the harshness and of hydrogen peroxide as a better complicated handling of bleach. For eﬀective than ever. chemical way to lighten hair than the ﬁrst time, hair could be lightened, alkaline solutions. Th eir discovery tinted, conditioned and shampooed soon became widely recognized, and in only one step instead of ﬁ ve, in oxidizing products remain the basis only 20 minutes. Within six months of bleaching preparations today. After of this watershed discovery, hair the mid 1920s, oxidation dyes were coloring mania soared. The number greatly improved and the fashionable of women going to the salon for use of hair coloring boomed.2 permanent hair coloring increased Hair Color: Research Update 1 Global Impact 7 Agreement With Why Use Hair Color (Percent of Users Who Agree) Today, millions of women color their UK Mexico China Russia USA hair — spanning every age, race, nationality and religion. According to To feel better about myself 77 82 71 81 69 recent surveys, at least 88 percent of all women feel their hair has an eﬀ ect To feel more conﬁdent 65 76 67 79 50 on their self conﬁdence. 5Around the globe, the primary reason women To look and feel more attractive 61 71 52 84 62 color their hair is to look and feel better To cover my gray 57 66 51 56 57 about themselves, feeling strongly that the products they use are fundamental 6 To cover root re-growth 57 81 55 73 not asked in achieving this goal. With so many women taking such and undergo pigmentation, the basis pride and care in their hair, the market Biology Basics 8 of hair color. is poised for a new scientiﬁ c break- Layer Up through. Today’s woman demands Hair is made of three layers: the Hair is composed of proteins cuticle, cortex, and medulla. Th e quick, eﬃcient product results that easily ﬁt into her hectic lifestyle, and (keratin) embedded in a sulphur- cuticle consists of tightly packed, rich matrix encased in a sheath of overlapping, colorless cells. Th e hair color is certainly no exception. Today, hair color manufacturers have overlapping scales. Hair has two cortex contains varying amounts of two sophisticated research and development distinct parts: the hair bulb (root), the natural color pigments that divisions that develop a broad range biologically active part of hair where determine a person’s hair color. It also of advanced salon and home hair new hair is formed, and the shaft, the supports the physical and mechanical coloring products, addressing the visible yet biologically inert part of properties of hair, and determines complex needs of their consumers. hair that is sunk in a follicle beneath its tensile strength and texture. The medulla is typically a hollow shaft These advances can only be understood the skin. As cells in the base of the by starting with hair basics. follicle are pushed up, they harden inside the hair. To permanently History of Hair Color 1200 BC: 1500s: 1863: 1867: 1907: Some Egyptians use Queen Elizabeth I Chemist Dr. August London chemist E.H. Eugene Schueller natural dyes to darken redeﬁnes the standard Wilhelm von Hof- Thiellay and Parisian creates therst blonde hair, such as kohl and of beauty in the West- mann reports the dye hairdresser LeonHugot hair dye technology henna, while others ern World with her properties of PPD. His demonstrate the advan- using PPD in Paris, wear wigs to alter hair red hair and fair skin. discovery leads to the tages of hydrogen perox- becoming the first color, including Women all over Europe birth of the synthetic ide as a better chemical commercially available Cleopatra. don red wigs to try and hair dye industry, and way toilghten hair than oxidative/permanent emulate the Queen. PPD still dominates alkaline solutions. hair color. the ﬁeld today. 2 Hair Color: Research Update change the color of hair, a coloring densely packed melanin granules full of highlights, bleaching and toning product must be able to penetrate eumelanin pigment, while gray hair to achieve drastic color changes, the cuticle to deposit or remove color has no pigment at all.10 and glossing or glazing for more 9 in the cortex. Hair follicles go through approximately subtle changes. 7-15 melanocyte seeding/replacement Variation in chemistry allows cycles in the average “gray-free” life ﬂexibility when it comes to levels of hair dyes.12 tip span of 45 years. The average age of onset of graying for people of Cauca- • Temporary (level 0)dyes or color medulla sian descent is mid 30s, for people of rinses are acid dyes that do not Asian descent late 30s and for people diﬀuse into the hair or bind of African descent mid 40s. By age ﬁrmly. Color coats the surface of 50, 50 percent of all people are likely the hair shaft but does not pen- to have 50 percent gray hair. Graying etrate the cuticle, so the dye is cuticle can happen gradually or suddenly, easily washed out after the ﬁ rst and gray hair may be more resistant shampoo. While color results are root to artiﬁcial color.1 limited, the dye may be a good option to test colors or to refresh Color Processes Revealed dyed hair. Hair follicle composition At home or at a salon, the • Semi-permanent (level 1) prod- Natural hair color depends on processes involved in coloring ucts use low-molecular-w eight the amount and distribution of make the palette of possibilities ingredients, such as nitroaromatic pigment (melanin) in the cortex, limitless. Today’s hair color prod- amines or aromatic dy es, but which is hereditary. Dark pigment, ucts can remove (lift) natural hair do not contain ammonia or called eumelanin, is responsible for color, add (deposit) a new color to peroxide. Color is already formed brown and black color, and pha- natural color, or accomplish both in the bottle. Th ese dyes gen- eomelanin produces blonde and red. processes at the same time. There tly add color molecules to the Black hair, for example, contains are also products for adding cuticle layer, but do not bind 1931: 1953: 1980s: 2003: 2007: The Clariol Company Wella develops the Demi-permanents closely Scientists develop a Scientists develop a is established. Instant ﬁrst permanent cream resemble permanent method to reduce new bleach engine that Clairol Oil Shampoo colorants, offering products, but the levels damage from the HO* signiﬁcantly reduces Tint soon changes the women a less messy of active ingredients are radical, and increase hair ﬁber and f-layer look of Americans. way to color their hair. reduced. This prevents color formation by ading damage and cuts the noticeable bleaching a chelant to hair color time it takes to color and slows down the products called ethy- hair to ten minutes. penetration into the lenediaminedisuccinic hair so that color is only acid (EDDS), which formed in the outer preventsocpper formation part of the ﬁber. on the hair shaft. Hair Color: Research Update 3 Level 0 Level 1 Level 3 Pigment deposition across different levels of hair dye mly to the hair protein. they use about three percent Washing hair opens the cuti- hydrogen peroxide and a non- cle, allowing color to escape. ammonia alkalizer, the cuticle Conditioner smooths and closes does not swell as greatly with level the cuticle layer. Level 1 prod- 3 dyes, making dye penetration ucts wash out typically between less eﬃcient. four and six shampoos. Th eycan º Permanent (level 3) colors, make hair the same depth of color comprising 80 percent of the as the natural base or darker, but hair coloring market share, are cannot lighten hair. the most versatile and long-last- • Demi-permanent (level 2) and ing and are available in the wid- permanent (level 3) colors est spectrum of shades. 13 These involve oxidative chemistry, can lighten hair by two to three during which the coloring levels, change color in subtle or components are mixed just before dramatic ways, and last until hair they are applied. Permanent dyes grows out. Th ey also provide are the most important and most 100 percent gray coverage, even widely-sold commercial hair dyes. on resistant grays. R e-application Theprimarydiﬀ erence between is recommended every four to six level 2 and level 3 products weeks to avoid noticeable regrowth. is the alkalizing agent and the concentration of peroxide. Chemistry º Demi-permanent colors wash At-a-Glance out in up to 24 shampoos. They can enhance and brighten Oxidative Dye Formulas natural color and blend or Most oxidative dye formulations cover up grays. However, demi-permanent colors have little contain two or more ingredients that or no lightening potential. Since act as dye precursors or couplers, 4 Hair Color: Research Update essential ingredients common to – Facilitating the formation of the provides the ﬁ nal viscosity to most permanent dyes. Th eygenerally dyes within the hair ﬁ ber and hold the product on the hair consist of p-diamines and p-amino- catalyzing melanin bleaching ﬁbers without mess and dripping phenols. Precursors are oxidized to into the eyes, and if applicable, active intermediates when they have º The second component is a is tailored to work optimally with mixture of dye precursors. These penetrated the hair shaft. Interme- are the ingredients that react any application or mixing device diates then react with ingredients supplied with the product. called color couplers to create wash- together within the hair ﬁ ber, resulting in the formation of color. resistant dyes. Couplers modify the • Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidant— It color produced by the oxidation of º The third is a surfactant (and is essential that this component be optionally polymer) thickening kept at a low pH for storage to precursor compounds. system that provides the ensure stability; but it is only A conventional oxidative colorant is solubilization of the ﬁ rst two at high pH that bleaching and made up of two components which dyeing occurs. Th is component are mixed together directly before components (particularly the dyes) and, when mixed with may also contain polymers or application to the hair. the H O component (below) surfactants that thicken when 2 2 • Dye Precursor / Alkalizer /Thickening System— This component contains Common Hair Colorant Ingredients & Their Functions several ingredients, each with diﬀerent functions. They are Component Function Sample Ingredients packaged together because they Water, Propylene glycol, are completely compatible with Solvent Dye vehicle Ethanol, Glycerin each other and must be kept Surfactant Foaming, thickening Sodium lauryl sulfate, Ceteareth-25, away from the oxidizing agent Cocoamide MEA, Oleth-5 (hydrogen peroxide). Alkali Swell hair, bleaching Ammonia, Monoethanolamine º Theﬁ rst component is an alkaliz- ing agent (usually ammonia and/ Buffer Stabilize, reproducible Disodium phosphate, Citric acid or an ammonia substitute such as monoethanolamine [MEA]). P-Aminophenol, 1-Naphtol, P-Phenyl- This has a number of roles in the Dye precursors Impart color enediamine, 4-Amino-2-hydroxytoluene hair colorant process: – Swelling the hair ﬁber to aid in Fatty alcohols Emmolients Glyceryl stearate, Cetearyl alcohol diﬀusion of the dye precursors Quaternary compounds Conditioning Polyquaternium, Cetrimonium chloride –Raising the hair’s internal pH and ensuring that the overall Peroxide Oxidant, bleaching Hydrogen peroxide dye mix has a high pH Hair Color: Research Update 5 mixed with the high pH tint, of each to use, and the ratio ﬁbers. Repeated coloring can cause and/or provide conditioning and total concentration of the this protective surface to com- and rinsing beneﬁ ts when the various intermediates. pletely disappear. As a result, the combined dye mass is rinsed from hair becomes hydrophilic (water the hair. Hydrogen peroxide plays How Coloring Alters Biology loving) instead of hydrophobic (water the following roles: repellent), and the natural lubricating Hair is protected by a covalently o A source of oxidizing agent for bound, mono-molecular layer of properties are removed. H air is more susceptible to damage, feels catalyzing the reaction of dye unique branched fatty acid—18 dry and is hard to detangle. It precursors methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA). 18-MEA, often referred to as looks duller and less colorful, and oDispersing and solubilizing the requires more conditioning. the f-layer, is the fatty lipid layer hair’s natural pigment, melanin, that binds to the surface of the while bleaching the hair’s natural Free Radical Formation—EDDS pigment and any previous articﬁ ial cuticle and acts as the hair’s natural Addresses The HO* Radical conditioning system. B ecause the colorant present in the hairb ﬁer f-layer has a natural lubricating Most hair color users understand Once these components are mixed mechanism and is water repellent, that by its nature, permanent color and applied to the hair surface, two it gives each hair fiber a built-in makes irreversible changes to hair complementary processes take place: conditioning system that reduces structure. The bleaching and bleaching the hair’s natural pigment damage caused by blow-drying oxidation action chemically alter hair 14, 15 and other artiﬁcial pigments present in and brushing. proteins, lipids and pigments. While the hair, and diﬀusion of dye precursors pigment changes are desirable, the into the hair, followed by coupling changes to proteins and lipids can reactions that result in the formation cause hair to be more susceptible to of chromophores within the hairb ﬁer, damage. Most consumers adapt to (18-MEA)layer which are then too big to diu ﬀse out of d = 2.5 nm these changes by using conditioners the hair. The end result achieved results to protect hair and limiting hair color in the balance of these two processes, 106(3), 1996. 461-464application to once every 4-6 weeks. S S OSOS OS S OSOS O the mixture of dye precursors, the Epicuticle However, what they may not know initial hair color and hair quality. f-Layer of a hair follicle is that not all the damage done by More complex colors may contain hair colorants is necessary. Thereare several precursors and many During permanent coloring, the two key reactive species in current couplers, and involve multiple combination of hydrogen peroxide, permanent hair color: the perhy- reactions. To create each shade ammonia and high pH removes droxyl anion (HOO-) and the HO* in the hair coloring spectrum, some of the protective f-layer, radical. The HOO- species is the formulators must become artisans, causing additional oxidation of the species intentionally put in by assessing which developers and hair surface and some irreversible manufacturers. While it has some couplers to combine, how much physiochemical changes in hair damaging side eﬀ ects, it is the 6 Hair Color: Research Update FT-IR cysteic acid formation in presence vs. absence of copper ions in water Suppression of Free 120 – ¢ Copper in tap water No copper in tap water Radical Formation 100 – The suppression of free radical formation can be visualizedmicroscopically by comparing gas production from a for- 80 – mulation containing no EDDS chelant (0.1% EDTA) vs. one containing EDDS (1% level). Signiﬁcantly fewer gas bubbles 60 – can be seen being formed in the sample treated with EDDS—clearly demonstrating 40 – the ability of EDDS to reduce the gas formation signiﬁcantly. FT-IR cysteic acid units 20 0 – – – – – 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cycle number Performance Data for Chelants vs. the Cu/Ca Conditional Formation Constant Ratio Gas Formation after 10 min., no EDDS Chelant (0.05M) Ratio of Cu to Ca Added to Conditional SEM Damage F-IR Cysteic Colorant Cream Formation Constant Index Score Acid Units No Copper Control – 5.0 100 EDDS 4 x 101 6.8 110 DTPA 4.6 x 10 49.8 147 EDTA 1.6 x 10 68.6 165 HEDP 7.7 x 10 61.0 163 Gas Formation after 10 min., with EDDS species that is responsible for the hair damage without compromising of copper in tap water. desired changes to hair color. Th e hair colorant performance. One HO* radical, however, is an undesired approach to reducing the free radical Addressing the HO* Radical by-product of a reaction between is to eliminate the exposure to metal Recently, hair color scientists discovered a way to reduce damage H 2 2nd metal ions. It does not con- ions. Metal ions come into the hair tribute to the development of color through exposure to water. Studies from the HO* radical, blocking but does contribute to hair damage. show that protein damage, as its formation with the use of The elimination of this unnecessary measured by formation of cysteic acid, chelants — molecules that can free radical can signiﬁ cantly reduce is signiﬁcantly reduced by elimination coordinate metals through multiple Hair Color: Research Update 7 binding sites. Th ey added EDDS color formation and less damage. A 5-cycle repeat test showed that (ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid), a The preference of the EDDS for EDDS prevents more than 95 chelant which is highly selective to copper over calcium makes it percent of radical damage. After-care copper, to home hair coloring kits. superior to traditional chelants, conditioners, which water-proof hair, During the coloring process, EDDS such as EDTA or DTPA, and more additionally help prevent damage binds to the copper, preventing eﬃcient at preventing ﬁber damage. and copper absorption as color ages. access to the copper by hydrogen By minimizing free radical damage, peroxide, which results in better advances such as EDDS help hair remain resilient and retain a healthy, lustrous look.17 OLD CHEMISTRY NEW CHEMISTRY DYE PRECURSORS DYE PRECURSORS + + Old Science vs. New Science BLEACH ENGINE BLEACH ENGINE Carbonate + Glycinate + = Hair Fiber Integrity + + Exploring the damage caused by current oxidants, it is apparent that NH H O (NH ) CO H O C H NO 3 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 5 2 an improved option would have ammonia hydrogen ammonium hydrogen amino acid numerous beneﬁts for preserv- peroxide carbonate peroxidesodium glycinate ing hair integrity. Recently, scien- pH 10-11 pH 9.0 tists made the ﬁrst new advance in 20–30 home coloring technology in more Minutes COLOR FORMATION 10 MinutesCOLOR FORMATION than 50 years. By altering coloring + + chemistry, this breakthrough tech- BLEACH MELANIN& LIGHTEN HAIR BLEACH MELANIN& LIGHTEN HAIR nology takes hair coloring to a new + + FIBER DAMAGE REDUCED FIBER DAMAGE level, achieving excellent color and shine faster and with less damage to hair. Put simply, it addresses both the key consumer beneﬁ t, good hair color, and the key consumer complaint, hair damage. HOO- HO* • f-layer removal and signiﬁHCOt - CO -* • reduces f-layer and hairchnology centers around surface feel which aﬀect 4 3 improved hair feelna new bleach engine, combining perhydroxyhydroxy• hydroxyl radical is damagingoxymono-inactiv• radical scavenger protects anion radical without a radical scavengercarbonate carbonatﬁber integrity ammonium carbonate, hydrogen • harsh higher pH radica• gentle lower pH peroxide and sodium glycinate. The result is a powerful oxidative bleach, 8 Hair Color: Research Update % f-Layer Retention After One Treatment Tensile Strength 100 90 TOF SIMS analysis 1 cycle % f-layer treated with ammonium of 18 MEA on hair retained 80 carbonate technology 70 60 New Chemistry Blonde 34.6 50 40 New Chemistry Brown 47.3 30 Force to Break (gmf) 20 Old Chemistry Blonde 0.0 10 0 Old Chemistry Brown 2.5 Untreated No Scavenger Added Sodium Hair Glycinate which delivers improved lightening performance with signiﬁ cantly New Chemistry Beneﬁts reduced levels of volatile ammonia for a much more beautiful, less chemical, in-use experience. Te key bleaching species, the peroxymonocarbonate ion, is formed in situ from the reaction of Left: Hair shaft damages with new chemistry (10 min), Right: Hair shaft damages with current ammonium carbonate and hydrogen technology (30 min) peroxide, and is more selective toward Left: Baseline 50% gray, Middle:Ten minutes melanin than keratin. with new chemistry, Right:Ten minutes with current technology O O + HOOH -O C OH -O C OHO Peroxymonocarbonate ionnate acts as a radical scavenger, tests demonstrate a high shine with removing any carbonate radicals excellent color and gray coverage The carbonate accelerates bleaching being formed, thus minimizing in ten minutes (compared to the damage to hair. standard 30 minutes), l ess damage and allows color formation and bleaching to occur at 9.0pH Together, these elements produce to the f-layer and cuticle, and compared to 10.0 – 11.0 pHm , aking faster, more targeted bleaching and improved odor. it less damaging, with ten times fewer faster color formation with improved basic OH- ions and ten times fewer hair condition during and after damaging perhydroxyl anions.oS dium coloring. Technical and consumer Hair Color: Research Update 9 Hair Color Explored • Water exposure. Fading due to radiation penetrates the hair and water exposure is often related breaks down color molecules. to a damaged cuticle. When the The process happens with both Factors in Fading Color cuticle is overly compromised, natural and artiﬁ cial pigments Dyes are formulated to give hair water can more easily enter the in the cortex—and is the reason long-lasting and richly hued col- cortex and some of the color people develop highlights after ors, but several fact—sfrom molecules can be pulled out spending long periods of time mechanical to environmental—can and washed away. Shampoos do in the sun. UV protectants are accelerate color changes and fading: not strip color. In fact, data shows added to some shampoos and that water alone is responsible styling products to help prevent • Poor initial color application. for the majority of color hair color fade due to sun- When color has not been given lost during shampooing. 18 light, although their eﬃ cacy is enough time to penetrate the hair Conditioning shampoos and debated. Wearing a hat is the best shaft, color molecules are not conditioners with cationic protection against UV damage. as tightly bound in the cortex, surfactants and waterprooﬁ ng • Some shades fade more quickly allowing them to be washed away. amino silicones can help combat Most of noticeable fading appears the eﬀects of water exposure. than others. Red shades tend to after the ﬁrst two washes, indicating fade the fastest because they have relatively small molecule size, that the color molecules settled on which can diﬀ use from the hair the outside of the hair shaft and had not penetrated deeply enough and wash away more quickly than other shades.20 UV exposure also to be retained through washes. breaks down the red tone more • Cuticle damage . Th e cuticle easily, while pure browns and is the primary protection for blacks resist fading because their the hair cortxwhere the color molecules tend to be larger. majority of color molecules are Blonde shades have little color, so housed. If friction or excessive fading is less of a concern. chemical treatments damage the cuticle and strip away its Shine and Color protective fatty layer, the exposed Human perception of color depends Scientists measure shine intensity and chroma cortex will chip away, and color saturation in hair color development on the ability of our eyes and molecules will escape during brains to detect and interpret the shampooing. Protection of the reﬂection of light on objects. When cuticle with shampoos and con- • UV exposure. UV light is light shines on hair, part of it ditioners that contain friction- known to fade color in many penetrates and is absorbed by the reducing silicones helps reduce substrates such as wood, cloth and dye molecules, and part is reﬂ ected this type of color loss. paint. Hair is no diﬀ erent.19UV back. Hair’s shine band, which is 10 Hair Color: Research Update Fact vs. Fiction: Hair Dye Revealed Myth: Coloring is the main cause of hair damage. Fact: While coloring can be damaging, heat and mechanical damage also play a signiﬁcant role. Myth: All hair colors use the same dyes. Fact: Many hair colors use the same ingredients, but in unique combinations, with varying levels and amounts,to create very different colors.Some ingredients are patented, so they are only used by the original manufacturer.The developers and couplers can react together to form many different dye molecules, each with a different color. Myth: Low ammonia is better for your hair. Fact: All combinations of ammonia as well as MEA,another alkali,can damage hair because of their high pH level.The damage, a function of peroxide, occurs from the chemicals formed when the mixed peroxide and alkali come in contact with the hair.The primary beneﬁt of low ammonia is less odor. Myth: Dyed blonde shades cause more hair damage than brown, red or black shades. Fact: The majority of hair shades have similar hair damage proﬁles. Hair dam- age is caused by the amount of peroxide and alkali, like ammonia, in the dye. Most shades use the same amount and concentration of peroxide and have similar alkali levels. Myth: Anti-dandruff shampoos cause color to fade faster. Fact: Successive washing of color-treated hair shows a pyrithione zinc shampoo, the most effective dandruff treatment to date, to be no different than a cosmetic shampoo, or even regular tap water. Myth: Swimming pool water can turn hair green. Fact: Exposure of blonde hair,particularly chemically bleached or damaged hair, to high concentrations of copper in tap water or swimming pools can result in green hair.The best treatment is avoidance; using a bathing cap while keeping hair healthy and hydrophobic with an aminosilicone-based conditioner. Severe discoloration may be reversed by a professional stylist, in some cases. Hair Color: Research Update 11 typically around the crown of the deposits well on colored hair. Nor- head, shows how well the ﬁ bers mal silicones are hydrophobic. They reﬂect light from the surface. Th e attach well to non-colored hydropho- chroma band, which lies adjacent to bic hair but not to colored hydrophilic the lighter shine band, is responsible hair, making them wash away easily. for how successfully color informa- Themodiﬁ ed aminosilicones are more tion is revealed from within hair. Te hydrophilic and hence attach much stronger the chroma band, the more better to colored hair. Th isdurable intense the color will appear. Hair lm protects hair from further chroma is the colorfulness of hair damage and color fading, preserves compared to white. Chroma satura- color vibrance and shine, and allows tion, or color intensity, measures how hair to regain some of its natural much color the hair contains. Th e protective water repellence. Technical more saturated a color, the more testing of a conditioner with the sensation comes from the light of a modiﬁed silicone showed signiﬁ - single wavelength. cantly less fading as a resulf ashing Further, damage to the cuticle can and exposure to ultraviolet light and reduced damage compared to diminish hair’s ability to reﬂ ect standard conditioners. light, making it appear dull. When developing colors, hair dye The modiﬁed silicone functions formulators seek to mimic hair’s as part of a patented conditioning gel network base; a releasing active natural shine by developing dye mixtures that penetrate the cuticle (dialkylquat), and a silicone resin in order to maintain color intensity that interact with aminosilicone to over time, without fading or washing provide additional longer-lasting performance to conditioners. Th e out, but that also help maintain the overall health of hair for maxi- key durable active ingredients are mum shine. A dditionally, daily amodimethicone, a conditioning use of shampoos and conditioners agent; dicetyldimonium chloride, a silicone-releasing and conditioning containing silicone based ingredie21s will enhance and refresh hair shine. agent; and trimethylsiloxysilicate, a durability aid. Conditioning Breakthrough Researchers have also developed To overcome challenges inherent to a daily maintenance conditioner for the coloring process, scientists have colored hair containing a special developed a breakthrough technology ingredient, amidopropyl dimeth- in the form of a modiﬁ ed silicone that ylamine glutamate (BAPDMA), 12 Hair Color: Research Update of testing and usage by millions of hair dyes can cause allergic reac- New Conditioner Technology people worldwide. Extensive studies tions in a few individuals. Aller- Durable conditioner advances allow for mimicking the hydrophobic layer of virgin hairncluded that hair colorants gic reactions to hair coloring are are safe when used as directed and very rare, estimated at approxi- pose no health risk to pregnant mately one in every one million women, unborn babies or infants. applications, and they mainly Thcomprehensive scientiﬁ c occur with very dark hair-coloring shades. However, manufacturers research portfolio includes studies recommend testing the products from the American Cancer Society, Johns Hopkins University School 48 hours before each salon or home color treatment to determine skin of Public Health, and Cancer sensitivity, which can change over treated with new conditioner technology,esearch UK. 22A major review of Right: Hair colored without new conditioneries published in the Journal of time. Most hair-coloring pack- the American Medical Association ages provide instructions on sen- sitivity testing, which generally in 2005 concluded that there was advise users to test a small amount engineered speciﬁcally to rebuild the no increased risk of cancer from the layer. By rebuilding the layer, hair use of hair dyes,23which conﬁrmed of the product on their forearm can return to its hydrophobic nature. prior to full application. Some the results of prior major reviews suggest applying a thin ﬁ lm of One side of the BAPDMA molecule of more than 70 studies in 1993 attaches to the damaged part of hair. by the International Agency for petroleum jelly around their The other side mimics the layer, Research on Cancer, a group of hairline, but primarily as a safeguard against staining of facial skin rather acting as a patch for the damaged the World Health Organization, than as a sensitivity precaution. All areas, and prepares hair for the and 83 studies between 1993 and deposition of silicones. Applied daily, 2003 by Johns Hopkins University hair-coloring products warn against the conditioner provides intensive using hair dye on facial hair, such School of Public Health, reviewed as eyebrows. 26 care for even the most damaged by the U.S. Cosmetic Ingredi- hair, with high levels of condition- ent Review Panel. 24 25 In a more ing, moisturizing and protective recent 2006 update, the U.S. CIR The Bigger Picture ingredients that smooth and align again concluded that the available hair ﬁbers for shine and softness. epidemiology studies are insuﬃ - Free Radical Formation cient to conclude there is a casual Across Multiple Disciplines Hair Color Safety relationship between hair dye use Free radicals have long been known Hair color products are strictly and cancer (www.cir-safety.org). to damage proteins, oils and other regulated by government groups Sensitivity Testing important chemical compounds. in Europe, North America and Free radicals have been implicated Japan, and have been proven safe Like other products in common in accelerating aging but also play throughout more than a century use, such as certain foods or drugs, an important role in degradation Hair Color: Research Update 13 of building materials (such as being conducted to help manage polymers and paints) and degradation radical formation on clothing ﬁbers, of foods. Free radicals are damaging which exempliﬁes this continual because they attack and damage process of shared ideas and informa- DNA, proteins (collagen, elastin, tion throughout the company. Addi- MeZonegenic keratin) and moisture barrier lipids. tionally, P&G consistently enlists DP The primary method for ﬁ ghting free the collaboration of independent Hair bulb radicals is the use of antioxidants, institutes to broaden the scope matrix Dermal sheath which slow down the process of of research, which in this case Hair follicle with melanin granules aging and the decomposition of include the Textile Research Institute Courtesy of Dr. Desmond J. Tobin, cells. Currently the vast majority of (Princeton, US), DWI (German Wool University of Bradford, UK anti-aging and UV protection Research Institute), CSMA (Centre for aﬀect follicle growth and coloration. products on the market contain Surface and Materials Analysis, UK). They found that the hormones may some form of antioxidants. Lifestyle respond diﬀerently within these and experts from dieticians to personal trainers are toting antioxidant other hair follicle cells, including What’s Next? ﬁbroblasts (responsible for cell struc- secrets to success. By addressing free ture), depending on their interaction radical formation in hair color, Pigmentation Breakthroughs researchers are able to further their with biochemicals. When the New understandings in genetics researchers stimulated the melano- general knowledge base for other and biology and the role of DNA in cytes with hormone proteins, the disciplines, promoting overall health reaction induced an increased pro- beneﬁts to consumers. dictating the color, condition and health of hair are taking hair-color- duction of melanin and cell growth. P&G Research Partnerships ing technology into a whole new The proteins also stimulated expression realm. By utilizing new technologies, and activity of tyrosinase (an important P&G science innovation has been a foundation for company growth and scientists have access to powerful new amino acid to melanin production), tools to explore ways to improve hair evoking a conclusion that biochemicals development from the beginning. health and appearance. may aﬀect speciﬁ c cellular functions P&G’s expertise in leveraging when exposed to melanocytes. 27 cross-discipline connections has For example, research presented at Tese, and other advances in allowed a continuous network of the 2007 Intercontinental Meeting technology and genetics, prom- people, facilities, technologies and of Hair Research Societies consumers in diﬀ erent regions to addressed how biochemicals can ise to improve hair coloring and create one product from lessons care in the years ahead, providing signiﬁcantly inﬂuence hair pigmen- women and men in all parts of the learned from making another. tation. Researchers from Britain and P&G’s laundry care division helped the US studied melanocytes, cells world with the tools they need to contribute to the discovery of this which are responsible for pigment, maintain beautiful, healthy hair. new chemistry through its own in hair follicles for the presence of upstream bleach chemistry research certain hormone receptors that may 14 Hair Color: Research Update Summary New discoveries in hair biology New research will continue to push and coloring chemistry have led to the envelope of what is possible in hair signiﬁcant advances in hair coloring color. Moving forward, researchers products and possibilities, reducing will continue to build from current the trade-oﬀs in hair health. breakthroughs, consistently oﬀering new beneﬁts in home hair color. Researchers have developed new hair Consumers will not only beneﬁ t coloring technologies that optimize from milestones like speed processing color intensity, minimize the amount of damage in the coloring process, time and color intensity, but will be able to indulge in an overall better in- speed processing time, and improve use experience. the appearance and health of colored hair. Increased understanding of how hair biology changes during coloring has also allowed formulators to create better tools such as post- coloring conditioners that help improve hair health at a microscopic level to achieve brilliant, long-lasting color and shine. Hair Color: Research Update 15 references 1 Bouillon C, Wilkinson J. The Science of Hair Care 17 Boswell et al, The Procter & Gamble Company. Composition
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