Lecture 1 Notes
Lecture 1 Notes 42708
Popular in Intro to World History 1500-Present
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Date Created: 02/04/15
History 12115 Lecture Notes Crisis and Recovery in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries What Brought The Era of Globalization Under the Mongols to an End The Era of the Plague 0 Climate Change 0000 00000 O significantly affecting climate 9th Century climate became particularly warm The used to make wine in England bc it was warm enough to be able to Cooling phase that lasted about 500 years called in history The Little Ice Age gt though mean temperatures were only a little colder but it had a signi cant effect Evidence of climate change is evident all over the world Warming trend spiked down around 1300 s Cooler climate lasted until mid1800 s When the little ice age started the RIVER THEMES FROZE in the 1300 s Evidence of Impact of Cold I China 13 of winters of 14th century were colder than normal amp there was a famine under the Shundi emperor 133368 I Europe glaciers expanded affecting shipping NonNegian farmers were forced to move to lower altitudes and the weather affected crops shift in populations flooding killed many in Finland I Africa Lake chad waterbased plants dried up I North America Casa Grande is a Native American dwelling that was from the 14th century Hohokam tribe The Casa Grande civilization vanished bc no water dramatic impact on crops health rainfall coldertemperatures resistance to diseases 0 The Plague 000000000 0 What was the plague The Black Death Bubonic Plague spread by fleas but they re still not sure that it was definitely the bubonic plague Not entirely sure that the plague was related to the climate change Impact of the Plague Mortality in some spots met 90 parts of China in 1330 s In Barcelona 60 of the church offices were unfilled Some English manors lost 70 of their tenants 2400 dead a day in Damascus in 1348 in 1393 China s population was 13 what it was at midfourteenth century cut the world population dramatically 0 Additional Effects of the Plague O stimulated medical inquiry I moral explanations God punishing you for your sins O O O O O O I they came up with medical theories and gross fixes did generally keep the healthy quarantined and their lives were spared Moral lmpact I good and bad many sacrificed themselves esp the clergy but also everyone thought they were going to die so they all did bad things I despair and resolve I causes Millenarianism everyone was really nice to each other the expectation of a golden age out of the present crisis emerged in China and in Europe Watt Tyler in England The Revolt against the Yuan Dynasty in the 14th Century was tied to millenarianism Plague Outbreaks and Trade Routes Effects of the Plague China Social and Political I Responsible for the overthrow of the Mongolian Power in 1368 I The Han Chinese took power for the Ming dynasty Economy I loss of commerce and trade on Silk Road I loss of government revenue bc drying up of trade Effects of the Plague Europe Social and Political I Massive Population Loss esp clergy I Leveling effect serfdom declined bc there was a scarcity of labor so they now had power and they could negotiate for better terms gt they moved from serfdom to tenants aristocratic families weakened religion increased bc people thought God was punishing them bc they weren t pious I Economic Effect Deflation and decline at first because the demand vanished bc eveyrone died Once everyone recovered the demand for luxury goods increased Different opportunities for making money Jews and Muslims were accused of propagating the plagues massacres of jews expulsion of Jews 0 gypsies were also sometimes accused of spreading the plague Jews were shifted to Balkans or Austria or Poland Effects of the Plague Islamic World Social and Political O O I massive population loss I Weakens the llKhan rule in Persia 1430 s Economic Effects I Makes worse economic hardship caused by llKhan mismanagement I Disruption of trade loss of demand Where the Plague Did Not REach O Plague did not reach Eastern Europe until at least 1380 s I Regions lay apart from main trading routes I As a result of being spared by the plague Hungary Poland and Bohemian rulers of this time are all known as the Great I Did not reach Japan Southeast Asia or SubSaharan Africa I Did not reach the Americas or the Pacific Islands Demographic Change and the Plague O O O 0 population losses took a long time to make up because of recurrent outbreaks of the plague for some reason it appears that the population of the Muslim world was slowest to recover I in China and Europe population reached preplague levels by fifteenth century The shift in balance of power China declined Europe Rose and Muslim is static 15th Century State Expansion 0 O SubSaharan Africa beyond the reach of the plague I East Africa Ethiopia Great Zimbabwe Mwene Mutapa I West Africa Mali declines Songhay rises benefited from link between Niger river valley and Mediterranean coast The African societies had contact with outside sources of commercial and political expansion Major state development in Africa mostly due to the Portuguese and other traders lnca Empire in South America I Ecological Imperialism state formed along the Andes mountains I depended on controlling many different climate zones so varied sources of food available I tribute system ruthless policies towards conquered peoples Aztecs in Mexico I expanded across ecological zones I unlike lncas interfered in tributary societies less I Neverless faced resentment These societies stayed in relative isolation Eurasian Land Empires Ottomans 0 Rise of the Turks I lslam I Rhole of Ghazis on Islam s borders 0 Expansion and Conflict I Empire of Timur the Lame 1336 1405 0 moved into Persia o drove down into Egypt 0 fought against the Ottomans and captured the ruler 0 moved into Europe and expanded their control over Europe I Capture of Constantinople I Mehmet II the Conqueror captured Constatinople ruled 1451 81 o The Empire of Russia Emerged Moscow was the center lvan l tax collector for Mongols lvan lll first Tsar lvan the Terrible 1462 1505 I Expands to control Volga basin I opens all of the fur trading networks into Russian control Movement Eastwards Colonization and missionary work 0 Fur trade 0 China Recovers o Ming Dynasty established 1368 o Zhu Yuanzhang 2898 I restored confucian traditions I kept some Mongol practices 0 His Grandson the Yongle Emperor I Voyages of Zheng He 0000 O O
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