Lecture 2 Notes 1/26/15
Lecture 2 Notes 1/26/15 42708
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Date Created: 02/04/15
History Notes 12615 Lecture An Age of Empire Recovery in the 15th century saw empires grow 0 Russia was in Eurasian far north Mwene Mutapa in East Africa 0 Many of these empires were fragile structures Elsewhere state systems developed as dominant political forms did this give Europe an advantage Europe was an underdog they were coming up below everyone else Europe had to play catch up If Europe was going to gain access to certain resources they had to create an empire Imperialism is a bad word today but back then it wasn t This was in the days before political domination was possible Imperialism conquest and forced obedience a they only exist to control trade No state had enough power to maintain the empire if the locals kicked them out In every instance of an empire taking over an area there were winners and losers o The Europeans weren t always the winners The Portuguese were the first empire to seek out contact with the Indian Ocean THE PORTUGUESE INDIAN EMPIRE 0 Established trading forts around the Indian ocean o Spices Textiles porcelain timber gold and silver 0 interactions with locals intermarriages o missionary activity india south America japan Asian Contributions to Imperial Control 0 Japan became a competitor with other imperial powers 0 Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi began aggressive imperialist policy but was forced to abandon it o The Japanese expanded over the modern day Japanese Islands 0 Many Japanese refugees fled to Southeast Asia 0 The Chinese people were actively involved in spreading out among the south china sea Throughout the south china sea there were a plethora of traders 0 BC of the constrictive Chinese and Japanese govts traders were Omani Indian and Armenian 0 Religion has little influence on who was a powerful maritime trader in the Indian Ocean The Dutch Started to push into the Indian Ocean trading Sphere 0 Created the Dutch East India Company 0 They were a small state without a deap interland 0 Long seafaring tradition 0 Under the Hapsburg s dynasty o The Netherlands went to the Spanish Empire 0 The Dutch revolted against the Spanish bc they were protestant and the Spanish were catholic 0 And then Spain took control of Portugal so then the Dutch hated both the Spanish and the Portuguese and the Dutch made enemies of both of them 0 The Dutch were much more aggressive than Portugal ab taking control over the trading routes 0 The Dutch pioneered taking control of both the trade of a good and of the production of it o The Dutch then allied with Japan 0 The Dutch could move in w Japan bc they were Protestant so they didn t try to Christianize Japan a bc the Portuguese were Catholic they wouldn t do the antiChristian activities that Japan required 0 The Dutch had a monopoly on gold silver and spices Russian lmperial Expansion 0 Exceptional Among European Land Empires in Asia 0 Two major developments Conquest of Kazan lvan the Terrible 0 Eventually brought Russian imperial expansion into contact w china among Amur River Expanding China 0 Spread of Chinese Culture 0 Mongolia in the North had been incorporated into China 0 Xinjiang in the West incorporated o Sichaun in the South incorporated o Manchuria on the Northeast 0 Chinese Expansion became more and more intensive intended to colonize and spread Chinese ways among native populations 0 China moved groups of people inward o Emphasized culture Mughal Empire India 0 Conquest state that left local structures intact and exploited them for tribute o Babur 1483 1530 Conquered Delhi 1526 and then subdued the rest of India 0 Akbar 1556 1605 Stabilized conquests Tribute and taxes Religious tolerance Large military establishment The Ottomans 0 Unlike the Safavids in Persia the Ottomans was a true expanding empire 0 Universalist Traditions of the Steppe of Islam of the Roman Empire 0 Diversity of People Languages and Religions Rapid Expansions Religious Tolerance Millets o Loca on Control of Transit points between Europe and Asia 0 Spain and the New World Conquest of the Americas Role of Native supporters in Conquest The Aztec o Tapping into existing trade networks in the Americas Fur trade in NA 0 New wealth from American gold and silver 0 A new society developed from a mix of Spanish and Native American Populations ln colonial America old patterns of trade continue with Europe
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