Week One Notes 1/21-1/23
Week One Notes 1/21-1/23 CHEM261-SEC01
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM261-SEC01 at University of Massachusetts taught by Michelle Farkas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 02/04/15
Sociology 105 March 3 2015 Exam 1 Review What is Social Psychology An interdisciplinary field which 0 Attempts to link the society and the individual 0 Highlights the processes of social in uence 0 Poses questions at different levels of analysis 0 Attempts to be scientific and investigative 0 Is or should be problem orientated Example 0 The problem the ruralurban divide in developing countries What can be done to reduce it 0 Research question will relocating urban schools to rural areas make a difference I How would we know it made a difference 0 The place city of Hefei and a rural area called Bin Hu 0 Researching the impact of school relocation I Sample and design I Comparison groups I Outcome measures 0 Educational social psychological O Theories examined I Role theory I Reinforcement theory I Cognitive theory 0 Theoretical perspectives What to look for I Assumptions about human nature I Key concepts I Propositions 0 Three theories 0 Role theory social behavior is scripted shaped by role expectations 0 Reinforcement theory social behavior is externally driven shaped by the reactions of others 0 Cognitive theory social behavior is internally driven shaped by attitudes and cultural beliefs I Limitations Child socialization Link between individual and society Parenting perspective 0 What is a parent A socially competent adult emotionally invested consistently available nonsubstitutable and has a special relationship with child Parenting tasks in early childhood 0 Help the child feel safe and secure 0 Foster cooperation and the development of conscience 0 Encourage exploration and learning 0 Teach or reinforce cultural values Attachment and attachment security 0 Attachment refers to the emotional bonds that develop with a primary caregiver 0 Virtually all children develop strong emotional bonds to those who care for them but not all bonds are secure I Thus attachment security is not the same as attachment 0 Related issues I Time window for a secure attachment I Parental factors affecting attachment I Child factors affecting attachment I Links to early and later development I Disruptions in attachment security Beyond attachment security 0 Attachment is about helping the child to feel safe and secure 0 Children also need to establish their autonomy when they are ready usually around 18 months of age I Con ict between attachment and autonomy Terrible twos 0 Problem behaviors at age 2 I Children become increasingly assertive both verbally and nonverbally 0 Temper tantrums NO willful disobedient I Parents in new roles setting and enforcing rules 0 Resolving con icts staying calm 0 How to parent a 2 year old I Riding high in the saddle I Stay calm and in control 0 Don t threaten or be coercive 0 Don t let the con ict escalate 0 Discipline from a parent s perspective I Discipline is about applying consequences when limits are exceeded and rules broken I Calibrating response according to the child s age personality and temperament 0 inhibitedfearful O defiantwillful I Time outs and other methods of disciplining young children 0 Positive functions of con ict I Opportunities for the child to learn I What others are thinking feeling and expecting 0 Skills for con ict resolution 0 How to negotiate and resolve differences 0 Deferral compromise and justification 0 Emotional selfregulation 0 How to go forward even when you don t get your way 0 Fostering cooperation I Cooperation without discipline 0 Role of everyday routines O Cooperation is fostered by building in expectations in the daily life of the family I Consistent expectations for behavior during bedtimes storytelling waking mealtimes bathing and other daily events I No justification in this family we do 0 Early learning I Young children are wired to learn but also need learning opportunities I Parents have big roles in 0 Language acquisition oral communication 0 Social and emotional development I Language acquisition 0 Universal sequences of vocalization tone recognition first words and sentences 0 Role of parents in creating a home where there is a lot of exposure to oral language 0 Potential for second language learning 0 Easily learned easily forgotten I Learning to read I In contrast to spoken language learning to read is a much more fragile process 0 Not everyone becomes a uent reader 0 How parents help 0 Libraries 0 Bedtime reading 0 Children s books 0 Picture to chapter books 0 Franklin in the dark learning about fear I Emotional learning 0 Learning to recognize feelings 0 Learning to accept feelings 0 Learning ways to act on feelings I Learning to make friends and get along with peers I Establishing relationships With other children I Developmental stages 0 Infants solitary play 0 Toddlers parallel play 0 Preschoolers social play I Learning to manage con ict I Best friends I Ways Parents may Undermine ExplorationLeaming I Being overinvolved and intrusive I Communicating anxiety I Encouraging activities that going beyond the zone of proximal development I Overpraising I Transmitting Cultural Values I Differences in cultural values 0 Individuality versus interdependence I Examples 0 Sleeping arrangements 0 Communication styles I Imperatives and interrogatives I Bicultural socialization 0 Efforts to reinforce birth culture I Immigrant families I Families created through international adoption I The Many Faces of International Adoption I Photos of families with children adopted from China
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