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by: Jaimee Farrell
Jaimee Farrell
GPA 3.8
Psychology 105
Sydney Iverson

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Psychology 105
Sydney Iverson
Class Notes
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Farrell on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3126 at Washington State University taught by Sydney Iverson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 02/04/15
Psychology Classical and operant conditioning BF Skinner skinner box apparatus created to study operant cond try to get rat to push button to release food Shaping using reinforcement anytime an individual gets closer to doing a desired behavior why use operant conditioning behavior modification help people develop more effective adaptive behaviors Learned Helplessness Martin Seligman exposure to inescapable uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior shuttle box experiment Learned Helplessness depression test performance relationships Classical lvan Pavlov association Social learning observational learning learning through observing actions of others modeling observing and imitating specific behaviors Bandura s SocialCognitive Theory of Modeling imitation comes more often with reward tendency to imitate warmcomforting people people with power or similarities Applications of social learning theory parenting friendships commercials crimedeviance Mirror Neurons neurons that fire while watching someone else do an activity likely aids observational learning you re neurons learn how to fire by watching someone else perform and activity differentiate types of conditioning driving under influence 500 fine and suspension of license Robert doesn39t want to drive under influence anymore negative punishment operant car accident and cringes at break shrieks classical Chapter 6 memory the ability to store and use information sensory short and long term Stages encoding storage retrieval forgetting HM removed hippocampus became much more functional but lost longterm memorycould learn tasks but not remember he knew them note memory is not just conscious recall memory the ability to store and use information Three processes encoding transforming info into form that can be enteredretained storage process of retaining info in memory retrieval process of accessing stored info Memory model Sensory connects to shortterm shortterm and longterm go back and forth Sperling 1960 recalling seeing more letters than able to report cued people to which row to report with tone could often report Capacity Duration of sensory memory iconic visual memory stored all info only 121 sec Echoic memory store 34 sec Working short term memory holds info before sent to LTM Shortterm memory 230 seconds temporary storage for info that is being used reading planning speech maintenance rehearsal repeating info to self keeps it in memory limited to between 59 digits letters or chunks of info 7 2 Long Term Memory info stored from 30 seconds to a lifetime what determines how long rehearsal frequency of use emotional nature Implicit Memory procedural memory of how to perform skills operations actions priming prior exposure aids recall Ex advertising word tests Exp c conscious recall deliberately accessing Semantic memory facts and knowledge Episodic memory experience based autobiographical memory Stages of Long Term Memory Encoding attending to taking in and integrating new information mental representations automatic processing little effort or attention time space frequency effortful processing careful attention and conscious effort Mnemonic devices techniques to aid memory elaborative rehearsal focus on meaning of info linking it to previous knowledge to help transfer it to longterm memory Storing retention of memory over time clustering grouping similar things semantic network modelinfo in LTM as being associated in complex network of associations when you activate 1 concept it can spread to activate other similar concepts retrieval recovery of stored information working memory activated implicit vs explicit memory retrieval retrieval cue prompt that helps trigger recall of information some info is stored but inaccessible wo a cue Failures of retrieval tip of the tongue Memory at the Neural level LongTerm potentiation strengthening of synaptic connection chemical structural Neurons that fire together wire together Serial position effect tendency to better recall items at the beginning and ends of lists Primacy effectRecency effect Encoding Specificity Principle easier to retrieve info when the cues match the original learning conditions Context effect same setting Mood Congruence your mood evokes memories consistent w that mood Encodingretrieval Flashbulb Memories recall of very specific detailsimages surrounding a significantrarevivid event seem more accurate to us Forgetting the inability to recall information that was previously available Forgetting Curve Hermann Ebbinghaus Tested memories of nonsense words worse over time Memory and Forgetting worse with age worse over time prone to mistakes malleable Encoding Failure we never encoded info into LTM in the first place only mad sit to STM AbsentMindedness when you don t pay enough attention to the bit of info when you should be encoding it divided attention most common in habitual actions Decay Theory Forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes in brain over time memory trace distinct change in brain refresh memory or it will fade Evidence against forgetting curve Interference Theory when one memory competes with or replaces another memory similarity of informationcritical Retroactive Interference A new memory interferes w an old memory Proactive Interference An old memory interferes w a new memory Motivated Forgetting we forget bc we are motivated to memory in unpleasantdisturbing Suppression occurs consciously deliberate attempt to not think about remember info Repression occurs unconsciously blockedunavailable to consciousness Imperfect Memories errors distortions and false memories Emily Loftus Leading expert on distortions false memories Memory is NOT like a camera recorder doesn t capture perfect copies of info Memories change over time The Misinformation Effect We can alter peoples existing memories by being exposed to misleading information False Memories memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someonesomething Lostinthe Mall Study created vivid false memories Recovered Memories memories from a real event that were encoded stored but not retrieved until some later event brings them back to consciousness Uncovered repressed memories Controversial leads to suggestibility Amnesia memory loss due to brain injury or disease anterograde amnesia forgetting things that happen after the eventdisease retrograde amnesia forgetting things that happened before the eventdisease Dementia progressive deteriorationimpairment of memoryreasoning cognitive func ons Alzheimers Disease most common type of dementia Plaques protein deposits Tangles twisted fibers Starts in hippocampus affects many brain areas Eventual spread 810 years Thinking and Thoughts cognition mental process involved in acquiring processing and storing knowledge learning memory perception Thinking manipulation of mental representations of info Mental lmages mental representation of objectsevents not physically present We scan manipulate mental images in the same way we scanmanipulate visual images of actual objects Mental Rotation process of rotating an object in a 2D or 3D mental space gender effectseasier for men then women Concepts Formal conceptsmental category formed by learning rules of features that define it rigid rules Natural concepts form as a result of real world experience fuzzy rules or attributes that define natural concepts are not always sharply defined prototype most typical instance of a particular concept Exemplars individual instances of concept in our memory Problem solving Trial and Error Algorithm using a specific rule procedure or method that inevitably produces the correct solution Heuristics based techniques that find a solution which is not guaranteed to be optimal but good enough for a given set of goals nsight sudden realization of how a problem can be solved lntuition coming to a conclusion or making a judgment wo conscious awareness of the thought processes involved Guiding Stage you perceive a pattern in information but no consciously Integrative Stage a representation of patterns becomes conscious usually in forms of a hunch Functional Fixedness tendency to view objets as functioning only in their usual or customary way Mental set tendency to persist in solving problems w solutions that have worked in the past Decision Making Singlefeature model make a decision by focusing on only one feature Additive model systematically evaluate the important features of each alternative Elimination by aspects model rate choices based on features eliminate those that do not meet the desired criteria despite other desirable characteristics Heuristics mental shortcuts for making complexuncertain decisions The availability heuristic judge probability of an event by how easily you can recall previous occurrences of that event Representativeness Heuristic strategy we use to estimate the probability of one event based on how typical it is of another event Language system for combining signals for the purpose of communication social species communicate evolutionary purposes Human language complex structure words for intangible things emotion thinking may have evolved from spices signaling process Languageis open dynamic and free to change symbolic no real connection between symbolssounds and meaningideas first 6 months cooing vowel sounds universal even on deaf babies 56 months babbling consonantsvowels gibberish 12 months first word 18 months 2 word utterances Sensitivity period for a language infancy through age of 12 effects of severe neglect Animal Communication intellectual deliberate lack of evidence that animals can learn syntax proper arrangement of words to create wellformed sentences Animal cognition may not be able to learn complex language but can use other complex cognitive processes cooperation complex memories what is intelligence intelligence the global capacity to think rationally Alfred Binet develop procedures to identify students who might need special help in school Alfred Binet created tests to measure mental abilities memory attention simsdiffs mental age mental level is expresses in terms of average abilities of given age group StanfordBinet Intelligence scales Terman The Weschler Intelligence Scales WAIS 11 subtests measuring diff abilities verbal score comprehension performance score non verbal block design ave score set at 100 23 scores between 85115 Standardization large representative sample of people under uniform conditions and test administration for the purpose of establishing norms normal IQ Distribution bell curve Test Construction reliability tendency of test to yield same results given same conditions validity the degree to which a test measures what it s supposed to measure Types of tests achievement test measures level of knowledge skill or accomplishment in a particular area school tests aptitude test assesses a person s capacity to benefit from education or training SAT Theories of Intelligence Spearman s Theory general intelligence ability to reason and solve problems Gardner s Theory multiple intelligences verbal linguistic Sternberg s Triarchic theory of intelligence Analytical intelligence break problems down into components Creative intelligence deal with novel problems in new ways Practical intelligence use information for success in life street smarts Individual Differences intellectual disability behavioralcognitive skills are delayed compared to others of same age IQ less than 70 Impaired functioning Present before 18 years old Hereditary and Environment Hereditary 50 genetic differences influence IQ Environment 50 environmental differences influence IQ Twin Studies Genetic identical twins raised together very similar IQ scores identical twins raised together more similar lQ s that than fraternal twins raised together Environment identical twins raised together more similar lQ s than identical twins raised apart Group Differences in IQ scores Average IQ scores can differ between identifiable racial and ethnic groups Ex minority children score on ave 1015 points lower on IQ tests Problems w IQ Tests difficult to define intelligence don t measure ALL types of intelligent behavior not a good measure for all groups of people cultural bias Motivation and Emotion Chapter 8 Motivation bio emo cog or social forces that activate directs behavior understanding why activation start of behavior persistence continued efforts intensity vigor of behavior concepts and theories instinct theory certain human behaviors drive theory behavior is motivated by desire to reduce internal tension from unmet biol needs homeostasis tendency for body to reach maintain equilibrium drive internal state that activates behavior to restore homeostasis ex need water drive thirst motivated behavior drink not useful for nonbiological motivation incentive theories behavior motivated by pull of external goals rewards influenced by learning theories arousal theory People are motivated to maintain optimal level of arousal sleepoptimal arousalpanic sensation seekers degree which person is motivated to experience high sensory physical arousal humanistic theory people motivated to realize personal potential both inborn and environmental factors Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs division of motivation into levels satisfy needs at each level before moving up 1 Basic physical needs safetyhunger etc 2 psychological needs relationships accomplishments etc 3 selffulfillment needs self actualization full use and exploitations of talents capacities and potentialities Selfactualized Realism and acceptance accurate perceptions of selves others and external reality Spontaneity spontaneous natural open in behaviorthoughts conform to rules Problem centering focus on problems outside themselves larger purpose Autonomy need for privacy and independence Continued freshness of appreciation appreciate simple pleasure of life Peak experiences moments of intense awe during which sense of self is losttranscended Critiques vague hard to test scientifically Maslow s initial studies had limited sample celebrities politicians Victor Frankl Austrian neurologist psychiatrist Nazi concentration camp Man s Search for Meaning even when none of our basic needs are met we strive for higher needs Critique of Maslow don t always have to meet needs in order Deci and Ryan s Self Determination Theory Optimal human functioning occurs only if these psychological needs are satisfied autonomy the need to controlorganize own behavior so they re in harmony w own interests values competence the need to learn master appropriately challenging tasks relatedness the need to feel attached to others intrinsic motivation desire to engage in things we enjoy extrinsic motivation external factors on behavior social expectations rewards individual cultures emphasize personal success collectivistic achievement is socially oriented What is emotion Emotion complex psych state that involves subjective experience physiological response behavioral expressive response Generally intense and short lived likely to have a specific cause Primary vs Secondary Emotions primary automatic reaction to a situation helpfuladaptive secondary based on interpretation of event can be harmful Emotion vs Mood emotion is not mood milder emotional state lasts longer more vaguely described good or bad mood can influence emotions General Function trigger motivated behaviors and help us set goals emotions themselves can be goals important for rational decision making Emotional Intelligence capacity to understand manage own emo experience and respond appropriately to emo responses to others diagram rationallogical mind wise mind emotional mind Evolutionary Explanations Darwin emotions are adaptive for survival and reproduction move us to resources fear anger love disgust Paraphilia39s sexual gratification contingent on something deviant not socially expectable Most common exhibitionism exposing genitals to strangers fetishism arousal to inanimate objects or unusual body parts common body piercings hair leather rubber vinyl shoes feet uncommon trees mannequins being bit by small insects Pedophilia desire for children generally under 13 Voyeurism secretly observing someone while changing bathing etc Sadism sexual pleasure from inflicting pain Masochism sexual pleasure from feeling pain HIVAIDS HIV human immunodeficiency virus early stages can lay dormant AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome later stages 12 million people in USA have HIV 200000 unaware 15000 die from aids per year Treatment w antiretroviral drugs suppress but don t kill virus some people resistant to certain kinds side effects are great Stereotypes myth gay men are the only men likely to attract HIV myth I will get HIV from being around someone wit myth I have HIV so i m going to die Chapter 12 social psych what how people think and behave in social situations two key research areas social cognition social influence Social cognition Mental processes that we use to make sense of the social environment person perception attribution attitudes social categorization Person Perception mental process we use to form impressions about other people Four key components influence decision characteristics of that person your own selfperception your goals in the situation specific situation in which the process occurs Social Cognition attribution process of inferring the causes of behavior situational external attribution decide bx was caused by external factors dispositional internal attribution decide bx was caused by enduring personal factors selfserving bias credit selves for success blame failures on external circumstances more common in individualistic cultures Attribution Bias s Fundamental Attribution Error explaining other people s behavior underestimate impact of situation overestimate role of personal factors Blaming the victim tendency to blame victim for causing their own misfortunenot taking steps to avoid it Justworld hypothesis assumption that life is fair Hindsight Bias after an event has occurred the tendency to overestimate ability to have predicted the outcome Attitude affective feelingsemotions about topic behavioral actions regarding topic cognitive thoughts beliefs and ideas about topic cognitive dissonance unpleasant psychological tension when 2 attitudes bxs are inconsistent Festinger and Carlsmith 1959 participants completed dull tasks 1 lying dissonance reported tasks as more enjoyable 20 justified lying no dissonance Picking between choices each choice has desirable undesirable parts once you make a choice attitudes line up with choice sour grapes rationalization emphasize negatives of rejected choice sweet lemons rationalization emphasize positives of choice Social Categorization Mental process of categorizing people into groups based on shared characteristics explicit cognition deliberate conscious implicit cognition automatic unconscious implicit personality theory assumption that people share traits and behaviors use schemas mental frameworks primacy effect initial impressions lasts even after contradicting information Attractive perceived as happier intelligent friendly etc receive more favorable treatment throughout life What constitutes beauty signs of genetic health sexual dimorphism facial symmetry age young womenmore fertile older menmore resources Direct eye contact w someone physically attractive activates brain areas related to award and pleasure Protection for unattractive individuals Chapter 12 Social Psychology Social Cognition mental processes that we use to make sense of social environment Stereotype a cluster of characteristics associated with all members of a specific group of people qualities unrelated to objective criteria natural cognitive process simplify social info can lead us astray Selffulfilling Prophecy our expectations affect our behavior toward a person the person then behaves in a way that confirms our expectations Stereotype threat being aware that your social group associated w stereotype can impact performance Prejudice negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group Social Categories In group group you belong to Out groupsocial group in which you don t belong In group bias favorable positive attributions for behaviors by members of our in group Exclusion out group homogeneity them they re all the same Discrimination behaviors usually driven by prejudice competing w or threatening own group Brown eye blue eye study ingroup outgroup children divided into 2 groups began treating each other differently reflected test performance explicit prejudice conscious prejudice overt hate crimes covert subtle micro aggressions not socially acceptable lmplicit evaluations made automatically unintentional and difficult to control microaggressions avoiding eye contact non verbals more common Implicit attitudes test IAT measure degree you associate people w specific characteristics match positivenegative words wpeople thought to measure implicit attitudes hffpsimplicitharvardedu take any IAT print and write 12 page of what you though double spaced did it seem accurate did it capture what it intended to robbers Cave Experiment Sherif 1961 Two Groups of Boys Rattlers Eagles 1st team bonding 2nd competitive activities rapid head butting 3rd non competitive activities devised a series of tasks groups could only complete together Results groups reconciled shared goals Social Cognition WrapUp our mental processes influence how we understand our own and others behaviors we all hold various attitudes we must be aware of the stereotypes and prejudices we hold Social lnfluence How our behavior is influenced by the social environment Social Influence Majority lnfluence Minority Influence Majority Conformity adjusting your opinions judgment or behaviors so that it matches that of other people or social norms elevator experiment Soloman Ash 1951 Perception not just about the physical stimuli presence of other matters groups of 7 6 confederates Results 76 went along w group at least once Answered incorrectly 37 when in group only 1 of the time when alone Group think when group consensus takes over members forgo logic or critical analysis Two basic reasons lnformational social influence others provide useful crucial info Normative Social lnfluence desired to be accepted as part of a group Several factors promote conformity facing a unanimous group giving your response in front of a group doubting your abilities or knowledge Factors which decrease conformity include having an ally any dissent Conformity is higher in collectivism cultures than in individualistic cultures individualistic cultures collectivistic cultures What is stress negative emotional state in response to events seen as taxing or exceeding a persons ability to meet demands stressors events that trigger stress response sources of stress Early Stress Research any change that required you to adjust your bx lifestyle would cause stress Social Readiustment Rating Scale problems link between SRRS and physical and psychological problem is weak assumes life events have same impact on everyone assumes that change whether good or bad produce stress Daily Hassles everyday minor events that annoyupset people of daily hassles is a better predictor of physical illness than number of major life events cumulative effect Daily hassles women more likely stress associated w family and friends men more likely to report stress from schoolwork stress from schoolwork spills over into home life women spills more into partner interactions men more likely to withdraw Burnout condition caused by chronic prolonged stress Characterized by 1 exhaustion used up all their emotional and physical resources 2 cynicism negative or overly etched attitudes 3 diminished productivity have a reduced sense of accomplishment or productivity Burnout conditions that commonly produce burnout Overload demands of job exceed ability to meet them Lack of Control more control you have less stress you feel Can be prevented when there is a sense of community Sources of stress Traumatic Events Situations that are negative severe and beyond our normal expectations for life 85 of people report during lifetime When traumas are intense repeated some may develop PTSD though most are resilient Social Sources of Stress people who live under difficult or unpleasant conditions experience chronic stress SES is negatively correlated w chronic stress environment finances etc less privileged groups fewer resources to cope discrimination Psychological factors cognitive appraisal personal interpretation of a situation not stressed vs stressed cognitive appraisal model primary appraisal quick assessment of what a situation means to us secondary appraisal selfassessment of resources required to deal w the stressor situation means a lot and we have few resources stressfu Explanatory Style Seligman Optimistic use external unstable and specific explanations for negative events maybe they have a girlfriend Pessimistic use internal stable and global explanations for negative events man no one s ever going to like me I m ugly Emotions chronic negative emotions more likely to develop a chronic disease Positive emotions associated w increased resistance to infection decreased illness less pain increased longevity Personal Control people that feel some control over a stressful event often show no more distress than people who do not experience event must be realistic to be adaptive Langer 1977 nursing home study higher control healthier more active and alert Type A and Hostility exaggerated sense of time urgency intense ambition and competitiveness greater hostility anger or irritation increase risk of heart disease Type B more easygoing relaxed and laid back low hostility not associated w heart disease Mind and Body Connection focus on negative thoughts versus focus on positive thoughts Physical Effects of Stress psychosomatic theory idea that emotional factors stress can lead to worsen the course of an illness indirectly by leading to bus that jeopardize physical wellbeing directly by altering body functions Stress Hormones The Endocrine System Catecholamines Fight or Flight epinephrin AKA adrenaline dimities quickly Corticosteroids maintain activation of the physiological systems during emergencies cortisol Prolonged Stress Cortisol in acute stress reduce inflammation enhance muscles help immune cells combat infection But if secretion is not turned off hypertension high cholesterol immunosuppression reduced neurogenesis neuroplasticity The Immune System white blood cells release antibodies cortisol suppresses white blood cells reduced antibodies reduced ability to fight antigens impaired immune cell functioning Coping Bx and cognitive responses used to deal w stressors problem focused changing the situation emotionalfocused relieving or regulating emotional impact of stress involves effort to change circumstances or our interpretation of them Problem focused coping most effective when you exercise control Confrontative Coping uses aggressive or risky tactics ideal if direct and assertive but not hostile Planful problem solving rationally analyzing the situation identify solutions implement solutions Emotion focused coping trying to relieve or regulate emotional impact of stressor Avoidance try to escape stressor Positive Reappraisal change cognitions Managing and Accepting Emotions Relaxation Social Support resources provided by other people in times of need may buffer the impact of stress can modify appraisal of stressor decrease intensity of physical reactions to stressor reduced negative emotions direct assistance moneymeals trips to doctor referrals Lack of social support chronic loneliness predicts poorer physical health poorer mental health higher death rates decreased cognitive functioning Isolation is as big of a health risk as smoking obesity alcohol abuse and physical inactivity Gender Differences men tend to withdraw in times of stress more susceptible to isolation women tend to seek out interactions w their social support systems but also more likely to take on care roles and feel stress effects of others Health Related Coping Behaviors Diet and Eating eating and stress Stimulates reward pathways endorphins overweightobese increase risk for health problems Exercise regular moderate exercise 2025 minutes 34 days per week extensive benefits on physical health lower chance of disease extends life by 34 years reduces depression and anxiety regulates balances brain Your brain on exercise Pereira and colleagues 2007 11 adults ages 21 45 w belowaverage cardiovascular fitness exercise program 12 weeks 4 times per week Neurogenesis and cognitive performance benefits Meditation mindfulness meditation focusing on the present thoughts feelings emotions but don t cling or ascribe to them Used to treat psychological disorders stress pain and physical disorders Studies have shown improved concentration and attention increased working memory improved emotional control improved ability to destress Stress compromises immune system and healthrelated behaviors remember perceptions matter positive self talk Cope or prevent stress exercise eat well laughter etc Psychopathology scientific study of origins symptoms development of psychological disorders stigma around mental illness psych 333 What is disordered psychological disorder is bxs symptoms causing significant distress andor impairing ability to function The 2 0 5 bx must cause distress to self or others bx must cause dysfunction maladaptive DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders work in progress describes more than 300 disorders must meet exact criteria Prevalence for having a mental health concern or diagnosis in a lifetime is 46 Comorbidity more than one disorder at the same time Development of psychological disorders bio psychological approach biological psychological social Anxiety Disorders anxiety unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal feelings of tension apprehensionworry anxiety disorder extreme anxiety is main feature causes significant disruptions in cognitive bx andor interpersonal functioning irrational uncontrollable disruptive Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD pervasive and excessive state of anxiety anxiety not attached to specific objects or situations worrywarts at least 6 months females outnumber males 21 31 population least understood anxiety disorder Panic Disorder characterized by frequent and unexpected panic attacks fearanxietyembarrassment about having another attack 27 of population 66 female panic attack sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity pounding heart rapid breathing breathlessness choking sweating trembling lightheaded feeling of terror belief that one is going to die losing controlgoing crazy Agoraphobia anxiety disorder involving the extreme irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in public place and not being able to escapeget help 13 panic disorder patients avoid elevators crowds cars etc many don t leave their homes AVOIDANCE Explaining Panic Disorder biological vulnerability catastrophic cognitions theory more sensitive to physical emotions also catastrophes meaning of experiences trigger panic attack within self Phobias persistent and irrational fear of a specific object situation or activity it s common to have fears only phobia lF interferes w functioning Specific Phobia excessive intense irrational fear of specific object situation or activity that is actively avoided or endured w high anxiety Can provoke panic attack Usually person knows fear is excessive irrational 13 o experience in their lives women outnumber men 21 5 categories fear of particular situations fears of features of the natural environment fear of injury or blood fear of animals and insects other eg vomiting Psychological Disorders social anxiety disorder extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed judged or scrutinized by others in social situations interferes w functioning situations avoided or endured w high anxiety specific or generalized 121 amp slightly more females most common fear of public speaking Explaining phobias learning theories neutral stimulus traumatic experience fear response classical generalization avoidance is negatively reinforced reduces anxiety and fear reinforcement explaining phobias observational learning some become phobic by watching fearful reactions of others or by hearing seeing traumatic experiences of others Biological Preparedness Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma reexperiencing intrusive avoidance emotional numbing and interpersonal problems increased physical arousal only diagnosed after 1 month posttrauma acute stress disorder within 1st month ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0CD symptoms of anxiety triggered by intrusive repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions obsessions repeatedintrusiveuncontrollableirrational thoughts or images causing extreme distress farfetched w little basis in reality compulsions repetitive bxs or mental acts reformed to prevent reduce anxiety obsession anxiety compulsion relief checking is a huge compulsion washing counting symmetryprecision can have obsessions compulsions or both 2 34 OCD have multiple compulsions 12 have ore than 1 compulsion Irrational belief failure to perform ritual will lead to catastrophic or disastrous outcome sometimes know this is irrational mood disorders significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions that cause impairment in cognitive bx andor physical functioning violate normal moods in quality duration intensity major depressive disorder characterized by having at least 1 major depressive episode causes impaired emotional cognitive bx and physical functioning symptoms present for at least 2 consecutive weeks common symptoms low mood low interest anhedonia lack of motivation feeling of worthlessness excessive guilt sleep disturbance suicidal weight lossgain difficulty concentrating lifetime prevalence is 8 19 most common psychological disorder 21 female to male ratio course episodic about 80 people w MDD have more than one episode Dysthymic milder but longer lasting depression subjective discomfort no serious functional impairment present at least 2 years no more than 2 months wo symptoms double depression dysthymia major depression worst prognosis bipolar disorder involving periods of depression alternating w periods of extreme euphoria manic episode sudden rapidly escalating emotional state w extreme euphoria excitement physical energy rapid thoughts and speech inflated selfesteem require little sleep grandiose ideas rapid speech flight of ideas inappropriate uncharacteristic impulsive Bx Hypomania less severe mania abnormally elevated mood at least 4 days high productivity need little sleep bipolar 2 bipolar disorder lifetime prevalence O416 malesfemales episodic course cycle between hypomania and depression Cyclothymic Disorder Mood disorders Unipolar major depressive dysthymia Bipolar Bipolar Cyclothymatic Explaining mood disorders large genetic link stress triggered by traumaevent cognitions disruptions in brain chemistry antidepressants increase availability of norepinephrine and serotonin bipolar glutamate Eating disorders anorexia intense fear of gaining weight disturbed body image refusal to maintain body weight at or above minimal normal weight 15 below denies seriousness of weight loss Amenorrhea loss of menstrual cycle 2 subtyppes restricting type binging purging type


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