Notes for CES 300
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This 7 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Marina Martin on Thursday February 5, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to 300 at Washington State University taught by Gaskin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see CES/SOC/WMST in Ethics at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Marina Martin CES 300 1252015 Notes on Readings Patriarchy the System An lt Not a He a Them or an US Allan G Johnson quotRace gender and class oppression are actually not oppression at all but merely the sum of individual failings on the part of Blacks women and the poor who lack the right stuff to compete successfully with whites men and others who know how to make something of themselvesquot Johnson said that we blame the system for the problems we have However he has a series of questions that should be answered before blaming everything on the system And without answering those questions we can t take responsibility for our actions and truly understand gender and patriarchy quotWe can t do this without realizing that we all participate in something larger than ourselves something we didn t create but that we have the power to affect through the choices we make about how to participatequot quotWe can t understand a system then just by looking at the people who participate in it for it is something larger and has to be understood as suchquot quotTo participate is simply to have a part in what goes on to do something or not to have the choice affect the consequences regardless of whether it is conscious or unconsciousquot quotWorkers in the system of capitalism do not participate as equals to the capitalists who employ them Without them capitalism can t function as a system that oppresses them When we participate in social systems were shaped as individuals Through the process of socialization we learn how to participate in social life We learn how to participate in social life from families schools religion and the mass media And we develop a personal identity from that Paths of least resistance a concept that refers to the conscious and unconscious choices we make from one moment to the next It is to go along and unless he s willing to deal with greater resistance quotHuman beings are the one who make social systems happen then people can also make systems happen differently When people step off the path of least resistance they have the potential not simply to change other people but to alter the way the system itself happens If a society is oppressive them people who grow up and live in it will tend to accept identify with and participate in it as normal and unremarkable life Patriarchy and other social system are something people participate in Systems often work in ways that don t re ect people s experience ad motivations Patriarchal culture is about the core value of control and domination in almost every area of human existence Words such as quotcrone witch bitch virginquot all have negative meaning and given women no power however in prepatriarchal times those words were used in a positive way Patriarchal culture view that women are weak and men are strong that women and children need men to support and protect them all in spite of the fact that in many ways men are not the physically stronger sex that women perform a huge share of hard physical labor in many societies By its nature patriarchy puts issues of power dominance and control at the center of human existence not only in relationships between men and women but among men as they compete and struggle to gain status maintain control and protect themselves from what other men might do to them One is always in the system The only question is whether one is part of the system in a way in which challenges or strengthens the status quo Racialized Social System Approach to Racism Eduardo BonillaSilva Racialized social systems refers to societies in which economic political social and ideological levels are partially structured by the placement of actions in racial categories or races The independent effects of race are assessed by analysts who compare data between whites and nonwhites in the same class and gender positions Evaluate the proportion as well as the general character of the races participation in some domain of life and examine racial data at all levels social political economic and ideological to ascertain the general position of racial groups in a social system Actors in racial position do not occupy those positions because they are X or Y race but because X or Y has been socially de ned as a race Social systems and their supporters must be shaken if fundamental transformations are to take placequot Racial ideology the ideological structure of a social system that crystalizes racial notions and stereotypes Racism crystalized the changing dogma on which actors in the social system operate and becomes common sense Racial notions about what blacks and white are ought to be pervade their encounters whites still have difficulty in dealing with black bankers lawyers professors and doctors Thus although racist ideology is ultimately false it ful lls a practical role in racialized societies Racialized social systems are societies that allocate differential economic political social and even psychological rewards to groups along racial lines lines that are socially constructed Most struggles in a Racialized social system contain a racial component but sometimes they acquire or exhibit a distinct racial character Analysts in academic are still entangled in ungrounded ideological interpretation of racism Lacking a structural view they tend to reduce racial phenomena to a derivation of the class structure or the result of an irrational ideology Race as most analysts suggest is a social construct but that construct like class and gender has independent effects in social life Racial phenomena are regarded as the normal outcome of the racial structure of a society Racial phenomena are viewed as systemic therefore all actors in the system participate in racial affairs Racial stereotypes are crystallized at the ideological level of a social system These images ultimately indicate although in distorted ways and justify the stereotyped group s position in a society Stereotypes may originate out of material realities or conditions endured by the group Genuine ignorance about the group or rigid distorted views on the group s physical cultural or moral nature Stereotypes that do not tend to re ect a group s situation do not work and are bound to disappear The framework of the Racialized social system is not a universal theory explaining racial phenomena in societies It is intended to trigger a serious discussion of how race shapes social systems Perspectives of Native American Women on Race and Gender Frederica Daily One of the biggest points that were being made is that Native Americans have been left out from history We do not know that much about them even more so Native American women have really been left out of the story If they have been talked about it has been in a negative way To ignore the experiences prevents us from understanding the basis for their radical and profound desire for selfdetermination a condition that enjoyed fully before the European incursion began The Indian Removal Act of 1830 passed The act resulted in the removal of the tribes from the Ohio and Mississippi valleys to the plains of the West quotnearly sixteen thousands Cherokees walked from Georgia to Eastern Oklahoma Much of the original land that remained for the Indians was in the quotGreat American Desertquot unsuitable for farming and unattractive for any other kind of development So Europeans took the best parts of their land and did not even leave them with anything that they could work with The sciences in the 19205 and the accompanying beliefs that the sciences could solve human problems attitude towards Indians hardened At this point the professional anthropologist began to be sent and be seen on the reservations to study and live with the people alongside the missionaries I wonder how the Native American people felt about being examined They were not treated as human but more like a different species that needed to be understood and at this time it needed to be understood by science In 19305 John Collier became commissioner of Indian Affairs and the reforms of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 However after a decade Collier resigned in 1945 This rm repudiation by Nixon of the termination policy earned him the esteem of many Indian people in much the same way that presidents Kennedy and Johnson are esteemed by many African Americans for establishing programs designed to improve their socioeconomic conditions I feel like this truly shows patriarchy at it s nest Native Americans can do nothing unless someone of power some one who is white steps up and say something for them If not they re hopeless Deloria insists that Indians are citizens and residents of the United States and of the individual states in which they live and as such quotare entitled to the full bene ts and privileges that are offered to all citizensquot I think there was a belief that Indians did not do normal things or act like other Americans that there are other Indian Women were excluded from treatmaking sessions with federal government agents and later ethnologists and anthropologists who reported on Indian women frequently presented distorted accounts of their lives usually based on interviews with Christianized women who said what they believed would be compatible with the European worldview Reading the autobiographies collected by early anthropologists we need to be quotaware that they have been structured consciously or unconsciously to serve particular white purposes and to give credence to particular views Some Indian women deny the existence of an oppressed nonparticipatory tribal female role Yet just as other North American women they are concerned with child care needs access to abortion violence against women and the effects of alcoholism on the family all symptomatic of sexism experiences They are also aware of these symptoms as prevalent throughout our society in the United States they do not view them as speci cally Indian related Native American women who were in New York City to protest a US treaty violation in a meeting to which they had invited non lndian women were adamant that they did not need the quotluxury of feminismquot Their focus along with that of Indian men concerned the more primary needs of survival When Indian women deny having experienced sexism they seem mainly to be referring to their continuing historical roles with their tribes in which they are seen as the keeps of the culture A growing number if Native American women writers are giving voice to their encounters with racism It re ects the general attitude that American Indians should have been happy to have been robbed of their land and murdered This is one of the ways that higher education perpetuates racism and classism By ignoring our lives and work by creating standards for only their own work The desperate lives of Indian women are worn by poverty the abuse of men the silence and blinds of whites The root of their problem appears attributable to the callousness and sexism of the Indian men and white society equally They are tightly bound indeed in the double bind of race and gender Wasted lived and battered women are part of the Indian turf This is the psychological phenomenon found in oppressed people labeled as identi cation with the oppressor In the United States we do not know one another except from the stereotypes presented in the media As a result there is the tendency to view people of a differing group vicariously through the eyes of media interpreters Different tribes have different attitudes toward people of mixed heritage In some a person with white blood may be accepted while a person with some AfricanAmerican blood may or may not be identi ed as Indian Indian women If they marry non lndians may or may not be identi ed within their tribes as Indians To be a member of a tribe a person must meet that tribes requirements Many tribes require proof of a person s being onesixteenth or one quarter or more of Indian descent to receive tribal affiliation quotHalfbreeds live on the edge of both races you re torn between wanting to kill everyone in the room or buying them all another round of drinksquot The development of new theories must included appropriate representative de nitions of the total population free of gender bias and not derived disproportionately from the observation of middle class white men and women Curriculum offerings with accurate and comprehensive historical data about gender speci c Native American experiences needed As a country we have failed to acknowledge our despicable treatment of the Indians It is hoped that the Indian quest for selfdetermination and proper respect will be realized and with it will come our healing as a nation as well There exists a tremendous need to help the US public begin to understand the real signi cance of Indian history Blood Sweat and Tears The Tuskegee Experiment and the Era of AIDS David Kirp Tuskegee experiment was a protracted study of untreated syphilis in 99 Black men Until the Tuskegee story broke in 1972 non one of any stature ever challenged the experiment in its fortyyear history despite the fact that the existence of the project was well known Tuskegee stands as a synonym for racial genocide in our time especially among African Americans Syphilis rates were three times higher among Blacks than whites besides using Black as well as white doctors in the clinics represented racial progress quotThere are still federal of cial who feel they can do anything where black people are concernedquot quotSyphilis in the Negro is in many respect almost a different disease from syphilis in the whitequot Became the most protracted inquiry ever conducted into the untreated effects of disease One focus was always on death and dying not treatment and the subjects never knew that they were participants in an experiment They didn t provide the medication that could have reversed the course of the syphilis Tuskegee investigators withhold effective therapy during World War II they also intervened to prevent the men of Tuskegee from being treated persuading draft boards to exclude them from service as medically un t rather tan arranging for treatment Tuskegee turned doctors into observers and called upon them to chronicle rather than prevent harm They had been lured into participating with a pocketful of cash the pledge of free medical care and the promise of a paidup funeral It was not until 1985 that an outsider wrote to question the quotmoral judgmentsquot of the researchers and that challenge was quickly dismissed as eccentric Polls showing that Blacks are far more likely than whites to believe that AIDS was deliberately caused and that a sizable number says AIDS is another Tuskegee another act of genocide A belief that AIDS is not merely a virus but a metaphor for pervasive racism That the disease represents an act of genocide against African Americans a government campaign to eliminate the Black race quotOur whole relationship to whites has been that of their practicing genocidalbehavior on us from the whole slave encounter up to the Tuskegee Study Blacks pointed to a link between Tuskegee and AIDS quotDisaster Mythquot a way to survive a catastrophe that by discouraging efforts to bring tem epidemic under control courts catastrophe The alternative to keep citing theories of genocide whose lineage goes back to Tuskegee to justify the alienation of the powerless and the abdication of the leaders
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