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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Mayadevii Munkhbat on Thursday February 5, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to SOC 294 at University at Buffalo taught by Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Basic Statistics for Social Sciences in Sociology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Ch 1 Statistics Statistics a set of procedures used by social scientists to organize summarize and communicate information Data information represented by numbers which can be the subject od statistical analysis Population any group of objects organisms people events you are interested in it contains all members of the group Sample any subset of population typically meant to represent the population with varying degrees of success Descriptive statistics procedures that help us describe data collected from either a sample or a population Inferential statistics concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses a sample The Research Process A set of activities in which social scientists engage to answer questions examine ideas or test theories Consists of five states 1 Asking the research question 2 Formulating the hypothesis 3 Collecting data 4 Analyzing data helps researchers test the validity amp accuracy of their hypotheses 5 Evaluating the hypothesis The starting point of research is asking a research question To answer research questions we cannot rely on reasoning speculation moral judgment or subjective preference Questions can be answered by conducting empirical research research based on information that can be verified by using our direct experience The Role of Theory Theory explanation of the relationship between two or more observable attributes of individuals or groups Theory attempts to establish a link between what we observe and our conceptual understanding of why certain phenomena are related to each other in a particular way Formulating the Hypotheses Hypothesis a tentative answer to a research problem Tentative because they can be verified only after they have been tested empirically Variable a property of people or objects that takes on two or more values a characteristic that varies must include categories that are both exhaustive and mutually exclusive Ways of categorizing variables 0 Unit of analyses the level of social life on which social scientists focus 0 Dependent variable the variable to be explained or predicted the effectquot it depends on the other variable 0 Independent variable the variable expected to explain or predict the dependent variable the cause Collecting Data Levels of Measurement Nominal numbers or other symbols are assigned to a set of categories for the purpose of naming labeling or classifying the observations Ordinal numbers are assigned to rankordered categories ranging from low to high Intervalratio measurements for all cases are expressed in the same units interval measurement have arbitrary zero ex IQ Fahrenheit ratio measurement have nonarbitrary zero ex age income Dichotomous variable a variable that has only two values Transforming variable one kind of variable can be transformed into another kind ex race ethnicity a nominal variable can be dichotomized into white vs nonwhite income Discrete variable have a minimumsized unit of measurement which cannot be subdivided ex number of children per family Continuous variable do not have a minimumsized unit of measurement their range of values can be subdivided into increasingly smaller fractional values ex length
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