EEMB 2 Final Study Guide - UC Santa Barbara - 2010
EEMB 2 Final Study Guide - UC Santa Barbara - 2010
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EEMB 2 Study Guide Abiotic Factors phsaintight temperaturefire Abundance Biogeographic region exAustraia Biome dessert Biotic factorsjunge forest in australia Carrying capacity Climate Commensaism Community Competition Competition coefficient Competitive exclusion principle Competitive release one competitor is removed Demographic factors Density DensityDependent Control DensityIndependent Control Dispersal Disturbance causes movement of organisms ecosystem Distribution Ecology Ecosystem Exponential growth Food webchain Fundamental niche all possible resources organism can inhabit Habitat selection Herbivory Intermediate disturbance hypothesis Intrinsic rate of growth rate the population can grow when density is low and conditions are favorable Keystone predator an influence out of proportion to its abundance Logistic growth LotkaVolterra competition model LotkaVolterra predatorprey model Metapopulationz Mutualismz Organism Predation carnivory herbivory parasitism cannibalism Predator prey model assumption absence of predator prey explodes exponentially Predatorprey cycle Population Realized niche Resource limitation ShannonWeaver diversity index Species richness and evenness Species Diversity Stable and Unstable Equilibrium Succession Transplant experiment Trophic cascade 1 What is Ecology and how do we define it What are the differences between biotic and abiotic factors and do they interact Know the basic history of Ecology in regards to the scientists involved and their major contribution to the field of Ecology Study of the distribution and abundance of organisms amp factors that determine their abundance amp interactions Farr s Rulerelationship between mortality rate and density of population Forbes and Cowlesstudy of ecological succession predictable outcomes of environment Robert Rossmathematical model of spread of infectious disease Rachel Carson Silent Spring founder of experimental ecology and important Plato balance to nature Grant amp Lee father of demography pop growth Lee winhulock microscope Velhurst logistic curve TansleyClemens founders of ecology 2 Describe the levels of biological organization and explain which of these levels ecology focuses on Explain how the time and spatial scales differ between ecological scales and physiological scales of organization Describe the four major sources of ecological evidence Why do ecologists use statistics to evaluate their studies Ecology focuses on levels between Organism and Biosphere larger temporal amp spatial scale Levels of study 0 Ecosystem Energy ow and cycling of nutrients among bioticabiotic components 0 Community interactions btw organisms 0 Population Factors that affect population size and composition 0 Organism Behaviors Environmental physiology Morphology Using statistics attaches level of confidence to conclusions that are the results of investigations 0 Pvalues probabilitystrength of conclusion being drawnless than 5 insignificant Null hypothesis assume that there is no association between variables 0 3 Describe how biogeographic regions are classified What is climate How does solar energy input and the spin of the earth affect climate What is a Biome and what factor determines their distributions Can we predict large scale or small local scale distributions from climate Biogeographic regions set where species composition changes dramatically over short distances C limateaverage atmospheric conditions found over time temperature Precipitation Wind Velocity Depends primarily on solar energy distribution Vs Weather Terrestrial biomes dictated by structure of their dominant vegetation Aquatic Biomes on their physicalchemical differences 4 What can we infer if a transplant experiment is successful or unsuccessful Describe the factors that limit distributions dispersal behavior other species physical chemical factors and be able to give specific examples of each example In the barnacle transplant experiment from point conception to UCSB what was the limiting factor in its distribution 5 Define competition and explain its forms Intra Inter Interference Exploitative Explain competitive release In Connell s experiments describe the factors limiting the upper and lower distribution limits of Balanus Chthamalus and Thais in the intertidal zone What limits the distribution of goldfield owers and why do other plant species not occupy serpentine soils 6 Describe the four demographic factors natality mortality immigration emigration and how they in uence population density What is population density and how do we measure it Describe the exponential population growth model Be able to define each of the terms and explain its dynamics Be able to provide a simple mathematical solution if given valuesfor r and N 7 Define carrying capacity K Describe the logistic population growth model Be able to define each of the terms and explain its dynamics Be able to provide a simple mathematical solution if given values for r N and K Is the logistic model realistic If not why Explain densitydependent and densityindependent control and give examples of each Describe mutualism commensalism competition and predation in terms of their benefits at the population level 8 What is a metapopulation and how does it lead to persistence of unstable populations Describe a simple model of metapopulation dynamics Be able to define each of the terms and explain its dynamics Be able to provide a simple mathematical solution if given values for model parameters What are the possible outcomes predicted by this model 9 Describe the LotkaVolterra model of interspecific competition Be able to define each of the terms and explain its dynamics Be able to provide a simple mathematical solution if given values for r N K and What is a competition coefficient What are the possible outcomes predicted by this model Describe the outcomes of laboratory experiments designed to test these predictions What is the Principle of Competitive Exclusion PCP What is a fundamental vs a realized niche When would the PCP not occur in natural systems 10 Describe the LotkaVolterra predatorprey model Be able to define each of the terms and explain its dynamics Be able to provide a simple mathematical solution if given values for model parameters What are the possible outcomes predicted by this model Explain the mechanisms responsible for the lynx snowshoe hare cycle The following concepts will be covered in the final lecture 11 Define species richness and evenness Describe the ShannonWeaver Diversity Index Be able to define each of the terms and explain what community attributes it measures Explain the concepts of a food web and a food chain Explain how ongoing competition affect species diversity over short and long time scales What is a keystone predator and how does it function to regulate community structure 12 Explain the process of ecological succession and the concept of a climax community What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and how does it maintain diversity Calculations EI1si1II39Ii IIquotI P Pt i39 Ei395ity39 lllfflil The ITIIIZIE1 lJl1iI I39lrI39lElIIIl39 urr rzl in ate rrhrnzrr HI P 1rrrpirrrilirrn at inrirr1irdTualIs rrrn1139iilruitm 5 H P In Ff t i t t l ashun anrrrr J 1 thIr ilrrtal lll39IhE1I39 rrf 33anriIrrr rm HIE rrrmmrrIni1y39 I i39 l39IiTI39IEEEEii anem M El I pill pl 3 v 33 H 1I11II Trout 1st Capture 2nd Capture C9 51 MIC Marked animals in 2nd sample Marked aninals in 1st sample Total captured in 2nd sample Total population size N EX3l99lN gt N81I3 Tb N27trout Screen clipping taken 222010 1039 PM Onependemhmnqanumwngpnuunz single oyster can produce 55114 million eggs 39 I l birds lay 120 eggs mammals bear 110 offspring P v Per cqaita bith rate 039 bmhs Size of reproductive population P b n Ex 1ooo bird pop 100 births q 10011000 10 2 Mortalm death rate the of offspring dying per unit time Natural senescence is rare Most organisms die from predation parasitism disease hazards etc of deaths Per capita death rate Size of population at risk q dI n Ex 1ooo bird pop 10 deaths p 1011000 01 addaH Screen clipping taken 222010 1040 PM Logistic Growth Model Km 0 At large values of H the value of T becomes small and the population growth is small K C ICU I ICCICCCCI Dynamics When population size is below K pop gowth increases When population size is near K pop growth decreases Ocompetition Coefficient N ON expressing species 2 in units of species 1 N N1 expressing species 1 in units of species 2 Glt 1 species 2 has less competitive efiecton species 1 that species 1 has on itself 3gt 1 species 2 has yeatet competitive eflect on species 1 than species 1 has on itself Apply same ine of reasoning to species 2 Screen clipping taken 222010 1046 PM
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