Week 5 Notes Anthro 131
Week 5 Notes Anthro 131 ANTH131
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 220 views.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Week 5 Notes Village Layout Typically a row of houses directly above a beach Coast is where the resources are Totem poles in front or to one side of the house Huge wooden houses 0 House extended families 0 Marked by clan crest shows ancestral animal Boat landing is the beach in front of the row of houses In clearing flanked by forested land 0 Becomes a rainforestlike environment when abandoned Status acquisition of items was important in Northwest culture Kept slaves Captured enemies Debtors who could not pay became indentured servants House Construction Postandbeam typical throughout region Wood readily available from forest Incredible woodworkers Wooden platforms along the sides of sunken fire pit 0 Would store items treasures underneath the platforms 0 Treasures passed down generation to generation Often had gabled roofs o Needed them to deal with rainfall Almost looks like modern house Planks covered the sides and roof Building these required a lot of skill and knowhow Made large dugout canoes Giant carved vessels for ceremonial oil Potlatch hats new layer or object added onto potlatch hat for every potlatch you throw the wealthiest had the tallest hats Screen dividing upper and lower class of the clan Kinship Composition of the Household Matrilineal lineage occupied a house Family slept upstairs When a girl reached puberty mother kept an eye on her slept in special bedroom area under watchful eye Women have great deal of power Some households contained 50 or more individuals Wife would be of other moiety also of another clan Core of the household would be a group of males who were members of the same moiety and clan Woodworking Acquisition of Planks Red cedar preferred mood Stone tools maul and adze Extract planks from living trees Bentwood Boxes Used for many purposes like food serving and storage Made of one piece of wood Closefitting top Decorated with clan symbols Making Bentwood Boxes Gouge out where they re going to make the box Soften the wood with steam so it will bend into shape without breaking Dugout Canoes Carved Narrow only need one log Others are larger sometimes ceremonial Modern dugouts used for special occasions Decorated in the front Carved wood with other materials attached and used in ceremonies Would wear masks and gain powers of spiritual beings they imitated Some had moving parts Cannibal birds Kwakwaka wakw spirits that gained power through eating other beings 0 Many masks made of them by Southern Kwakwaka wakw Vegetable materials for the mask s hair Paint made out of natural and vegetable materials in the past 0 They use modern paint now Some masks were transformation masks o Mask folds in or out to show different image Canadian government outlawed the potlatch system Potlatches so elaborate too many items destroyed Government thought it was a terrible practice religious groups shocked Potlatches went underground Government changed laws made them legal once again Masks and Hats Some hats used in potlatches 0 Larger base top part shows how many potlatches they have thrown Potlatches Hosted by elite members of a village People come dressed in regalia People would come in canoes to attend potlatch Held for important events 0 Upward change in status 0 Death 0 Marriage 0 Becoming a chief Blankets made of dog hair traditional headdresses Feasting dancing and giftgiving occurred Historic potlatches became competitive due to social disruption brought about by rapid population decline 0 Diseases brought by the Europeans 0 Resources used by Europeans 0 Competitive potlatches to prove none of this has diminished their status and significance Ceremony where hosts send delegates over a wide distance to invite named important guests 0 Travel to lots of different coastal villages Potlatch figure big wooden statue at house entrance to welcome guests removed after potlatch Land of War Canoes Giant animal figures in front of giant canoe o Carried many people all of whom rowed except animal dude Big animal dancing ceremony in the front of the house Drinking oil out of giant ladle Takes weeksmonths to carve out canoes totems Northwest Coast still have professional carvers 0 Sell their works as art usually to tourists Brought a lot of goods to potlatches in big canoes Not attending a potlatch is disrespectful Ceremonies would last for several days maybe over a week not counting prep Prep lasts for over a year need to gather goods Would use drums ornate rattles and transverse flutes Ceremonial Regalia Lots of powwows 0 Result of quotpanIndian culture 0 Powwow dancers from all over US going on powwow circuits 0 Concern of losing traditional dancing to powwow Lots of protocol 0 Don t point 0 Don t call regalia an outfit Button blankets 0 Buttons sown onto felt Women have power shamans and spiritual leaders Kwakwaka wakw dance regalia 0 Almost like wooden plate armor Crafts Wooden rattles containing seeds to make signature sound Spoons made of mountain goat horn o Argillite handle I Black super hard stone I Carved totems into them Basketry Base of Tlingit potlatch hats Can t host a potlatch every year 0 Lucky to host one every 3 or 4 years Basket hats o Nootka basket hats with image of hunters on long canoes hunting whales 0 Other side whale with the canoe in its mouth Silver Working Originated in late 19th century still important today High status women wore silver Silver was carved with metal tools Would pierce septums high class women wore rings in their septums Bring a large pig parscore to the midterm on Thursday Read first 6 readings Northwest Fishing Main source of subsistence Special hooks to catch halibut o Tethered to rocks so they sink to the bottom where the halibut hang out Fish weirs 0 Have to jam posts into the river 0 Set up with traps Fish Processing Smoke the fish Dry the fish Techniques for drying and preparing has not changed significantly during the historic period Keeping fish dry from the rain which happens year round They had no pottery 0 Used dugout canoes to heat up fish 0 Took rocks from the fire put them in water filled canoe when hot 0 Extracted the fish oil that way Annual Round of Subsistence Activities Salmon fishing during summer months most activity in September Deep sea fishing in spring Hunting during spring and fall Herb and root gathering during late spring and summer Shellfish gathering during early spring and at a lower level during fall and winter August is the berry picking months salmonberries blackberries 0 Special berry baskets 0 One has four areas for picking separate berries Lots of hunting in October Food gathering slows down in DecemberFebruary 0 Inside sheltered from the heavy rain 0 Relying on stored food Some groups hunted whales Makah will hunt one whale a year using ancient techniques 0 Greenpeace went after them once 0 Feasting is important to maintain social relationships show off status 0 One whale a year helps keep these traditions alive Social Organization More structured in the north half Tlingit and Haida of the culture area than the south half Two moieties Raven and Wolf totems for Tlingit Wolf and Raven for Haida Each moiety had several clans Clans are next level of organization 0 Each have their own emblems 0 Some have overlapping emblems Houses are next level 0 House names and emblems Lineage is matrilineal 0 Women have lots of power 0 Inheritance is also passed down through the female line House Chief and Subchief Clans represented by many houses in villages Status and Wealth Surprisingly important for a huntergatherer society Lots of regalia Copper made out of native copper 0 Not lots of metalworking in N America except for copper made here and in the Arctic o Circulated at potlatches given to others who have potlatches o Insignia of wealth and status 0 Breaking your own copper shows even greater wealth Lineages and individuals were ranked with respect to social status Elite individuals controlled wealth and owned material goods dances and other forms of property Chilkat Tlingit made many blankets worn by Tsimshian chiefs Types of Totem Poles Back of a mortuary pole o Hollowed out sometimes contain bones Gateway to a house Memorial poles o No dead remains o Memorializing dead chiefs 0 Can be vertical or horizontal Totems in parks in Alaska too Each totem figure is a crest of emblem associated with a lineage clan or moiety You can still see totems today in shopping centers neighborhoods Yurok people 0 Go into a sweat lodge 0 Dream of giant dentalia long valuable shells o If someone sees that then they re bound to have wealth o A good thing Totems in Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria Haida Heritage Center near Skidegate Had to saw and crate them to transport to museums 0 Put them back together at the museum Population Collapse and Village Abandonment English and American trading ships regularly contacting villages by 1786 Salish Chaa Russians build Sitka in 1799 reestablished settlement in 1804 after Tlingit uprising in 1802 Fur trade flourished in 1800s Kwakwaka wakw experience was example of rapid population decline 0 Between 1836 and 1853 their population declined from 23k to 7k 0 Caused by European diseases interrupted seasonal food cycles 0 1858 25k plus American men came to BC to seek gold venereal disease increased thereafter I Gold prospecting was devastating for local peoples 1880s commercial fishing and canning well developed By the time of Franz Boas s ethnographic fieldwork in early 1900s Kwakwaka wakw population was about 2k Today it is about 55k Live in BC and Washington Abandoned Haida village Forest has taken over hard to find the village Still some Chaatl totem poles standing as of the 1980s Cultural Change and Persistence during the Historic Period 1880s articulating with EuroAmerican economy Signs on houses made to attract foreign business Advertise chiefs of houses Victorian houses built for native tribes o Totems in front of and traditional art decorating their Victorian houses Example of syncretism natives taking some aspects from European society still keeping to their native practices Angoon contemporary Tlingit community of west coast of Admiralty Island Some parts of Angoon have changed little over the last century Characteristics of Northwest Culture Area Huntergatherersfishers emphasize salmon as a food resource Food storage super important Usually sedentary villages large wellbuilt homes and campsites Lineageclan organization well developed in northern half and simpler in southern half Hereditary status ranking a feature of social organization Strong political leadership hereditary leadership positions Wealth accumulation and display show high status Sophisticated woodworking Emphasis on boat transportation Great Basin Culture Area Covers land between mountain ranges of Western California and the Rocky Mountains Languages Mainly belong to Numic family 0 Language family covers a huge area 0 Each of these tribes have huge swaths of territory Only exception is Washo belongs to Hoken stock Numic family of UtoAztecan stock phylum Numic speaking people expanded outward from southeastern California beginning around AD 1000 Prehistory Clovis points indicating Paleoindian activity found none confidently dated Well documented prehistory started about 10k years ago Precontact people were mobile huntergatherers Numic speaking people used food resources more intensely Danger Cave in northwest Utah was important archaeological find Environment Harsh and dry Limited resources Dwellings Varied in amount of investment in construction Not as sturdy as Northwest homes Used thatch and bent pole framework Don t want to invest that much energy they move every month or two Winter dwellings more substantial Summer dwellings more expedient Dwellings reflected mobile settlement pattern Sometimes made of slabs of wood construction materials based on what was available How long it took to make the house was another consideration
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