BSC108- Notes 3
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Larabee on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Thermodynamics the study of energy Calorie is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius ocalories are very small units of energy Not practical for measuring the energy in food oAbout 40 of the energy in food is transferred to ATP oScientists use the term entropy as a measure of disorder or randomness All energy conversions increase the entropy of the universe Laws of Theromydamics 1st law energy can be transformed changed from one form to another but it can neither be created nor destroyed 2nd law entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time approaching a maximum value at equilibrium Entropy means disorder or m Activation energy Is the energy that activates the reactants in a chemical reaction Triggers a chemical reaction to proceed Enzymes Lower the activation energy for chemical reactions Enzyme inhibitors Can inhibit a metabolic reaction Some bind to the active site as substrate imposters Bind at a remote site changing the enzyme s shape Induced Fit oEach enzyme is very selective It catalyzes specific reactions oEach enzyme recognizes a specific substrate The active site fits to the substrate and the enzyme changes shape slightly This interaction is called induced fit oEnzymes can function over and over again This is a key characteristic of enzymes Passive Transport Diffusion Across Membranes oDiffusion is one result of the movement of molecules Molecules tend to spread into the available space Diffusion is passive transport no energy is needed Osmosis is the passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane 0A hypertonic solution Has a higher concentration of solute oA hypotonic solution Has a lower concentration of solute oAn isotonic solution Has an equal concentration of solute Phagocytosis quotcellular eating a cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole oPinocytosis quotcellular drinking a cell gulps droplets of uid by forming tiny vesicles Chapter 6 Plants and other autotrophs selffeeders oMake their own organic matter from inorganic nutrients Heterotrophs otherfeeders
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