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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM)), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) IJM Volume 4, Issue 3, (May - June 2013), pp. 163-169 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp © I A E M E Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTUS OFWILD LIFE TOURISM IN GOA Dr. Mundhe Shivaji D. Director, Sinhgad Institute of Management and, Computer Application Narhe, Pine-41 ABSTRACT India is a developing country with unlimited physical resources, large manpower base and an impressive heritage of culture, art and history. The country is at present undergoing a process of economic change which has a bearing on the development of our economy. Tourism is likely to get a big boost with liberalization of the economy. Goa is a small tiny emerald land on the West Coast of India with natural scenic beauty, abundant greenery, attractive beaches with a rich cultural milieu. This tiny state has carved out its own niche in the competitive world of Travel and Tourism. The present paper high lights the importance of wild life tourism in Goa. Keywords: Wild Life Tourism, beach tourism, Green tourism, protected areas, Biodiversity. I. INTRODUCTION Today Tourism has emerged as one of the world’s largest industries and fastest growing sector of the world economy. The vastness of its market, its unpredictability, the diversity of the product itself, and above all the financial and sociological rewards to be gained, has made this industry one of the most fiercely competitive markets in the world. Economic diversification and technological improvement has created a conducive environment for tourism development in the present age of globalization. Tourism activity can be directed effectively for achieving considerable economic gain. Besides providing employment, tourism can be the instrument of regional policy aimed at achieving an equitable balance between major industrial areas and the rest of the country. Tourism today presents an unparalleled challenge to the economics of the developing world. The rewards to be gained, both financial and sociological is immense. Its effect on creating jobs and reducing unemployment is particularly noteworthy as also its effect on the industrial and commercial endeavor of the country as a whole. India is a developing country with unlimited physical resources, large manpower base and an impressive heritage of culture, art and history. The country is at present undergoing a 163 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) process of economic change which has a bearing on the development of our economy. Tourism is likely to get a big boost with liberalization of the economy. Strategic management of tourism is therefore a challenge for the 21st century in India. Wildlife tourism is still a niche segment but one that is fast evolving in India and recording double digit growth and has the potential to turn into mainstream tourism in India in the near future. Instead of being seen as a small niche market wildlife tourism is a sizeable market with the potential for significant economic growth opportunities. Wildlife based tourism in the country has recorded a growth of 15% in the last few years and is emerging as one of the favorite destination for foreign tourist. II. STATEMENT OFTHEPROBLEM Sustainable tourism is especially important for a small state like Goa since the influx of both Indian and foreign tourists are increasing every year. Goa being a tiny state the carrying capacity of the state in terms of the size, facilities available and the ecological fragility should be thoroughly studied and taken into consideration while allowing tourism; only then would such tourism be beneficial in the long run for the state and the people. The local community has an important role to play in sustainable tourism. Hence a shift to wildlife tourism may be necessary or more advisable for a better and continuous tourism activity which would benefit both the state as well as the tourists. Therefore, the need of the hour is to study the deficiencies and suggest the measures for improvement of wild life tourism. III. OBJECTIVESOFTHESTUDY 1. To study the growth and development of Wildlife tourism in Goa. 2. To study the role of Wildlife tourism in Goa and its impact on Tourism. 3. To solicit the problems faced by domestic and foreign tourists along with their opinion on visiting wild life spots in Goa. IV. SIGNIFICANCEOFTHE STUDY The significance of tourism to an economy is measured by way of its contribution to the national income, the earnings of foreign exchange and its contribution to the state revenues and the creation of employment. Wild life tourism is Goa’s new mantra to promote tourism. It plays a significant role in Goa’s economy by providing the opportunities for regional employment, contributing to the balance of payment and helping economic growth. It is expected that the study will help in understanding the impact of wild life tourism to Goa’s economy. It will throw light on various issues such as extent to which wild life tourism is gaining importance and its position in attracting tourist. Significance of promoting Wild life tourism is that, it reduces burden on Goan beaches, it is an alternate attraction to tourists. A source of revenue for the state and a boost to the economy of Wild life areas. Therefore the need of the hour is to study the deficiencies and suggest measure for promoting Wild life tourism in Goa. 164 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) V. SAMPLE DESIGN In order to select the required number of respondents from the population Convenience Quota, random sampling technique has been adopted. The sample for the purpose of study was based on population figure of tourist arrivals of ten years. The required data will be collected with the help of exhaustive questionnaire. The sample size for the domestic tourists calculated by using the 95% confident level and 5% level of significance (sampling error) is 420. And for international tourist is 80 VI. EMPIRICAL STUDY The primary data collected from the respondents is processed and the statistical findings derived from this exercise have been interpreted through an intellectual exercise against the theoretical background for the purpose of drawing conclusions. Table No. 1. Table Showing Promotional Measures used for wild life Tourism Below χ Nationality Excellent Good Average Poor Total Average 35 119 169 73 24 420 2.84 Domestic 8.33% 28.34% 40.24% 17.38% 5.71% 100% --- International 7 19 33 16 5 80 2.91 8.75% 23.75% 41.25% 20.00% 6.25% 100% --- 42 138 202 89 29 500 2.88 Total/Average 8.40% 27.60% 40.40% 17.80% 5.80% 100% --- ( Source: Field Survey) With reference to promotional measures, the Table 1 reveals that, of the 420 Domestic tourists, 40.24% stated that promotional measures made by state is average while 28.34% stated as good. Out of the 80 International tourists, 41.25% rated promotional measures made by the state Government as average while 23.75% rated as good. Promotionalmeasures 50 40 40.21.2 28.3 30 23.7 20 20 10 8.8.7 17.4 0 5.7 6.2 Excellent Good Average Below Poor Average Domestic International It clearly reveals that, most tourists are of the opinion that promotional measures undertaken by the state to promote tourism are average. 165 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) Table No. 2 Table Showing Preference for Beach Tourism and Wildlife Tourism Beach and Nationality Wildlife tourism Beach tourism Total 255 165 420 Domestic 60.71% 39.29% 100% 60 20 80 International 75.00% 25.00% 100% 315 185 500 Total 63% 37% 100% ( Source: Field Survey) The Table 2 reveals that, of the 420 Domestic tourists, 60.70% stated that they preferred beach and wildlife tourism in Goa, while 39.40% preferred only beach tourism. Out of the 80 International tourists, 75% stated that they preferred beach and wildlife tourism in Goa, while 25% preferred only beach tourism in Goa. Preference for beach tourism and wildlin Goaurism i 80 60.7 60 75 40 39.2 25 20 0 Yes No Domestic International It is evident that, most tourists participated in wildlife activities in Goa. Table No. 3 Table Showing the Satisfaction Level of Tourist Nationality Excellent Good Average Below Poor Total χ Average 25 193 30 5 2 255 2.08 Domestic 9.80% 75.69% 11.76% 1.96% 0.78% 100% --- International 5 50 3 1 1 60 1.97 8.33% 83.33% 5.00% 1.66% 1.66% 100% --- Total/Averag 30 243 33 6 3 315 2.02 e 9.52% 77.14% 10.48% 1.90% 0.95% 100% --- ( Source: Field Survey) The Table 3 reveals that, of the 255 Domestic tourists, 75.69% rated their level of satisfaction after participation in Wildlife activities as good while 11.76% rated level of satisfaction as average. Out of the 60 International tourists, 83.33% rated their level of satisfaction as good while 8.33% as excellent. 166 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) It clearly indicates that, 75.69% Domestic tourists and 83.33% International tourists rated the satisfaction level as good. It is evident that, most tourists respondents participating in Wildlife activities rated their satisfaction level as good. VII. HYPOTHESIS H0: The satisfaction level for wildlife activities is independent of nationality. For four degree of freedom at 5% level of significance, the table value is 9.488. The calculated value of χ2 (3.02) which is less than the table value hence the null hypotheses is accepted. H0: There is a significant difference between the preference given by the domestic and international tourist for the wildlife activities. For four degree of freedom at 5% level of significance, the table value is 9.488. The calculated value of χ2 (18.1798) is much greater than the table value and hence the null hypotheses stands rejected. H0: Tourists do not differ significantly in the opinion about problems faced in wildlife tourism activities. From the above table mean score is calculated for the opinion of the respondents. It is clear that the mean scores of disagree and strongly disagree are 0.09 and 0.01, whereas mean scores for the strongly agree, agree are 0.05 and 0.23. However, the combined mean score of agree and strongly agree is 0.20 is less than that of the combined mean score of disagree and strongly disagree (0.38). Therefore, it is inferred that there is significant difference in the opinion about problems faced in wild life tourism activities. VIII. FINDINGS ✓ 81.90% Domestic tourists and 87.50% International tourists agreed about Goa being a popular tourist destination. ✓ 41.19% Domestic tourists and 61.25% International tourists agreed upon Wildlife Sanctuaries as a reason for selection of Goa as a destination. 167 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) ✓ 89.50% Domestic tourists and 61.30% International tourists had preferred to stay in Goa for duration of 4-10 days. ✓ The difference in tourist preferences in places in North Goa is highly visible in the survey as 89.76% Domestic tourists preferred Panaji, while 98.75% International tourists visited Sinquerium. In South Goa, 66.42% Domestic tourists visited Colva and 100% International tourists visited Paloleum and Vasco. ✓ 40.24% Domestic tourists and 41.25% International tourists rated promotional measures undertaken by Goa State to be average. ✓ 74.05% Domestic tourists and 63.75% International tourists agreed upon beggar, hawkers, and vendor’s nuisance at tourist spots. ✓ 48.57% Domestic tourists and 70% International tourists disagreed about hostility of locals. ✓ 74.29% Domestic tourists and 76.25% International tourists were aware of Wildlife tourism in Goa. ✓ 60.70% Domestic tourists and 75% International tourists participated in beach and wildlife tourism in Goa. ✓ 53.94% Domestic tourists and 94.74% International tourists stated not heard of as the reason for non participation in wildlife activities in Goa. ✓ 78.04% Domestic tourists and 76.67% International tourists strongly agreed that Wildlife tourism has a lot of scope in Goa. ✓ 75.69% Domestic tourists and 83.33% International tourists rated their satisfaction level as good. IX. SUGGESTIONS ✓ The tourist flow from beaches should be diverted to non beaches by promotion of emerging patterns of tourism. ✓ There is need to diversify the areas of tourism. The tourism industry in Goa has mainly concentrated on beach tourism and neglected other forms of tourism to a large extent ✓ Eco tourism and Wildlife tourism should be given more priorities, as it helps develop rural areas and maintain development of the region. ✓ The role of Panchayats in developing Wildlife tourism in the state has to be given a special importance. ✓ Proper planning of land and water utilization should be done to ensure the protection of Wildlife in their natural or manmade habitats. ✓ The Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park need to be integrated as an integral part of the Goa tourism product and priority needs to be given to the preparation of site and visitor management plans for the parks ✓ Positioning and maintaining Wildlife tourism development as a State priority activity and as an alternative to beach tourism ✓ Provide incentives to various Wildlife tourism related activities and special incentives to promote training facilities for wildlife tourism development. ✓ The advertisement and publicity by the State Government for Wildlife tourism are not sufficient and has to be increased with utmost priority. 168 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) X. CONCLUSION As in many phases of life, success and fulfillment will go to those components of the tourism industry which can learn from the past, adapt to the present and plan to manage the challenges and opportunities of the future to their advantages that of the tourist and of the environment on which tourism depends. There are plenty of opportunities for the development of Wildlife tourism in Goa. By developing hinterland the eco system will be protected and it will generated employment opportunity to the local communities also it will be an alternative to beach tourism. Sustainable growth of tourism in a changing world is attainable given the commitment of all stakeholders – tourists, the community and the public and private sector XI. REFERENCES 1. Badan B.S. and Bhatt H., (2007): “Ecotourism”, Commonwealth Publishers, Darya Ganj, New Delhi – 110002 2. Bansal S.P., Sonia S. and Chandev M., (2002): “Tourism in the New Millennium: Challenges and Opportunities”, Abhishek Publications, Chandigarh – 17 3. Berwick S. H. and Saharia V.B., (1995): “The Development of International Principles and Practices of Wildlife Research and Mangement”, Oxford University Pres, New Delhi 4. Chadha S.K., (1993): “Conserving Wildlife in India”, Vinod Publishers and Distributor, Pacca Danga, Jammu and Kashmir – 180001 5. Chawla R., (2004): “Tourism and Development Series – Law and Tourism Development”, Sonali Publication, New Delhi – 110002 6. Chawla R., (2006): “Tourism and Development Series – Tourism Promotion”, Sonali Publication, New Delhi – 110002 7. Gee E.P., (2000): “The Wildlife of India”, Harper Collins Publishers, India 8. Tyagi R., (2010): “Understanding Wildlife”, Discovery Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi – 110002 9. Upagade V. and Shende A., (2010): “Research Methodology”, S. Chand and Company Limited, Ram Nagar, New Delhi – 110 055 169
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